The National Defense Education Act was signed into law on September 2, 1958, providing funding to United States education institutions at all levels. NDEA was among many science initiatives implemented by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1958 to increase the technological sophistication and power of the United States alongside, for instance, DARPA and NASA, it followed a growing national sense that U. S. scientists were falling behind scientists in the Soviet Union. The early Soviet success in the Space Race catalyzed a national sense of unease with Soviet technological advances after the Soviet Union launched the first-ever satellite, the previous year; the act authorized funding for four years, increasing funding per year: for example, funding increased on eight program titles from $183 million in 1959 to $222 million in 1960. In total, over a billion dollars was directed towards improving American science curricula. However, in the aftermath of McCarthyism, a mandate was inserted in the act that all beneficiaries must complete an affidavit disclaiming belief in the overthrow of the U.
S. government. This requisite loyalty statement stirred concern and protest from the American Association of University Professors and over 153 institutions; the NDEA was influenced by the Soviet launch of the satellite Sputnik on October 4, 1957. U. S. citizens feared that education in the USSR was superior to that in the United States, Congress reacted by adding the act to bring U. S. schools up to speed. The year 1957 coincided with an acute shortage of mathematicians in the United States; the electronic computer created a demand for mathematicians as programmers and it shortened the lead time between the development of a new mathematical theory and its practical application, thereby making their work more valuable. The United States could no longer rely on European refugees for all of its mathematicians, though they remained an important source, so it had to drastically increase the domestic supply. At the time, "mathematics" was interpreted as pure mathematics rather than applied mathematics.
The problem in the 1950s and 1960s was that industry, including defense, was absorbing the mathematicians who should have been at high schools and universities training the next generation. At the university level more there have been years when it was difficult to hire applied mathematicians and computer scientists because of the rate that industry was absorbing them. Additionally, more high school graduates were beginning to attend college. In 1940 about one-half million Americans attended college, about 15 percent of their age group. By 1960, college enrollments had expanded to 3.6 million. By 1970, 7.5 million students were attending colleges in the United States, or 40 percent of college-age youths. The act, was designed to fulfill two purposes. First, it was designed to provide the country with specific defense oriented personnel; this included providing federal help to foreign language scholars, area studies centers, engineering students. Second it provided financial assistance—primarily through the National Defense Student Loan program—for thousands of students who would be part of the growing numbers enrolling at colleges and universities in the 1960s.
Title I of the NDEA serves as purposes of the Act. Title II provides terms by which they may be awarded. Title II provided scholarships rather than loans. However, some members of Congress expressed worry about the message sent by giving students a "free ride." The House version of the bill eliminated scholarship money, while the Senate reduced the amount of scholarship money. By the time the bill was passed into law, student aid was loan-based. Title III provides additional financial assistance for the purposes of strengthening science and foreign language programs. Latin and Greek programs are not funded under this title, on the grounds that they are not modern foreign languages, thus do not support defense needs. Title IV provides funding for graduate fellowships in order to increase the number of graduate-level professionals and university professors. Priority was given to students. However, certain fields were exempted from these fellowships. Title IV was one of the only two federal programs in existence at the time that gave any funding to the humanities.
Title V includes provisions for the training of guidance counselors and the implementation of testing programs to identify gifted students. This laid the groundwork for Academically Gifted and Gifted & Talented programs and began the trend of using standardized testing in schools to measure competency. Title VI provides funding for area studies programs. "Area studies" includes such subjects as Latin American studies. Title VII provided funding for research in the more effective use of technology for educational purposes. Title VIII provided funding for vocational training in order to better prepare citizens for the workforce. Title IX established the Science Information Institute and Science Information Council in order to disseminate scientific information and assist the government in matters of a technical nature. Title X contains miscellaneous provisions regarding pragmatic details of the Act; the NDEA includes Title X, Section 1001, a mandate that all beneficiaries of the act complete an affidavit disclaiming belief in the overthrow of the U.
