Tenualosa ilisha is a species of fish related to the herring, in the Clupeidae family. It is a popular and sought-after food fish in the Indian Subcontinent, it is Bangladesh's national fish. The fish contributes about 1.15 % of GDP in Bangladesh. On 6 August 2017, Department of Patents and Trademarks under the Ministry of Industries of Bangladesh has declared the recognition of ilish as the product of Bangladesh. Sixty-five percent of total produced ilish in the world is produced in Bangladesh which applied for Geographical Indication in 2004. About 450,000 people are directly involved in the catching of the fish as a large part of their livelihood. Other names include: ilish, palla fish, ilih etc.. The name ilish is used in India's Assamese, Bengali-and Odia community. In Iraq it is Called Sboor. In Malaysia and Indonesia, it is known as terubuk. Due to its unique features of being oily and tender, some Malays call it'terubuk unno'; the fish is marine. - 200 m. Within a tropical range, it can grow up to 60 cm in length with weights of up to 3 kg.
It is found in rivers and estuaries in Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Persian Gulf area where it can be found in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in and around Iran and southern Iraq. It has no dorsal spines but 18 -- anal soft rays; the belly has 30 to 33 scutes. There is a distinct median notch in upper jaw. Gill rakers fine and numerous, about 100 to 250 on lower part of arch and the fins are hyaline; the fish shows a dark blotch behind gill opening, followed by a series of small spots along the flank in juveniles. Color in life, silver shot with purple; the species filter feeds by grubbing muddy bottoms. The fish schools in coastal waters and ascends up the rivers for around 50 – 100 km to spawn during the South West monsoons and in January to April. April is the most fertile month for breeding of ilish; the young fish returning to the sea are known in Bangladesh as jatka, which includes any ilish fish up to 9 inches long. The fish is popular food amongst the people of South Asia and in the Middle East, but with Bengalis and Odias.
Bengali fish curry is a popular dish made with mustard seed. The Bengalis popularly call this dish shorshe ilish, it is popular in India in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam and Andhra Pradesh. It is exported globally. In North America other shad fish are sometimes used as an ilish substitute in Bengali cuisine; this occurs near the East coast of North America, where fresh shad fish having similar taste can be found. In Bangladesh, fish are caught in the Meghna-Jamuna delta, which flows into the Bay of Bengal and Meghna, Jamuna rivers. In India, the Ganges Delta, Hooghly, Mahanadi,Narmada and Godavari rivers and the Chilika Lake are famous for his fish yields. In Pakistan, most hilsa fish are caught in the Indus River Delta in Sindh, they are caught in the sea, but some consider the marine stage of the fish as not so tasty. The fish has sharp and tough bones, making it problematic to eat for some. Ilish is an oily fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids. Recent experiments have shown its beneficial effects in decreasing cholesterol level in rats and insulin level.
In Bengal and Odisha, ilish can be smoked, steamed or baked in young plantain leaves, prepared with mustard seed paste, eggplant, different condiments like jira and so on. It is said. Ilish roe is popular as a side dish. Ilish can be cooked in little oil since the fish itself is oily. In Andhra Pradesh, the saying goes "Pustelu ammi ayina Pulasa tinocchu", meaning It's worth eating Pulasa/Ilish by selling the nuptials. Ilish is the National Fish of Bangladesh. In many Bengali Hindu families a pair of ilish fishes are bought on auspicious days, for example for special prayers or puja days like for the Hindu Goddess of music and knowledge Saraswati Puja, which takes place in the beginning of Spring or on the day of Lakshmi Puja which takes place in autumn; some people offer the fish to the goddess Lakshmi, without which the Puja is sometimes thought to be incomplete. In Bengal Ilish is used during wedding as tattwa gift. During Gaye Holud tattwa the family of the groom presents a pair of Ilish to the family of the bride.
However, due to the scarcity of Ilish, nowadays it is replaced by Rohu in West Bengal, while the tradition continues in Bangladesh. In West Bengal, a famous dish which tastes good with fried ilish fish is'khichudi', it is popular among all Bengalis during monsoon, known as the month of ilish. In West Bengal and Bangladesh, ilish is termed as the'queen' of fishes; this fish is called as PULASA in Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh State in India. The name Pulasa stays with the fish for a limited period between July-Sept of a year, when floodswater flow in Godavari River; this time the fish is in sometimes $100 per kilo. Hilsha fish
National Martyrs’ Memorial
National Martyrs’ Memorial is the national monument of Bangladesh, set up in the memory of those who died in the Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971, which brought independence and separated Bangladesh from Pakistan. The monument is located in about 35 km north-west of the capital, Dhaka, it was built by Concord Group. Plans for the monument were initiated in 1976. Following the site selection and land development, a nationwide design competition was held in June,1978. Following evaluation of the 57 submissions, Syed Mainul Hossain's design was chosen; the main structure and the artificial lake and other facilities were completed in 1982. It was Inaugurated at 16 December 1982; the architecture is composed of seven pairs of triangular-shaped prisms. Each of these seven pairs of walls represents a significant chapter in the history of Bangladesh, namely the Language Movement in 1952, the Election of United Front in 1954, the Constitution Movement in 1956, the Education Movement in 1962, 6-point Movement in 1966, the Mass Uprising in 1969, the climactic event of Liberation War in 1971, through which Bangladesh was liberated.
