National monument (United States)
In the United States, a national monument is a protected area, similar to a national park, but can be created from any land owned or controlled by the federal government by proclamation of the President of the United States. National monuments can be managed by one of several federal agencies: the National Park Service, United States Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; some national monuments were managed by the War Department. National monuments can be so designated through the power of the Antiquities Act of 1906. President Theodore Roosevelt used the act to declare Devils Tower in Wyoming as the first U. S. national monument. The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts on federal lands in the American West; the Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for taking or destroying antiquities without permission.
Additionally, it authorized the president to proclaim "historic landmarks and prehistoric structures, other objects of historic or scientific interest" on federal lands as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."The reference in the act to "objects of...scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower in Wyoming, the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature. In 1908, Roosevelt used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres of the Grand Canyon as a national monument. In 1918, President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than 1,000,000 acres. Katmai was enlarged to nearly 2,800,000 acres by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit.
Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, Great Sand Dunes were originally proclaimed as national monuments and designated as national parks by Congress. In response to Roosevelt's declaration of the Grand Canyon monument, a putative mining claimant sued in federal court, claiming that Roosevelt had overstepped the Antiquities Act authority by protecting an entire canyon. In 1920, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the Grand Canyon was indeed "an object of historic or scientific interest" and could be protected by proclamation, setting a precedent for the use of the Antiquities Act to preserve large areas. Federal courts have since rejected every challenge to the president's use of Antiquities Act preservation authority, ruling that the law gives the president exclusive discretion over the determination of the size and nature of the objects protected. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming.
He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming except for areas of 5,000 acres or less; the most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska.
The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was unpopular in Utah, bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. None of which have been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed not by the National Park Service, but by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the National Landscape Conservation System. Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not only to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. For example, Franklin D. Roosevelt enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938. Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. On June 24, 2016, President Barack Obama designated the Stonewall Inn and surrounding areas in Greenwich Village, New York as the Stonewall National Monument, the first national monument commemorating the struggle for LGBT rights in the United States.
List of U. S. National Forests List of areas in the United States National Park System List of U. S. wilderness areas Protected areas of the United States List of proposed national monuments of the United States National monument proclamations under the Antiquities Act Congressional Research Service reports regar
Teton County, Wyoming
Teton County is a county in the U. S. state of Wyoming. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 21,294, its county seat is Jackson. Its west boundary line abuts the east line of the state of Idaho. Teton County is part of WY-ID Micropolitan Statistical Area. Teton County contains the Jackson Hole ski area, all of Grand Teton National Park, 40.4% of Yellowstone National Park's total area, including over 96.6% of its water area. Teton County was created February 1921, from a portion of Lincoln County, its governing organization was completed in 1922. The county was named for the Teton Range; the county was created because the inhabitants lived too far away from Kemmerer, the county seat of Lincoln County. The creation of the county required a special act of the Wyoming Legislature, because the area was too poor and had too few people to qualify for county status under the normal requirements. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 4,216 square miles, of which 3,995 square miles is land and 221 square miles is water.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 18,251 people, 7,688 households, 4,174 families in the county. The population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 10,267 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.59% White, 0.15% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.93% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. 6.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 19.2% were of German, 14.2% English, 11.7% Irish and 6.7% American ancestry. There were 7,688 households out of which 25.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.30% were married couples living together, 5.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.70% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.89. The county population contained 19.90% under the age of 18, 9.80% from 18 to 24, 38.30% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 6.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 114.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $54,614, the median income for a family was $63,916. Males had a median income of $34,570 versus $29,132 for females; the per capita income for the county was $38,260. About 2.80% of families and 6.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.70% of those under age 18 and 4.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 21,294 people, 8,973 households, 4,938 families in the county; the population density was 5.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 12,813 housing units at an average density of 3.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.4% white, 1.1% Asian, 0.5% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 8.1% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 15.0% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 22.2% were German, 14.9% were English, 13.0% were Irish, 11.1% were American. Of the 8,973 households, 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 5.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.0% were non-families, 29.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 36.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $70,271 and the median income for a family was $90,596. Males had a median income of $40,594 versus $36,715 for females; the per capita income for the county was $42,224. About 5.1% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 0.8% of those age 65 or over. Jackson Previously a staunchly Republican county, which produced Governor and U. S. Senator Clifford Hansen, Teton has become the most Democratic county in Wyoming, one of the most Republican states in the nation.