S. government. Some in higher education opposed the disclaimer affidavit, as it came to be called, because they said it attempted to control belie
Dan O'Mahony is a musician and political activist from Orange County, California, USA. He is the West Coast Chairman of the.99 Advocacy Fund and Point nine nine. In the 1980s, O'Mahony was the lead singer for hardcore straight edge band No For An Answer; the band is credited with being one of the cornerstones of the straight edge movement on the west coast and was the first west coast release by the prominent independent label Revelation Records. O'Mahony recorded records as the lead singer of bands such as Carry Nation, Speak 714, John Henry Holiday, God Forgot, 411, which released the album This Isn't Me in 1991. In all he sang on 11 records not counting numerous live releases. Throughout his career O'Mahony was known for the activist nature of his lyrics espousing the rejection of homophobia, domestic abuse, the First Gulf War, many self-destructive behaviors. In 2009 O'Mahony began experimenting with spoken word, organizing performances with Kevin Seconds and Sam McPheeters. O'Mahony is the author of Three Legged Race and Four Letter World.
He worked as a columnist for the seminal punk rock monthly publication Maximum Rocknroll from the mid-1980s until the early 1990s. In 2010 he began accepting assignments as a freelance journalist and writing for various political blogs. O'Mahony is considered a populist. In 2011 as a result of disillusion with the unfocused nature of his local Occupy movement, O'Mahony co-founded the.99 Advocacy Fund and Point Nine Nine. Dan O'Mahony at Open Salon Dan O'Mahony at AllMusic Dan O'Mahony at AllRovi Works by or about Dan O'Mahony in libraries Author Archives-Dan O'Mahony "Point Nine Nine"
Goodbye Cool World! is the third release by DIY collective Bomb the Music Industry!. It was released on the band’s website, as well as on a limited vinyl release; the album’s working title was reported to be Clap Your Hands Say Shut the Fuck Up, parodying indie rock band Clap Your Hands Say Yeah, but was changed to the current title because, according to Bomb the Music Industry!, "A band selling 50,000 records without a label, regardless of hype or bad music, is kinda dope." "King of Minneapolis" is a four-part song, based on singer/guitarist Jeff Rosenstock spending a night at the Triple Rock Social Club in Minneapolis. "King of Minneapolis", "Grudge Report", a B-side titled "Tell My Boss ‘I Hate You’" were part of a concept record, abandoned in favor of this album. The album uses several samples, including a clip from the Arrested Development episode "The One Where Michael Leaves" at the beginning of "Old and Unprofessional", a clip from the 1983 movie Valley Girl at the end of "My Response to an Article in Alternative Press", a clip of the game Galaga at the end of "Anywhere I Lay My Head".
"Side Projects are Never Successful" makes a reference to Washington, D. C. post-hardcore outfit Fugazi. All songs written by Jeff Rosenstock except "Anywhere I Lay My Head" by Tom Waits."Old and Unprofessional" – 0:53 "King of Minneapolis, Pts I and II" – 3:26 I. "Drank Myself To Death" – 1:29 II. "True ’Til College" – 1:57 "Even Winning Feels Bad" – 3:58 "Side Projects Are Never Successful" – 4:13 "5 Funerals" – 2:53 "My Response To An Article In Alternative Press" – 2:13 "Sorry, Brooklyn. Dancing Won’t Solve Anything." – 4:56 "It’s Official! We’re Borrrrring!" – 2:15 "From Martyrdom To Stardom" – 2:23 "All Alone in my Big Empty Apartment" – 2:19 "Fuck The Fans" – 0:29 "Grudge Report" – 4:12 "King of Minneapolis, Pts. III and IV" – 3:14 III. "OK Hangover" – 1:38 IV. "Cecil Otter Tattoo" – 1:35 "Anywhere I Lay My Head" – 2:04 Goodbye Cool World! on Quote Unquote Records
Cervantes de León, better known as just Cervantes, is a fictional character in the Soulcalibur series of fighting games. Created by Namco's Project Soul division, he first appeared in Soul Edge and its subsequent sequels appearing in various merchandise related to the series, he is one of only four characters to have appeared in each of the games. As a character introduced in Soul Edge, Cervantes's weapon was a rapier, selected before other elements of the character and designed to be unique amongst the other weapons in the game; as development progressed, the development team felt that the weapon choice made the character seem too "gentlemanly", changed it to a pair of swords, which were expanded upon to be the first appearance of the series' recurring weapon, Soul Edge. His design and concept were built to revolve around them, starting with gender physical measurements, lastly background details. After his appearance and movement were fleshed out by a concept artist, his character was rendered as a 3D model by a design team that worked on him, animated by a motion designer using motion capture to create his in-game movements.
