Lawrence Alan Kudlow is an American financial analyst and former television host serving as Director of the National Economic Council under President Donald Trump since 2018. Kudlow began his career as a junior financial analyst at the New York Federal Reserve, he soon left government to work on Wall Street at Paine Webber and Bear Stearns as a financial analyst. In 1981, after volunteering and working for left-wing politicians and causes, Kudlow joined the administration of Ronald Reagan as associate director for economics and planning in the Office of Management and Budget. After leaving the Reagan Administration during the second term, Kudlow returned to Wall Street and Bear Stearns, serving as the firm's chief economist from 1987 until 1994. During this time, he advised the gubernatorial campaign of Christine Todd Whitman on economic issues. In the late 1990s, after a publicized battle with cocaine and alcohol addiction, Kudlow left Wall Street to become an economic media commentator – first with National Review, hosting several shows on CNBC.
Kudlow returned to politics in 2018, serving as Gary Cohn's replacement at the National Economic Council. Kudlow was raised in New Jersey, the son of Ruth and Irving Howard Kudlow, his family is Jewish. Kudlow attended the private Elisabeth Morrow School in New Jersey until 6th grade, he attended the private Dwight-Englewood School from the second half of middle school to high school. Kudlow graduated from University of Rochester in Rochester, New York, with a degree in history in 1969. Known as "Kuddles" to friends, he was a star on the tennis team, a member of the left-wing Students for a Democratic Society at Rochester. In 1971, Kudlow attended Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, where he studied politics and economics, he left before completing his master's degree. In 1987, Kudlow was hired by Bear Stearns as senior managing director. Kudlow served as an economic counsel to A. B. Laffer & Associates, the San Diego, company owned by Arthur Laffer, a major supply-side economist and promoter of the "Laffer curve", an economic measure of the relationship between tax levels and government revenue.
Kudlow was fired from Bear Stearns in the mid-1990s due to his cocaine addiction. He was a member of the board of directors of Empower America, a supply-side economics organization founded in 1993 and merged in 2004 with the Citizens for a Sound Economy to form FreedomWorks. Kudlow is a founding member of the Board of Advisors for the Independent Institute and consulting chief economist for American Skandia Life Assurance, Inc. in Connecticut, a subsidiary of insurance giant Prudential Financial. Kudlow became Economics Editor at National Review Online in May 2001. In December 2007, NRO published a Kudlow article entitled Bush Boom Continues, in which he asserted the economy would continue to expand for years to come; the Great Recession, the worst economic downturn since the Great Depression, began that month. Kudlow served as one of a rotating set of hosts on the CNBC show America Now, which began airing in November 2001. In May 2002, that show was renamed Kudlow & Cramer, Kudlow and Jim Cramer became the permanent hosts.
In January 2005, Cramer left to host his own show, Mad Money, the program's name was changed the next month to Kudlow & Company. The program went on hiatus in October 2008, returned in January 2009 as The Kudlow Report, which ended its run on CNBC in March 2014. Kudlow added co-anchor of CNBC's The Call to his responsibilities in late 2008. Kudlow's style is boldly assertive and his line of argument is always framed in expressions of optimism about the economy, the stock market, the dollar. Kudlow is a regular guest on Squawk Box, he has contributed to CNBC.com on MSN. He appeared on The John Batchelor Show as a co-host on Tuesdays and as a substitute, until leaving those duties to become an economics advisor to President Trump. In March 2006, Kudlow started to host a talk radio show on politics and economics on WABC as "The Larry Kudlow Show" aired on Saturday mornings from 10am to 1pm ET and via nationwide syndication starting June 5, 2010; the Larry Kudlow Show was syndicated by Westwood One.
