Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright is an American politician and diplomat. She is the first female United States Secretary of State in U. S. history, having served from 1997 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. Along with her family, Albright immigrated to the United States in 1948 from Czechoslovakia, her father, diplomat Josef Korbel, settled the family in Denver, she became a U. S. citizen in 1957. Albright graduated from Wellesley College in 1959 and earned a PhD from Columbia University in 1975, writing her thesis on the Prague Spring, she worked as an aide to Senator Edmund Muskie before taking a position under Zbigniew Brzezinski on the National Security Council. She served in that position until the end of President Jimmy Carter's singular term in 1981. After leaving the National Security Council, Albright joined the academic faculty of Georgetown University and advised Democratic candidates regarding foreign policy. After Clinton's victory in the 1992 presidential election, she helped assemble his National Security Council.
In 1993, Clinton appointed her to the position of U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations, she held that position until 1997, when she succeeded Warren Christopher as Secretary of State, serving until Clinton left office in 2001. Albright has served as chair of the Albright Stonebridge Group since 2009, is the Michael and Virginia Mortara Endowed Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. In May 2012, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U. S. President Barack Obama. Secretary Albright serves as a director on the board of the Council on Foreign Relations. Born Marie Jana Korbelová in 1937 in the Smíchov district of Prague, she is the daughter of Anna and Josef Korbel, a Czech diplomat. At the time of her birth, Czechoslovakia had been independent for less than 20 years, having gained independence from the Austria-Hungary empire after World War I, her father was a supporter of the early Czech democrats, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš.
Marie Jana had a younger brother John. When Marie Jana was born, her father was serving as a press-attaché at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade; the signing of the Munich Agreement in September 1938 and the German occupation of Czechoslovakia by Adolf Hitler's troops forced the family into exile because of their links with Beneš. In 1941, Josef and Anna converted from Judaism to Catholicism. Marie Jana and her siblings were raised in the Roman Catholic faith. In 1997, Albright said her parents never told her or her two siblings about their Jewish ancestry and heritage; the family moved to Britain where her father worked for Beneš's Czechoslovak government-in-exile. Her family first lived on Kensington Park Road in Notting Hill, but moved to Beaconsfield Walton-on-Thames, on the outskirts of London, they kept a large metal table in the house, intended to shelter the family from the recurring threat of Nazi air raids. While in England, Marie Jana was one of the children shown in a documentary film designed to promote sympathy for all war refugees in London.
After the defeat of the Nazis in the European Theatre of World War II and the collapse of Nazi Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Korbel family returned to Prague. They were given a luxurious apartment in the Hradčany district.. Korbel was appointed as Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Yugoslavia, the family moved to Belgrade. Yugoslavia was governed by the Communist Party, Korbel was concerned his daughter would be exposed to Marxism in a Yugoslav school, she was taught by a governess and sent to the Prealpina Institut pour Jeunes Filles finishing school in Chexbres, on Lake Geneva in Switzerland. She learned to speak French while in Switzerland and changed her name from "Marie Jana" to "Madeleine"; the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union. As an opponent of communism, Korbel was forced to resign from his position, he obtained a position on a United Nations delegation to Kashmir. He sent his family to the United States, by way of London, to wait for him when he arrived to deliver his report to the U.
N. Headquarters located in Lake Success, New York. Albright's family emigrated from the United Kingdom on the SS America, departing Southampton on November 5, 1948, arriving at Ellis Island in New York Harbor on November 11, 1948; the family settled in Great Neck on Long Island. Korbel applied for political asylum, arguing that as an opponent of Communism, he was under threat in Prague. With the help of Philip Moseley, a professor of Russian at Columbia University in New York City, Korbel obtained a position on the staff of the political science department at the University of Denver in Colorado, he became dean of the university's school of international relations and taught future U. S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. In 2008 the school was named as the Josef Korbel School of International Studies in his honor. Albright spent her teen years in Denver, in 1955 graduated from the Kent Denver School in Cherry Hills Village, a suburb of Denver, she was its first president. She attended Wellesley College, in Wellesley, Massachusetts, on a full scholarship, majoring in political science, graduated in 1959.