The only Republican presidential candidate since 1992 to win Teton County was George W. Bush in 2000. In the 2008 election, Barack Obama carried Teton County by a 23.6 percentage point margin over John McCain, with McCain winning statewide by a 32.2 percentage point margin over Obama, his widest margin in any state. Albany County, which includes the University of Wyoming at Laramie, was the only other county in the state to have backed Obama. In 2004, Teton was the only Wyoming county won by John F. Kerry over George W. Bush. In the 2016 election, Hillary Clinton beat Donald Trump by 57.9%–31.1%. The county has, voted at times for Republican candidates for the governorship and United States Senate; the state's former Republican governor, Matt Mead, was born and reared in Teton County, as was his mother, Mary Mead, Clifford Hansen's daughter and the 1990 Republican gubernatorial nominee. National Register of Historic Places listings in Teton County, Wyoming
The Mormon Trail is the 1,300-mile route that members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traveled from 1846 to 1868. Today, the Mormon Trail is a part of the United States National Trails System, known as the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail; the Mormon Trail extends from Nauvoo, the principal settlement of the Latter Day Saints from 1839 to 1846, to Salt Lake City, settled by Brigham Young and his followers beginning in 1847. From Council Bluffs, Iowa to Fort Bridger in Wyoming, the trail follows much the same route as the Oregon Trail and the California Trail; the Mormon pioneer run began in 1846, when his followers were driven from Nauvoo. After leaving, they aimed to establish a new home for the church in the Great Basin and crossed Iowa. Along their way, some were assigned to establish settlements and to plant and harvest crops for emigrants. During the winter of 1846–47, the emigrants wintered in Iowa, other nearby states, the unorganized territory that became Nebraska, with the largest group residing in Winter Quarters, Nebraska.
In the spring of 1847, Young led the vanguard company to the Salt Lake Valley, outside the boundaries of the United States and became Utah. During the first few years, the emigrants were former occupants of Nauvoo who were following Young to Utah; the emigrants comprised converts from the British Isles and Europe. The trail was used for more than 20 years, until the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. Among the emigrants were the Mormon handcart pioneers of 1856–60. Two of the handcart companies, led by James G. Willie and Edward Martin, met disaster on the trail when they departed late and were caught by heavy snowstorms in Wyoming. Under the leadership of Joseph Smith, Latter Day Saints established several communities throughout the United States between 1830 and 1844, most notably in Kirtland, Ohio. However, the Saints were driven out of each of them in turn, due to conflicts with other settlers; this included the actions of Governor Lilburn Boggs, who issued Missouri Executive Order 44, which called for the "extermination" of all Mormons in Missouri.
Latter-day Saints were forced to abandon Nauvoo in 1846. Although the movement had split into several denominations after Smith's death in 1844, most members aligned themselves with Brigham Young and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Under Young's leadership, about 14,000 Mormon citizens of Nauvoo set out to find a new home in the West; as the senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles after Joseph Smith's death, Brigham Young assumed responsibility of the leadership of the church. He would be sustained as President of the Church and prophet. Young now had to lead the Saints into the far west, without knowing where to go or where they would end up, he insisted the Mormons should settle in a place no one else wanted and felt the isolated Great Basin would provide the Saints with many advantages. Young reviewed information on the Great Salt Lake Valley and the Great Basin, consulted with mountain men and trappers, met with Father Pierre-Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary familiar with the region.
Young organized a vanguard company to break trail to the Rocky Mountains, evaluate trail conditions, find sources of water, select a central gathering point in the Great Basin. A new route on the north side of the Platte and North Platte rivers was chosen to avoid potential conflicts over grazing rights, water access, campsites with travelers using the established Oregon Trail on the river's south side; the Quincy Convention of October 1845 passed resolutions demanding that the Latter-day Saints withdraw from Nauvoo by May 1846. A few days the Carthage Convention called for establishment of a militia that would force them out if they failed to meet the May deadline. To try to meet this deadline and to get an early start on the trek to the Great Basin, the Latter-day Saints began leaving Nauvoo in February 1846; the departure from Nauvoo began on February 1846, under the leadership of Brigham Young. This early departure exposed them to the elements in the worst of winter. After crossing the Mississippi River, the journey across Iowa Territory followed primitive territorial roads and Native American trails.