He started a blog named Kudlow's Money Politic$ in October 2004. He has contributed to the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Times, the Cato Journal of the Cato Institute, the City Journal of the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, as well as the television show The McLaughlin Group, has appeared as a guest on The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer and on Wall Street Week. In 1970, while he was still a Democrat, Kudlow joined Joseph Duffey's "New Politics" senatorial campaign in Connecticut. Duffey was a leading anti-war politician during the Vietnam war era. Kudlow, working with Yale University law student Bill Clinton as well as many other rising young Democratic students, was known as a "brilliant" district coordinator. Kudlow worked on the U. S. Senate campaign of Joseph Duffey, along with Bill Clinton, John Podesta, Michael Medved, another future conservative, in 1976, he worked on the U. S. Senate campaign of Daniel Patrick Moynihan, along with Tim Russert, against Conservative Party incumbent James L. Buckley, brother of William F. Buckley, Jr.
Kudlow began his career as a staff economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, taking a position "as a junior economist in a job. He worked in the division of the Fed. During the first term of the Reagan administration, Kudlow was associate director for economics and planning in the Office of Management and Budget, a part of the Executive Office of the President. While he worked at the OMB, Kudlow was also
John Michael Mulvaney is an American politician of the Republican Party, serving in President Donald Trump's cabinet as Director of the Office of Management and Budget, as well as acting White House Chief of Staff. Mulvaney served as the acting Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau from November 2017 to December 2018. Mulvaney served in the South Carolina General Assembly from 2007 to 2011, first in the State House of Representatives and the State Senate, he served as a U. S. House Representative from 2011 to 2017, he was nominated as OMB Director by President-elect Donald Trump in December 2016 and confirmed by Senate vote on February 16, 2017. Mulvaney was known for his support for fiscal conservatism as a congressman. However, as OMB Director, he oversaw a dramatic expansion in the deficit and expressed support for Keynesian ideas which he had rejected; the deficit increases were a result of both spending increases and tax cuts, were unusually high for a period of economic expansion.
In 2019, with regard to its potential mention in an upcoming State of the Union speech, Mulvaney said that "nobody cares" about the deficit. Mulvaney was born in Alexandria, Virginia, to Michael "Mike", a real estate developer, Kathleen "Kathy" Mulvaney, a teacher, he grew up in Charlotte, North Carolina. He moved to Indian Land, South Carolina, his grandparents were from County Mayo, Ireland. He attended Charlotte Catholic High School and Georgetown University, where he majored in international economics and finance. At Georgetown, he was an Honors Scholar of the School of Foreign Service, graduated with honors in 1989. Mulvaney attended law school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, he earned a full scholarship to attend law school. He graduated with his J. D. degree in 1992. From 1992 to 1997, Mulvaney practiced law with the firm McElroy & Diehl. Mulvaney joined his family's real estate business, he participated in the Presidents Management Program at Harvard Business School. He was a minority shareholder and owner-operator in Salsarita's Fresh Cantina, a held regional restaurant chain.
Mulvaney was elected to the South Carolina House of Representatives in 2006. In 2008 an unexpected retirement created a vacancy in the South Carolina Senate and he campaigned for and won that office in what was regarded to be the hardest fought legislative race in South Carolina that year. While in the State Senate, Mulvaney served on the Judiciary, Labor/Commerce/Industry, Medical Affairs, Agriculture/Natural Resources, Corrections Committees; the Palmetto Family Council identified him as the Freshman Legislator of the Year in 2006 for his work on the South Carolina ultrasound bill. In 2010 he was named Legislator of the Year for his work in support of the State's Emergency Medical Services, he has received one of the few A+ ratings in the entire legislature from the South Carolina Club for Growth. Mulvaney, a GOP Young Gun, ran against Democratic incumbent John M. Spratt Jr. for South Carolina's 5th congressional district. The race was highlighted by Mitt Romney's Free and Strong America PAC's "Take Congress Back: 10 in'10" initiative as one of the top 10 House challenger races.