The inspiration for a pirate as the game's antagonist was derived from two other fictional pirates, Captain Hook and Long John Silver. When developing his swords, many different styles were considered, including the concept of the swords appearing as wisps of spiritual energy. Elements of these designs were utilized in subsequent appearances of the Soul Edge weapon in titles; when the character's design was modified to appear in Soulcalibur, one of the swords was changed to a pistol sword, with the curve on the weapon's blade emphasized in comparison to its counterpart. Cervantes de Leon was the son of Philip de Leon, a privateer, sent on a mission by the King of Spain to loot in the name of Spain. Following a disastrous attack on an English warship that killed Philip, Cervantes forsook his allegiance to his king and became a pirate. Receiving an order from a wealthy merchant, Vercci to find the cursed sword Soul Edge, Cervantes voyaged through the sea and found the sword in the possession of an English dealer.
However, the sword corrupted him until his soul was devoured by it. Having killed, slaughtered and massacred all of his crew, Cervantes boarded his ghost ship, the Adrian, on a reign of terror for twenty years until he was defeated and killed by the combination efforts of Greek warrior Sophitia and Japanese ninja Taki. However, Cervantes was accidentally resurrected without his memory by Nightmare because of the Soul Edge fragments lodged in his body. For the next three years, he decided to search for the cursed sword despite knowing that it had robbed him of his free will while recovering his memories. Upon the shattering of Soul Edge, Cervantes began his quest on collecting the fragments of the cursed sword for four years which melded to form a weapon for him, attacking other ships that came close to his sea; when the presence of Soul Edge's other half vanished, Cervantes's body began to weaken as the fragments that sustained him crumbled. He was informed by a servant of Soul Edge, that a powerful entity was the one responsible, so Cervantes sought to defeat the entity and preserve his life.
Soul Edge summoned all pieces of itself back to it. Cervantes followed its trail. Along the way, he devoured the soul of his illegitimate daughter, but after the latter had survived thanks to her artificial soul, Ivy retaliated and defeated Cervantes, releasing all souls he had consumed, including hers, his body beaten and his mind shattered, Cervantes was swallowed by a dimensional rift opened by Soul Edge, the Astral Chaos. Seventeen years during the wake of the 17th century, people reported the presence of Cervantes' ship, the Adrian, voyaging through the sea. In the non-canonical Gauntlet storyline of Soulcalibur: Broken Destiny, Cervantes' soul was required as payment for Ivy to create a potion for character Hilde and her party to cure her father. Though they attempted to renegotiate, they were forced to take Cervantes' soul by force. During development, several designs were considered for Cervantes, with the initial concept appearing as a clean-shaven man with long hair tied in a pony tail and a raised-collar coat.
This and several subsequent designs were rejected, however, as the development team felt they were either too reminiscent of nihilistic pirates or gentlemanly in appearance. Taking a different approach, they designed his appearance as a tall male with a trim mustache and white hair extending to the base of his neck. A blue coat with an extended tail covered his upper body, with thick gloves extending past his wrist and a large hat covers his head. White pants cover his lower legs, surrounded by leather armor on his upper thighs, armor plating covering his lower legs and upper chest, with a neck scarf resting atop the breastplate, his design was intended to orient the viewer's eye towards his left, with his hat angled in the opposite direction. When designing the character's appearance in Soulcalibur, several zombified designs were considered, with varying states of decay; as the series progressed his mustache was expanded into a growing beard, while his skin tone developed a purplish hue. His pupils were additionally negated, giving his appearance either solid white or red glowing eyes, depending on the game.