Young planned to lead an express company of about 300 men to the Great Basin during the summer of 1846. He believed they could reach the Missouri River in four to six weeks. However, the actual trip across Iowa was slowed by rain, swollen rivers, poor preparation, it required 16 weeks – nearly three times longer than planned. Heavy rains turned the rolling plains of southern Iowa into a quagmire of axle-deep mud. Furthermore, few people carried adequate provisions for the trip; the weather, general unpreparedness, lack of experience in moving such a large group of people all contributed to the difficulties they endured. The initial party reached the Missouri River on June 14, it was apparent that the Latter-day Saints could not make it to the Great Basin that season and would have to winter on the Missouri River. Some of the emigrants established. Others moved across the river into the area of present-day Omaha and built a camp called Winter Quarters. In April 1847, chosen members of the vanguard company gathered, final supplies were packed, the group was organized into 14 military companies.
A militia and night guard were formed. The company consisted of 143 men, including three black people and eight members of th
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is an agency of the US Federal Government within the US Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is "working with others to conserve and enhance fish, wildlife and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people." Aurelia Skipwith is Trump's nominee. Among the responsibilities of the FWS are enforcing federal wildlife laws. Sub-units of the FWS include: National Wildlife Refuge System—560 National Wildlife Refuges and thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas covering over 150 million acres Division of Migratory Bird Management Federal Duck Stamp National Fish Hatchery System—70 National Fish Hatcheries and 65 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Offices Endangered Species program—86 Ecological Services Field Stations International Affairs Program National Conservation Training Center USFWS Office of Law Enforcement Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory Landscape Conservation CooperativesThe vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal state or private land.
Therefore, the FWS works with private groups such as Partners in Flight and Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council to promote voluntary habitat conservation and restoration. The FWS employs 9,000 people and is organized into a central administrative office in Falls Church, eight regional offices, nearly 700 field offices distributed throughout the United States; the FWS originated in 1871 as the United States Commission on Fish and Fisheries, more referred to as the United States Fish Commission, created by the United States Congress with the purpose of studying and recommending solutions to a noted decline in the stocks of food fish. Spencer Fullerton Baird was appointed its first commissioner. In 1903, the Fish Commission was reorganized as the United States Bureau of Fisheries. In 1885–1886, the Division of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy was established within the United States Department of Agriculture. In 1896 it became the Division of Biological Survey, its early work focused on the effect of birds in controlling agricultural pests and mapping the geographical distribution of plants and animals in the United States.
Clinton Hart Merriam headed the Bureau for 25 years and became a national figure for improving the scientific understanding of birds and mammals in the United States. Jay Norwood Darling was appointed Chief of the new Bureau of Biological Survey in 1934. Under Darling's guidance, the Bureau began an ongoing legacy of protecting vital natural habitat throughout the country; the FWS was created in 1940, when the Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey were combined after being moved to the Department of the Interior. In 1959, the methods used by FWS's Animal Damage Control Program were featured in the Tom Lehrer song "Poisoning Pigeons in the Park"; the FWS governs six US National Monuments: Hanford Reach National Monument in Washington state. Pursuant to the eagle feather law, Title 50, Part 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service administers the National Eagle Repository and the permit system for Native American religious use of eagle feathers.
These exceptions only apply to Native Americans that are registered with the federal government and are enrolled with a federally recognized tribe. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the FWS began to incorporate the research of tribal scientists into conservation decisions; this came on the heels of Native American traditional ecological knowledge gaining acceptance in the scientific community as a reasonable and respectable way to gain knowledge of managing the natural world. Additionally, other natural resource agencies within the United States government, such as the USDA, have taken steps to be more inclusive of tribes, native people, tribal rights; this has marked a transition to a relationship of more co-operation rather than the tension between tribes and government agencies seen historically. Today, these agencies work with tribal governments to ensure the best conservation decisions are made and that tribes retain their sovereignty. Federal law enforcement in the United States Atlantic Coastal Cooperative Statistics Program National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory National Oceanic and Atmospheric Admini
A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle that slides across the surface of ice or snow. It is built with either a smooth underside or a separate body supported by two or more smooth narrow, longitudinal runners similar in principle to skis; this reduces the amount of friction. Some designs are used to transport passengers or cargo across level ground. Others are designed to go downhill for recreation by children, or competition. Shades of meaning differentiating the three terms reflect regional variations depending on historical uses and prevailing climate. In British English, sledge is the general term, more common than sled. Toboggan is sometimes used synonymously with sledge but more to refer to a particular type of sledge without runners. Sleigh refers to a moderate to large-sized open-topped vehicle to carry passengers or goods, drawn by horses, dogs, or reindeer. In American usage sled remains the general term but implies a smaller device for recreational use. Sledge implies a heavier sled used for moving freight or massive objects.