Mulvaney's involvement in the now defunct Edenmoor real estate development in Lancaster County, South Carolina became a campaign issue, with Mulvaney's opponents alleging that he misled the Lancaster County council and taxpayers to provide $30 million in public funding for the real estate development and that once the public funds had been approved, Mulvaney sold his interest in the development to a third party at a $7 million profit. Mulvaney denied the allegations and said that the project's failure was due to Democratic economic policies, he defeated Spratt, who had held the seat with 55 % of the vote. Mulvaney's campaign against Spratt was aided by a 501 organization named the Commission on Hope and Opportunity; the group, established by anonymous donors and run by lobbyist Scott W. Reed, was accused by the watchdog Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington of violating federal campaign finance laws and disclosing false information to the Internal Revenue Service, he won re-election to a second term by defeating Democrat Joyce Knott 56%–44%.
He won re-election to a third term by defeating Democrat Tom Adams, a Fort Mill Town Council member, 59%–41%. Mulvaney cofounded the bipartisan Blockchain Caucus, "meant to help congressmen stay up to speed on cryptocurrency and blockchain technologies", develop policies that advance them. Mulvaney faced Ray Craig in the Republican primary and defeated him 78–22%. Mulvaney was re-elected to a fourth term. During his time in the U. S. House, Mulvaney aligned himself with the Tea Party movement, he was a founding member of the Freedom Caucus. He opposed the Affordable Care Act. In April 2018, Mulvaney told a room of banking industry executives and lobbyists that as a Congressman he refused to take meetings with lobbyists unless they contributed to his congressional campaigns, he said, ``, I did not talk to you. If you are a lobbyist who gave us money, I might talk to you." At the top of the hierarchy, he added, were his constituents. “If you came from back home and sat in my lobby, I talked to you without exception, regardless of the financial contributions,” said Mr. Mulvaney.
According to the New York Times, Mulvaney took "a hard line on spending during President Obama’s term, vowing not to raise the nation’s debt limit and embracing the term'Shutdown Caucus' because of his willingness to shut the government
George Ervin "Sonny" Perdue III is an American veterinarian and politician serving as the 31st United States Secretary of Agriculture since 2017. He served as the 81st Governor of Georgia from 2003 to 2011, he was the first Republican Governor of Georgia since Reconstruction. Founder and partner in an agricultural trading company, Perdue served from 2012 to 2017 on the Governors' Council of the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, D. C, he is the second Secretary of Agriculture from the Deep South. On January 18, 2017, President-elect Donald Trump announced that he would nominate Perdue to be Secretary of Agriculture, his nomination was transmitted to the U. S. Senate on March 9, 2017, his nomination was approved by the United States Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry on March 30 by a 19–1 voice vote, by the entire Senate in a vote of 87–11 on April 24. Perdue was born in Perry, the son of Ophie Viola, a teacher, George Ervin Perdue Jr. a farmer. He still lives in Bonaire, an unincorporated area between Perry and Warner Robins.
Born George Ervin Perdue III, Perdue has been known as Sonny since childhood, prefers to be called by that name. Perdue is the first cousin of U. S. Senator David Perdue. Perdue played quarterback at Warner Robins High School and was a walk-on at the University of Georgia, where he was a member of the Beta-Lambda chapter of Kappa Sigma Fraternity. In 1971, Perdue earned his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine from the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, worked as a veterinarian before becoming a small business owner starting three small businesses. Perdue is not related to the family that operates Perdue Farms. Perdue served in the U. S. Air Force, rising to the rank of captain before his discharge. After serving as a member of the Houston County Planning & Zoning Commission in the 1980s, Perdue ran as a Democrat for a seat in the Georgia General Assembly, he defeated Republican candidate Ned Sanders in 1990 and succeeded Democratic incumbent Ed Barker as the senator representing the 18th district.