The topic of her senior thesis was former Czechoslovaki
Robin Colleen Carnahan is an American businesswoman and lawyer and former Missouri Secretary of State. She is the daughter of Missouri politicians Jean Carnahan. In 2010 she was the Democratic nominee for the U. S. Senate to replace retiring Republican Senator Kit Bond, she was a Senior Advisor at the global strategy firm Albright Stonebridge Group where she advised companies on strategic investment and growth opportunities. Additionally, she serves as an advisor to a number of civic technology companies including LaunchCode and speaks on issues relating to government innovation through smarter use of technology. In 2013, Carnahan was named a Fellow at the University of Chicago Institute of Politics. In February 2016, she joined the General Services Administration as the Director of the State and Local practice at 18F. Robin Carnahan grew up near Rolla, the only daughter in a family of 4 children, she attended Rolla High School and graduated, magna cum laude, from William Jewell College in Liberty, with a bachelor's degree in Economics.
Carnahan received her Juris Doctor degree in 1986 from the University of Virginia School of Law where she served as Executive Editor of the Virginia Journal of International Law. Following graduation, she returned to Missouri to practice business and corporate law with the St. Louis firm of Thompson & Mitchell. In 1990, Carnahan went to work in central Europe as part of a team from the National Democratic Institute. In this role, she helped draft voting laws, train new political leaders and monitor elections in Hungary and Czechoslovakia. Since she has led international election observer delegations and promoted democracy in a dozen countries and serves on NDI's Board of Directors. During the Clinton Administration, Carnahan served as special assistant to the chairman of the Export-Import Bank of the United States working on programs to help US companies increase exports of US goods and services. Carnahan founded and managed an international trade and business consulting firm to advise public and held US companies expanding into global markets.
Today, Carnahan manages her family's farm and Angus cattle operation outside of Rolla, Missouri. On November 2, 2004, Carnahan was elected as Missouri's 38th Secretary of State. In her first bid for elected office, she defeated then-Speaker of the Missouri House of Representatives Catherine Hanaway by over 120,000 votes. In November 2008, Carnahan was reelected with nearly 62% of the vote by receiving over 1.7 million votes, the most votes cast for a candidate in Missouri history. In 2005 she was named one of 24 "rising stars" in American politics by the Aspen Institute's Rodel Foundation, a leading nonpartisan think tank; as CEO of a $50mm government agency, Carnahan emerged as a national leader in pioneering the use of innovative technology to save money and improve government service delivery for businesses and citizens. To reduce red-tape and costs for businesses, she worked with business leaders to identify service improvements, increase online business filings by more than 80%, streamline regulations and reduce filing fees by over $19 million.
As the state's securities regulator during the 2008 financial crisis, Carnahan gained national recognition for negotiating record settlements on behalf of investors in a number of high-profile cases, including a national settlement in August 2008 in which Wachovia Securities agreed to repay over 40,000 investors who had nearly $9 billion frozen in auction-rate securities accounts. Carnahan worked to increase open access to public documents and data by expanding online availability of information through the Missouri State Archives and Missouri State Library; the award-winning Death Records and Missouri Digital Heritage Initiative projects received over 23 million hits in 2012. In 2008, Carnahan worked with Missouri's local election authorities to ensure all eligible Missourians had access to the ballot box, she has been a strong advocate for early voting, paper ballots and better training for Election Day poll workers. Carnahan served as Co-Chair of both the Elections and Securities Committees of the National Association of Secretaries of State.
She served on the Executive Committee and as Chair of the Democratic Association of Secretaries of State. Carnahan's tenure in office focused on providing outstanding customer service to Missouri businesses, financial professionals, voters, genealogists and hundreds of thousands of other customers. In the closeout audit at the end of her term in 2013, Republican State Auditor Thomas Schweich gave Carnahan's office the highest possible performance rating of "excellent". On February 3, 2009, Carnahan announced she would run for the United States Senate in 2010 to replace retiring U. S. Senator Kit Bond, saying it's time to "stop the political bickering and start solving problems", she was elected the Democratic nominee in the primary election held August 3, 2010. In October, Carnahan was endorsed by the Kansas City Star, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, the St. Louis American. However, Carnahan was defeated by Republican Roy Blunt as part of a Republican wave of victories in the midterm election. After leaving public office Carnahan joined the global strategy firm Albright Stonebridge Group, founded by former U.