Sleigh refers more than in Britain to a vehicle, a cold-season alternative to a carriage or wagon and has seating for passengers. In Australia, where there is limited snow and sledge are given equal preference in local parlance; the word sled comes from Middle English sledde, which itself has the origins in Middle Dutch word slēde, meaning "sliding" or "slider". The same word shares common ancestry with both sledge; the word sleigh, on the other hand, is an anglicized form of the modern Dutch word "slee" and was introduced to the English language by Dutch immigrants to North America. Sleds are useful in winter but can be drawn over wet fields, muddy roads, hard ground if one helps them along by greasing the blades with oil or alternatively wetting them with water. For an explanation of why sleds and other objects glide with various degrees of friction ranging from little to little friction on ice, icy snow, wet snow, dry snow, see the relevant sections in the articles on ice and ice skating.
The traditional explanation of the pressure of sleds on the snow or ice producing a thin film of water and this enabling sleds to move on ice with little friction is incorrect. Various types of sleds are pulled by animals such as reindeer, mules, oxen, or dogs; the people of Ancient Egypt are thought to have used sledges extensively in the construction of their public works, in particular for the transportation of heavy obelisks over sand. Sleds and sledges were found in the Oseberg "Viking" ship excavation; the sledge was highly prized, because – unlike wheeled vehicles – it was exempt from tolls. Until the late 19th century, a closed winter sled, or vozok, provided a high-speed means of transport through the snow-covered plains of European Russia and Siberia, it was a means of transport preferred by royals and boyars of Muscovy. Several royal vozoks of historical importance have been preserved in the Kremlin Armoury. Man-hauled sledges were the traditional means of transport on British exploring expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic regions in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Dog sleds were used by most others, such as Roald Amundsen. Some of these used draft animals but are now more to be pulled by an engine; some use human power. The word "motor sled" is colloquial term for a snowmobile The Inuit qamutiik is uniquely adapted for travel on the sea ice; the pulk is a traditional sled of the Lapland region, used for expeditions, mountain rescue, cold weather military units to haul equipment and passengers. Rescue toboggan, developed from the pulk Stone boat, a farm vehicle used for moving heavy objects such as stones or haybales. Today some people use kites to tow exploration sleds. There are several types of recreational sleds designed for sliding down snowy hills: Toboggan, an elongated sled without runners made from wood or plastic, but sometimes made from sheet metal. Saucer, a round sled curved like a saucer without runners and made out of plastic or metal Flexible Flyer, a steerable wooden sled with thin metal runners Kicksled or spark, a human-powered sled Inflatable sled or tube, a plastic membrane filled with air to make a lightweight sled, like an inner tube Foam slider, a flat piece of durable foam with handles and a smooth underside Backcountry sled, a deep, steerable plastic sled to kneel on with pads and a seat belt Airboard, a snow bodyboard, i.e. an inflatable single-person sled A few types of sleds are used only for a specific sport: Bobsled, an aerodynamic composite-bodied vehicle on lightweight runners Luge and the skeleton, tiny one or two-person sleds with runners A cutter is a North American type of small horse-drawn sled.