Perdue was elected as a Democrat in 1991, 1994, 1996. He served as his party's leader in the Senate from 1994 as president pro tempore. After his first year in office Senator Perdue wrote Lt. Governor Pierre Howard asking for more responsibilities, Howard obliged, he shortly after became a committee chairman climbed the leadership ladder to majority leader Senate Pro-Tempore. Many credit Pierre Howard for helping Perdue build the early foundation of what would become his future political career, his committee assignments included Ethics, Finance & Public Utilities, Health & Human Services and Economic Development, Tourism & Cultural Affairs. He switched party affiliation from Democrat to Republican in 1998 and was reelected to the Senate as a Republican, he won reelection in 2000. 2002In December 2001, Perdue resigned as state senator and devoted himself to running for the office of Governor of Georgia. He won the 2002 Georgia gubernatorial election, defeating Democratic incumbent Roy Barnes 51% to 46%, with Libertarian candidate Garrett Michael Hayes taking 2% of the vote.
He became the first Republican governor of Georgia in over 130 years since Benjamin F. Conley. 2006In 2006, Perdue was re-elected to a second term in the 2006 Georgia gubernatorial election, winning nearly 58% of the vote. His Democratic opponent was Lieutenant Governor Mark Taylor. Libertarian Garrett Michael Hayes was on the ballot. Economic issuesPerdue advocated reforms designed to cut waste in government, most notably the sale of surplus vehicles and real estate. Prior to Perdue's becoming governor, no state agency had compiled an inventory of what assets the state owned. In January 2003, Perdue signed an executive order prohibiting himself and all other state employees from receiving any gift worth more than $25. During his governorship, Perdue collected at least $25,000 in gifts, including sporting event tickets and airplane flights. Late in the evening of March 29, 2005, the penultimate day of the legislative session, Representative Larry O'Neal, who worked part-time as Perdue’s personal lawyer, introduced legislation making capital gains tax owed on Georgia land sales deferrable if the income goes to purchase out-of-state land unusually, making the tax break retroactive.
Perdue signed the legislation into law on April 2005, three days before tax day. Perdue used the new law on his 2004 tax return to defer $100,000 in taxable gains from the sale of land. In 2007, Perdue convinced a skeptical legislature to approve a $19 million fishing tourism program he called Go Fish Georgia. Perdue decided that the Go Fish Education Center would be built down the road from his home. Education reformIn education, Perdue promoted the return of most decision-making to the local level. After Perdue took office, in 2003 and 2004, Georgia moved up from last place in the country in SAT scores. Although it returned to last place in 2005, Georgia rose to 49th place in 2006 in the combined math and reading mean score, including the writing portion added to the test that year. In 2007, Georgia moved up to 46th place. In 2008, Georgia moved up again, to 45th place. Perdue created additional opportunities for charter schools and private schools. Georgia state flagAfter Democratic Governor Roy Barnes replaced the 1956 state flag, adopted by Georgia to protest integration, because it featured a battle flag emblem of the Confede
Eugene B. "Gene" Sperling is an American economist, Director of the National Economic Council and Assistant to the President for Economic Policy under Presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. Sperling was born in Ann Arbor, where he attended both Pioneer High School and Community High School, from which he received his degree, he received a B. A. in Political Science from the University of Minnesota in 1982, where he was Captain of the Men's Varsity Tennis Team, a J. D. from Yale Law School in 1985, where he served as a Senior Editor of the Yale Law Journal. After graduating from Yale Law School, he attended business school at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Prior to joining the National Economic Council, Sperling served as Deputy Director of Economic Policy for the Presidential Transition and Economic Policy Director of the Clinton-Gore Presidential campaign. From 1990 to 1992, he was an economic advisor to Governor Mario Cuomo of New York. Sperling served as Deputy Director and Director of the National Economic Council during the Clinton administration.
As deputy director from 1993-1996, Sperling helped design and pass several of President Clinton’s early initiatives, including 1993 Deficit Reduction Act, the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit, the Direct Student Loan Act. As director from 1996-2001, Sperling was a principal negotiator of the 1997 bipartisan Balanced Budget Act, was the architect of the Save Social Security First debt reduction strategy, co-negotiated the final China WTO agreement in Beijing in 1999 with United States Trade Representative Charlene Barshefsky, he played a leading role in the design and passage of other Clinton administration economic initiatives, including the Hope Scholarship Tax Credit, the New Markets Tax Credit, the Children’s Health Insurance Program, the Gear-UP Early College Mentoring program, expanded debt relief to poor nations, stronger international protections against abusive child labor. Sperling worked with then-Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers to negotiate protections for the Community Reinvestment Act in the Financial Modernization Act of 1999 known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.