S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, she remained in Missouri and began advising civic technology firms and organizations seeking to help government deliver better services for citizens and cut costs for taxpayers through smarter use of technology. She is a board member and serviced as a strategic adviser for LaunchCode, an organization that connects people to economic opportunity through paid apprenticeships in programming and technology, she has been r
Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 42nd vice president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A United States senator from Minnesota, he was the Democratic Party's nominee in the United States presidential election of 1984, but lost to Ronald Reagan in an Electoral College landslide. Reagan won 49 states while Mondale carried his home state of District of Columbia, he became the oldest-living former U. S. vice president after the death of George H. W. Bush in 2018. Mondale was born in Ceylon and graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1951 after attending Macalester College, he served in the U. S. Army during the Korean War before earning a law degree in 1956, he married Joan Adams in 1955. Working as a lawyer in Minneapolis, Mondale was appointed to the position of attorney general in 1960 by Governor Orville Freeman and was elected to a full term as attorney general in 1962 with 60 percent of votes cast, he was appointed to the U. S. Senate by Governor Karl Rolvaag upon the resignation of Senator Hubert Humphrey following Humphrey's election as vice president in 1964.
Mondale was subsequently elected to a full Senate term in 1966 and again in 1972, resigning that post in 1976 as he prepared to succeed to the vice presidency in 1977. While in the Senate, he supported consumer protection, fair housing, tax reform, the desegregation of schools, he served as a member of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. In 1976, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic presidential nominee, chose Mondale as his vice presidential running mate; the Carter/Mondale ticket defeated incumbent president Gerald Ford and his vice presidential running mate, Bob Dole in the first televised vice presidential debate. Carter and Mondale's time in office was marred by a worsening economy and, although both were renominated by the Democratic Party, they lost the 1980 election to Republicans Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush. In 1984, Mondale won the Democratic presidential nomination and campaigned for a nuclear freeze, the Equal Rights Amendment, an increase in taxes, a reduction of U.
S. public debt. His vice presidential nominee was Geraldine Ferraro, a congresswoman from New York, the first female vice presidential nominee of any major party. Mondale and Ferraro lost the election to incumbent president Ronald Reagan, winning only Minnesota and the District of Columbia. After his defeat by Reagan, Mondale joined the Minnesota-based law firm of Dorsey & Whitney and the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. President Bill Clinton appointed Mondale United States Ambassador to Japan in 1993. In 2002, Mondale ran for his old Senate seat, agreeing to be the last-minute replacement for Democratic Senator Paul Wellstone, killed in a plane crash during the final two weeks of his re-election campaign. However, Mondale narrowly lost that race to Saint Paul mayor Norm Coleman, he returned to working at Dorsey & Whitney and remained active in the Democratic Party. Mondale took up a part-time teaching position at the University of Minnesota's Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs.
Mondale was born in Ceylon, the son of Claribel Hope, a part-time music teacher, Theodore Sigvaard Mondale, a Methodist minister. Walter's half-brother Lester Mondale became a Unitarian minister. Mondale has two brothers, known as Pete and William, known as Mort, his paternal grandparents were Norwegian immigrants, his mother, the daughter of an immigrant from Ontario, was of Scottish and English descent. The surname "Mondale" comes from a valley and town in the Fjærland region of Norway. Mondale attended public schools and Macalester College in St. Paul before transferring to the University of Minnesota, where he earned a B. A. in political science in 1951. As Mondale did not have enough money to attend law school, he enlisted in the U. S. Army and served for two years at Fort Knox during the Korean War, he married Joan Adams in 1955. Through the support of the G. I. Bill, he graduated from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1956. While at law school, he served on the Minnesota Law Review and as a law clerk in the Minnesota Supreme Court under Justice Thomas F. Gallagher.
He practiced law in Minneapolis, continued to do so for four years before entering the political arena. Mondale became involved in national politics in the 1940s. At the age of 20, he was visible in Minnesota politics by helping organize Hubert Humphrey's successful Senate campaign in 1948. Humphrey's campaign assigned Mondale to cover the staunchly Republican 2nd district. Mondale, raised in the region, was able to win the district for Humphrey by a comfortable margin. After working with Humphrey, Mondale went on to work on several campaigns for Orville Freeman. Mondale worked on Freeman's unsuccessful 1952 campaign for governor as well as his successful campaign in 1954 and his re-election campaign in 1958. In 1960, Governor Freeman appointed Mondale as Minnesota Attorney General following the resignation of Miles Lord. At the time he was appointed, Mondale was only 32 years old and had been practicing law for four years, he won re-election to the post in his own right in the 1962 election. During his tenure as Minnesota Attorney General, the case Gideon v. Wainwright was being heard by the U.