Troika, a vehicle drawn by three horses a sled, but it may be a wheeled carriage In truck and tractor pulling, an implement pulled behind the machine which uses friction to stop the machine Snowboard Travois, a frame used to drag loads over land, i.e. another horse-drawn transport method without wheels
Fort Laramie National Historic Site
Fort Laramie was a significant 19th-century trading post and diplomatic site located at the confluence of the Laramie and the North Platte rivers. They joined in the upper Platte River Valley in the eastern part of the U. S. state of Wyoming. The fort was founded as a private trading post in the 1830s to service the overland fur trade, it was located east of the long climb leading to the best and lowest crossing point of the Rocky Mountains at South Pass and became a popular stopping point for migrants on the Oregon Trail. Along with Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River, the trading post and its supporting industries and businesses were the most significant economic hub of commerce in the region. Fort William was founded by William Sublette and his partner Robert Campbell in 1834. In the spring of 1835, Sublette sold the fort to a local fur trader. After the Rendezvous of 1836, it was sold to the American Fur Company, which still had a virtual monopoly on the western fur trade. Starting as early as the fall of 1840, the American Fur Company began competing with the newly established Fort Platte, built by L.
P. Lupton; the American Fur Company hired workers from Santa Fe to construct an adobe fort to replace Fort William. This fort was named Fort John, after a partner in the company. In 1849, United States Army purchased the fort as a post to protect the many wagon trains of migrant travelers on the Oregon Trail, the subsidiary northern emigrant trails which split off further west; these included the Mormon trails. The middle reaches of the Mormon trail stayed on the north banks of the Platte and North Platte rivers, merged with the other emigrant trails heading west over the continental divide from Fort John-Laramie; the name Fort Laramie came into gradual use as a convenient shortening of "Fort John at the Laramie River". The remaining structures are preserved as the Fort Laramie National Historic Site by the National Park Service. In 1815 or 1816, Jacques La Ramee and a small group of fellow trappers settled in the area where Fort Laramie would be located, he was never seen again. Arapahoe Indians were accused of burying his body in a beaver dam.
The river was named "Laramie" in his honor, settlers used this name for the Laramie Mountains, the fort, the towns of Laramie and Fort Laramie, Wyoming. The original fort was constructed in the 1830s in 1833–1834 by William Sublette; the overland fur trade was still prosperous. The fort was located near the confluence of two rivers, so it commanded a broad plain with water on two sides. In addition, the nearby confluence of the North Platte's waters had a ford used by travelers on what became the northern overland emigrant trails following the North Platte River west from Nebraska. With the opening of the Mormon Trail on the north bank of the Platte and North Platte, the fort was a junction for westbound travelers, it was an anchor a quarter of the way to either California or Oregon on the famous Oregon Trail. To the west, the common trail leaving Fort John-Laramie spins off to the Mormon and California trails further west along the road to the Rogue River Valley; the main trail passed northwest to Oregon's Willamette Oregon City.
One of the early principal owner-trappers was William Sublette, the fort was called Fort William before being sold to the American Fur Company in 1841. The name was changed to Fort John after John B. Sarpy, a partner in the company; the 1846 treaties established stable western territories after viable routes west had become well published. By the time the westward migration along the Oregon Trail had markedly increased, the U. S. Army had become tenants in the fort as well; the fort was located along the Laramie River just south of its mouth onto the North Platte River. On the opposite bank, the town of Fort Laramie, developed. Geographically the site is situated just east of the steeper foothills terrain to the west that ascends to the east side of the Rocky Mountains proper; this ascent was among the few roadways accessible by the wagons pioneers used to the west. It passed through the Continental divide and reached the west slopes of the Rockies along a network of river valleys connecting to the far west via South Pass near the head waters of the North Platte.
The strategic site on the eastern plains had large grazing areas, where migrants could rest their draft animals before tackling the mountains. People could set up camps, do laundry, heal before beginning anew the rigors of the westward trail. In 1845 the nearby Fort Bernard was established about 8 miles east, farther down the North Platte River, in hopes of getting some of the growing Emigrant Trail trade with western bound wagon trains; this much smaller fort undersold the Laramie operation. It offered a connection south via a crude mule-train road to the Santa Fe Trail via Colorado. Fort Bernard burnt down in 1866, was never rebuilt. Only a few years the transcontinental railway joined the two American sea coasts and train travel replaced the overland travel along the Emigrant Trails; the fort was purchased from Bruce Husband, a member of the American Fur Company, for $4,000 in June 1849 by U. S. Army Lt. Daniel P. Woodbury on behalf of the United States Government. Three companies of cavalry arrived at the fort that same month, Company'G', 6th Infantry, the post's permanent garrison for many years, arrived on August 12, 1849.
By 1849 gol