These protections helped secure passage of the bill. After leaving the National Economic Council, Sperling served as Founder and Director of the Center for Universal Education at the Council on Foreign Relations and the Brookings Institution, he co-authored the book What Works in Girls’ Education: Evidence and Policies from the Developing World. He authored The Pro-Growth Progressive: An Economic Strategy for Shared Prosperity as a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress. For four years, he was a consultant and part-time writer for the television series The West Wing. Sperling was the chief economic adviser for Hillary Clinton during her 2008 presidential campaign. Prior to joining the Obama administration, Sperling earned $887,727 from Goldman Sachs in 2008 for his work helping to create and implement their 10,000 Women initiative, he was compensated $158,000 for speeches to financial companies. Sperling received $2.2 million in total compensation in 2008 from a variety of consulting jobs, board seats, speaking fees and fellowships.
From 2009 to 2011, Sperling served as a counselor to Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner. He advised on financial crisis and auto rescue matters, was Geithner's top aide on fiscal, tax, Affordable Care Act, small business issues. In January 2011, President Barack Obama appointed Sperling as the Director of the National Economic Council. In that role, Sperling played a key role representing the White House in budget negotiations with Congress as well as serving as the White House point person on several of the President’s top priorities including job creation, manufacturing policy, housing, GSE reform, skills initiatives and patent reform, he played a key role in designing the Small Business Jobs Act, the payroll tax cut, the extension of training assistance and the expansion of tax credits for low income working Americans. He was the creator of the $447 billion American Jobs Act. Sperling led the design and implementation of the President’s initiatives on Manufacturing Innovation Hubs, SelectUSA, the College Opportunity Summit, the ConnectED initiative.
Sperling was named one of the 100 Most Powerful People in Finance worldwide in 2013 by Worth Magazine. He was named one of the 50 Most Powerful People in Washington by GQ in 2012. On February 27, 2013, Sperling was identified as the writer of an e-mail informing Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward "that he would regret" publishing a story critical of Obama's sequester. Sperling left the National Economic Council in March 2014. Sperling came under scrutiny for receiving up to $600,000 in unsecured, below market-rate loans from friend Howard Shapiro, a lawyer at Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr, while serving in the Obama administration. Critics argued that this created a conflict of interest for Sperling, as he helped craft a federal and state government settlement negotiated by WilmerHale and other law firms over foreclosure and mortgage servicing abuses by major financial institutions. Sperling told ProPublica he was not involved in the negotiations and only "helped decide that settlement money would go toward reducing principal on mortgages for borrowers whose homes were worth less than their mortgages", however the Financial Times reported that Sperling met with groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to persuade them of the benefits the deal would have for borrowers.
Sperling defended the loans by arguing that his savings were "depleted" after having "worked every single year of my career in either public service or in near-full time non-profit work
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Benjamin Solomon Carson Sr. is an American politician and former neurosurgeon serving as the 17th and current United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development since 2017, under the Trump Administration. Prior to his cabinet position, he was a candidate for President of the United States in the Republican primaries in 2016. Born in Detroit, a graduate of Yale University and the University of Michigan Medical School, Carson has authored numerous books on his medical career and political stances, he was the subject of a television drama film in 2009. He was the Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Maryland from 1984 until his retirement in 2013; as a pioneer in neurosurgery, Carson's achievements include performing the only successful separation of conjoined twins joined at the back of the head. He became the youngest chief of pediatric neurosurgery in the country at age 33, he has received more than 60 honorary doctorate degrees, dozens of national merit citations, written over 100 neurosurgical publications.