His attire developed a more pronounced barbed appearance as well, with the gradu
Heinz Jakob "Coco" Schumann was a German jazz musician and Holocaust survivor. He became a member of the Ghetto Swingers while transported to Theresienstadt at the age of nineteen. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, Schumann performed as a jazz guitarist, with Marlene Dietrich, Ella Fitzgerald, Helmut Zacharias. Schumann was born in Berlin, into a bourgeois family, his father, Alfred Schumann, was a war veteran and convert to Judaism, German by ethnicity and Christian but converted after marrying his Jewish wife. His mother, was Jewish by birth, a hairdresser who worked at her father's salon, his nickname, Coco came from his French girlfriend. Schumann became passionate about Swing jazz after having heard it during the Berlin Olympics. During his teenage years, he played for various swing bands and taught himself to play guitar and drums. Schumann was transported first to Theresienstadt at the age of nineteen, where he became a member of the Ghetto Swingers, he and Martin Roman were transported to Auschwitz, where he came face to face with Josef Mengele.
When Mengele inquired of the blue-eyed, nineteen-year-old Coco where he came from and what he did, Schumann shouted, "Berlin, Herr Obersturmbannführer! Plumber, Herr Obersturmbannführer!"Just a few days before the end of the Nazi regime, Schumann contracted spotted fever that had killed hundreds of co-prisoners, he spent weeks fighting high fevers and delirious nightmares. He and one other man were the only ones to survive the illness; when he was able to return home to Berlin, he learned that his grandparents, aunts and cousins had perished in the camps. However he found his parents alive, as his father had ingeniously succeeded in keeping his Jewish wife hidden from the Nazis by declaring her dead after a disastrous fire. After the war, Schumann became a celebrated jazz guitarist. In 1950, he left Germany for Australia along with his family before returning to Berlin in 1954, he played with Marlene Dietrich, Ella Fitzgerald, Helmut Zacharias, among others, before founding his own Coco Schumann Quartet.
Schumann's eventful and colorful life is a subject of and is celebrated in a German-language true-to-life color graphic novel by Caroline Gille and Niels Schröder. His autobiography, The Ghetto Swinger: A Berlin Jazz-Legend Remembers, was first published in 1997 and became a bestseller. In 2012 it was staged as a musical in Hamburg, his French girlfriend gave him his "Coco" nickname after she struggled with the pronunciation of "Jakob". In reflection to his years in a concentration camp, Schumman recalled: "I am a musician, imprisoned in concentration camps," Schumann said in years, adding: "Not a concentration camp prisoner who plays music". Schumann, filmed in Theresienstadt in 1944 as part of a German documentary, was featured in a 2013 documentary called Refuge in Music, about the life of Jewish musicians and artists under the Third Reich. Schumann died in Berlin on 28 January 2018 at the age of 93. Coco Schumann at La Paoloma
Issa Hassan Sesay served as senior military officer and commander in the Revolutionary United Front and AFRC/RUF forces in their insurrection against the government of Sierra Leone. He was said to be subordinate only to Sam Bockarie, the Battlefield Commander, Johnny Paul Koroma, leader of the AFRC. Sesay is known as the commander who ordered the disarmament of the RUF ending the Sierra Leone Civil War. On 7 March 2003 he was indicted by the Special Court for Sierra Leone for crimes against humanity and other war crimes, including terrorizing civilians, collective punishments, unlawful killings, crimes against humanity, sexual violence, physical violence, use of child soldiers and forced labor and burning, attacks on UNAMSIL personnel, he pleaded not guilty at his initial court appearance. On 25 February 2009 Sesay was convicted for 16 out of the 18 charges he faced at the Special Court for Sierra Leone in Freetown. Along with former leaders Morris Kallon, who received 40 years, Augustine Gbao, who received 25, Sesay was sentenced to concurrent terms on the charges, the longest being a 52-year sentence.
An award-winning documentary by Rebecca Richman Cohen released in 2010 titled War Don Don follows the rise and fall of the rebel leader. Indictment before the Special Court for Sierra Leone Issa Sesay on Trial Watch weekly monitoring program War Crimes Studies Center, UC Berkeley - Issa Sesay War Don Don on IMDb