S. Supreme Court; when those opposed to the right to counsel organized a Friend of the Court brief representing several state attorneys general for that position, Mondale organized a cou
455 Massachusetts Avenue
455 Massachusetts Avenue is a high-rise office building located in the Mount Vernon Triangle neighborhood of Washington, D. C. United States; the 12-floor building was designed by Gensler and completed in 2007, rises to 151 feet. Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington National Democratic Institute PATH List of tallest buildings in Washington, D. C. Official website
Thomas Andrew Daschle is a retired American politician and lobbyist who served as a United States Senator from South Dakota from 1987 to 2005. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Daschle obtained a degree at South Dakota State University, served in the United States Air Force, he served four terms. In 1986, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, becoming Minority Leader in 1995 and Majority Leader in 2001, becoming the highest-ranking elected official in South Dakota history. Defeated for re-election in 2004, he took a position as a policy advisor with a lobbying firm, became a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, he co-authored a book advocating universal health care. Daschle was an early supporter of Barack Obama's presidential candidacy, was nominated by President-elect Obama for the position of Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services after the 2008 election. However, Daschle withdrew his name on February 3, 2009, amid a growing controversy over his failure to properly report and pay income taxes.
He is working for The Daschle Group, a Public Policy Advisory of Baker Donelson, a large law firm and lobbying group. Daschle was born in Aberdeen, South Dakota, the son of Elizabeth B. and Sebastian C. Daschle, both of German descent, his paternal grandparents were Volga Germans. He grew up in the eldest of four brothers, he became the first person in his family to graduate from college when he earned a B. A. from the Department of Political Science at South Dakota State University in 1969. While attending South Dakota State University, Daschle became a brother of Alpha Phi Omega. From 1969–72, Daschle served in the United States Air Force as an intelligence officer with the Strategic Air Command. In the mid-1970s Daschle was an aide to Senator James Abourezk. In 1978 Daschle was elected to the United States House of Representatives, winning the race by a margin of 139 votes, following a recount, out of more than 129,000 votes cast. Daschle served four terms in the House of Representatives and became a part of the Democratic leadership.
Although Congressman Daschle was not seeking the Vice-Presidency, he received 10 delegate votes for Vice President of the United States at the 1980 Democratic National Convention. Several others received votes against incumbent Walter Mondale, renominated easily. In 1986, Daschle was elected to the Senate in a close victory over incumbent Republican James Abdnor. In his first year, he was appointed to the Finance Committee. In 1994 he was chosen by his colleagues to succeed the retiring Senator George Mitchell as Democratic Minority Leader. In the history of the Senate, only Lyndon B. Johnson had served fewer years before being elected to lead his party. In addition to the Minority Leader's post, Daschle served as a member of the U. S. Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry. South Dakotans reelected Daschle to the Senate by overwhelming margins in 1998. At various points in his career, he served on the Veterans Affairs, Indian Affairs and Ethics Committees; when the 107th Congress commenced on January 3, 2001, the Senate was evenly divided—that is, there were 50 Democrats and 50 Republicans.
Outgoing Vice President Al Gore acted in his constitutional capacity as ex officio President of the Senate, used his tie-breaking vote to give the Democrats the majority in that chamber. For the next two weeks, Daschle served as Senate Majority Leader. Upon the commencement of the Bush administration on January 20, 2001, Dick Cheney became President of the Senate, thereby returning Democrats to the minority in that body. However, on June 6, 2001, Senator Jim Jeffords of Vermont announced in that he was leaving the Senate Republican caucus to become an independent and to caucus with Democrats. Democratic losses in the November 2002 elections returned the party to the minority in the Senate in January 2003 and Daschle once more reverted to being Minority Leader. Daschle recounted his Senate experiences from 2001 to 2003 in his first book, Like No Other Time: The 107th Congress and the Two Years That Changed America Forever ISBN 9781400049554, published in 2003. With Charles Robbins, he has written the book The U.
S. Senate: Fundamentals of American Government. In October 2001, while he was the Senate Majority Leader, Daschle's office received a letter containing anthrax, becoming a target of the 2001 anthrax attacks; some of his staffers were confirmed to have been exposed, as well as several of Senator Russ Feingold's staffers and Capitol police officers. His suite at the Hart Senate Office Building was the focus of an intensive cleanup led by the Environmental Protection Agency. Daschle has a mixed voting record on abortion-related issues, which led the pro-choice organization NARAL to give him a 50% vote rating. In 1999 and 2003, Daschle voted in favor of the ban on partial-birth abortion, supported legislation making it a crime to harm an unborn child when someone attacks a pregnant woman. In 2003 Daschle's stance on abortion was criticized by Roman Catholic Bishop Robert Carlson wrote to Senator Daschle as in conflict with Roman Catholic teaching, that he should no longer identify himself as a Catholic.
In the 2004
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la