In 2008, he was bestowed the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. Carson's publicized speech at the 2013 National Prayer Breakfast catapulted him to conservative fame for his views on social and political issues. On May 4, 2015, he announced he was running for the Republican nomination in the 2016 presidential election at a rally in his hometown of Detroit. In March 2016, following the Super Tuesday primaries, he suspended his campaign and announced he would be the new national chairman of My Faith Votes, a group that encourages Christians to exercise their civic duty to vote, he endorsed the candidacy of Donald Trump. On March 2, 2017, Carson was confirmed by the United States Senate as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in a 58–41 vote. Carson was born in Detroit, Michigan, to Robert Solomon Carson, Jr. a World War II U. S. Army veteran, his wife, Sonya Carson. Robert Carson was a Baptist minister, but a Cadillac automobile plant laborer.
Both of his parents came from large families in rural Georgia, they were living in rural Tennessee when they met and married. Carson's mother was 13 and his father was 28 when they married, after his father finished his military service, they moved from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Detroit, where they lived in a large house in the Indian Village neighborhood. Carson's older brother, was born in 1949, when his mother was 20. In 1950, Carson's parents purchased a new 733-square foot single-family detached home on Deacon Street in the Boynton neighborhood in southwest Detroit. Carson's Detroit Public Schools education began in 1956 with kindergarten at the Fisher School, continued through first and the first half of third grade, during which time he was an average student; when Carson was five, his mother learned that his father had a prior family and had not divorced his first wife. In 1959, when Carson was eight, his parents separated and he moved with mother and brother to live for two years with his mother's Seventh-day Adventist older sister and her sister's husband in multi-family dwellings in the Dorchester and Roxbury neighborhoods of Boston.
In Boston, Carson's mother attempted suicide, had several psychiatric hospitalizations for depression, for the first time began working outside the home as a domestic worker, while Carson and his brother attended a two-classroom school at the Berea Seventh-day Adventist church where two teachers taught eight grades, the vast majority of time was spent singing songs and playing games. In 1961, when Carson was ten, he moved with his mother and brother back to southwest Detroit, where they lived in a multi-family dwelling in a white neighborhood across the railroad tracks from the Delray neighborhood, while renting out their house on Deacon Street which his mother received in a divorce settlement; when they returned to Detroit public schools and his brother's academic performance lagged far behind their new classmates, having according to Carson "essentially lost a year of school" by attending the small Seventh-day Adventist parochial school in Boston, but both improved when their mother limited their time watching television and required them to read and write book reports on two library books per week.
Carson attended the predominantly white Higgins Elementary School for fifth and sixth grades and the predominantly white Wilson Junior High School for seventh and the first half of eighth grade. In 1965, when Carson was 13, he moved with his mother and brother back to their house on Deacon Street, he attended the predominantly black Hunter Junior High School for the second half of eighth grade. When he was eight, Carson had dreamed of becoming a missionary doctor, but five years he aspired to the lucrative lifestyles of psychiatrists portrayed on television, his brother bought him a subscription to Psychology Today for his 13th birthday. By ninth grade, the family's financial situation had improved, his mother surprising neighbors by paying cash to buy a new Chrysler car, the only government assistance they still relied on was food stamps. Carson attended the predominantly black Southwestern High School for ninth through 12th grades, graduating third in his class academically. In high school, he played the baritone horn in the band and participated in forensics, chess club, the U.
S. Army Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program where he reached its highest rank—cadet colonel
Elaine Lan Chao is the current United States Secretary of Transportation. A member of the Republican Party, Chao was Secretary of Labor under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2009. Born in Taipei to Chinese parents who had left mainland China following the Chinese Civil War, Chao immigrated to the United States at age 8, her father founded the Foremost Group, which became a major shipping corporation. Chao was raised on Long Island, New York and subsequently attended Mount Holyoke College and Harvard Business School, she worked for a number of financial institutions before being appointed to several senior positions in the Department of Transportation under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, including Deputy Secretary, she next served as Director of the Peace Corps. Chao was president of the United Way of America from 1992 to 1996. While not in government, Chao has served on several boards of directors and worked for The Heritage Foundation and the Hudson Institute, two conservative think-tanks.
Chao served as Secretary of Labor for the duration of George W. Bush's presidency and presently serves as Secretary of Transportation under President Donald Trump. Chao was the first Asian American woman and the first Chinese American in U. S. history to be appointed to a President's Cabinet. Chao married Majority Leader Mitch McConnell in 1993. Elaine Chao immigrated to the United States; the eldest of six daughters, Chao was born in Taipei, Taiwan, to Ruth Mulan Chu Chao, a historian, James S. C. Chao, who began his career as a merchant mariner and in 1964 founded a shipping company in New York City; the company, Foremost Maritime Corporation, developed into the Foremost Group. C. Chao continued to serve as its Chairman succeeded by Elaine's sister Angela. James first met Ruth when she and her family relocated to Shanghai during World War II. In 1949, James and Ruth relocated separately to Taiwan at the culmination of the Chinese Civil War, they married in 1950. In 1961, Elaine came to the United States on a 37-day freight ship journey along with her mother and two younger sisters.
Her father had arrived in New York three years earlier after receiving a scholarship. Chao attended Tsai Hsing Elementary School in Taipei for kindergarten and first grade, subsequently attended Syosset High School in Syosset, New York, on Long Island, she was naturalized as a U. S. citizen at the age of 19. Chao received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics from Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts, in 1975. In the second semester of her junior year, she studied banking at Dartmouth College, she received a MBA degree from Harvard Business School in 1979. Chao has received 37 honorary doctorates, including an honorary Doctor of Humane Letters degree from Georgetown University in 2015. Before entering public service, Chao was Vice President for syndications at Bank of America Capital Markets Group in San Francisco, an International Banker at Citicorp in New York for four years, she was granted a White House Fellowship in 1983 during the Reagan Administration. In 1986, Chao became Deputy Administrator of the Maritime Administration in the U.
S. Department of Transportation. From 1988 to 1989, she served as Chairwoman of the Federal Maritime Commission. In 1989, President George H. W. Bush nominated Chao to be Deputy Secretary of Transportation, serving from 1989 to 1991. From 1991 to 1992, she was the Director of the Peace Corps, she was the first Asian Pacific American. She expanded the Peace Corps' presence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia by establishing the first Peace Corps programs in Poland, Lithuania and the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Following her service in President George H. W. Bush's administration, Chao worked for four years as CEO of United Way of America, she is credited with returning credibility and public trust to the organization after a financial mismanagement scandal involving former president William Aramony. From 1996 until her appointment as Secretary of Labor, Chao was a Distinguished Fellow with The Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank in Washington, D. C, she was a board member of the Independent Women's Forum.
She returned to the Heritage Foundation after leaving the government in January 2009. Chao was the only cabinet member in the George W. Bush administration to serve for the entirety of his eight years, she was the longest-serving Secretary of Labor since Frances Perkins, who served from 1933 to 1945, under President Franklin D. Roosevelt; the Washington Post wrote towards the end of Chao's tenure as Labor Secretary that the Labor Department under her was "widely criticized for walking away from its regulatory function across a range of issues, including wage and hour law and workplace safety." In 2002, a major West Coast ports dispute costing the U. S. economy nearly $1 billion daily was resolved when the Bush administration obtained a national emergency injunction against both the employers and the union under the Taft–Hartley Act for the first time since 1971. Led by Chao In 2003, for the first time in more than 40 years, the Department updated the labor union financial disclosure regulations under the Landrum–Griffin Act of 1959, which created more extensive disclosure requirements for union-sponsored pension plans and other trusts to prevent embezzlement or other financial mismanagement.
In 2004, the Department issued revisions of the white-collar overtime regulations under the Fair Labor Standards Act. After analyzing 70,000 closed case files from 2005 to 2007, the Government Accountability Office reported that the Department's Wage and Hour Division inadequately invest