In 1978 they started construction on the structure. In 1982 the structure was completed. Architecture of Bangladesh Fazlur Rahman Khan Media related to Jatiyo Sriti Soudho at Wikimedia Commons
A kurta is a long loose-fitting collarless shirt of a style originating in Indian subcontinent and worn in many regions of South Asia, but now modernized, worn around the world. It is a tunic, or upper body garment, plain or with embroidered decoration, such as chikan, which can be loose or tight in the torso falling either just above or somewhere below the knees of the wearer. Kurtas are worn both as casual everyday wear in cotton) and as formal attire; the word kurta is a borrowing into English from Hindustani language, there in turn from Persian. It was first used in English in the early 20th century. According to S. M. Katre, Kurta word has been attested in Buddhist Kucha scholar Li Yen's Sanskrit chinese lexicon as a word of Sanskrit origin from the 8th century AD but she is of the opinion that the word is infact of central asian origin adopted into Sanskrit language. Sculptures and paintings from Deogarh, Bagh and Sarnath depict full sleeved jama-kurta like garment. Indians wearing long fitted shirt like Kurta and baggy pants like shalwar have been depicted in 8-10th century AD ivory sculpture of an elephant chess piece from Bibliothèque nationale de France.
A traditional kurta is composed of rectangular fabric pieces with a few gusset inserts, is cut so as to leave no waste fabric. The cut is simple, although decorative treatments can be elaborate; the sleeves of a traditional kurta fall straight to the wrist. Sleeves are not cuffed, just hemmed and decorated; the front and back pieces of a simple kurta are rectangular. The chak, or side seams, are left open for 6-12 inches above the hem, which gives the wearer some ease of movement; the kurta opens in the front. The front opening is a hemmed slit in the fabric, tied or buttoned at the top; the opening may be positioned off center. A traditional kurta does not have a collar. Modern variants may feature stand-up collars of the type known to tailors and seamstresses as "mandarin" collars; these are the same sort of collars seen on achkans and Nehru jackets. Kurtas worn in the summer months are made of thin silk or cotton fabrics. A common fabric for the kurta pajama is linen, or a linen-cotton mix ideal for both summers and winters.
Kurtas are fastened with tasselled ties, cloth balls, loops, or buttons. Buttons are wood or plastic. Kurtas worn on formal occasions might feature decorative metal buttons, which are not sewn to the fabric, like cufflinks, are fastened into the cloth when needed; such buttons can be decorated with jewels and other traditional jewelers' techniques. Tailors from the Indian subcontinent command a vast repertoire of methods and modern, for decorating fabric, it is that all of them have been used, at one time or another, to decorate kurtas. However, the most common decoration is embroidery. Many light summer kurtas feature Chikan embroidery, a specialty of Lucknow, around the hems and front opening; this embroidery is executed on light, semi-transparent fabric in a matching thread. The effect is subtle. Regional styles include the Bhopali, Hyderabadi and straight-cut kurtas; the Bhopali kurta is a loose kurta with pleats at the waist, flowing like a skirt reaching midway between the knees and the ankles.
It is worn with a straight pajama. The Hyderabadi kurta is named after the former royal state of Hyderabad and is a short top which sits around the waist, with a keyhole neck opening, it was popular with the local royal households. Traditionally, the Hyderabadi kurta was of white material. Over the kurta, some versions have net material, the combination of, called jaali karga, worn by men and women; the traditional Lucknowi kurta can either be long, using as much as 12 yards of cloth. The traditional Lucknowi kurta styles have an overlapping panel. However, the term "Lucknowi kurta" now applies to the straight-cut kurta embroidered using local Chikan embroidery. Another style is the kali or kalidar kurta, similar to a frock and has many panels; the kalidar kurta is made up of several geometrical pieces. It has two rectangular central panels in the front; the kali kurta is worn by women. The straight-cut traditional kurta is known as "Panjabi" in West Bengal and Assam. Local embroidery designs give a regional outlook to the traditional kurta.
In Assam, the Panjabi is worn with a scarf using local prints. Other designs include Bengali Kantha embroidery. Sindhi kurtas the local art of bandhani; the traditional Punjabi kurta of th
Nymphaea nouchali known by its synonym Nymphaea stellata, or by common names blue lotus, star lotus and blue water lily, blue star water lily or manel flower is a water lily of genus Nymphaea. It is native to southern and eastern parts of Asia, is the national flower of Sri Lanka and Bangladesh; this species is sometimes considered to include the blue Egyptian lotus Nymphaea caerulea. In the past, taxonomic confusion has occurred, with the name Nymphaea nouchali incorrectly applied to Nymphaea pubescens; this aquatic plant is native in a broad region from Afghanistan, the Indian subcontinent, to Taiwan, southeast Asia, Australia. It has been long valued as a garden flower in Myanmar to decorate ponds and gardens. In its natural state, N. nouchali is found in static or slow-flowing aquatic habitats of low to moderate depth. N. nouchali stems. Part of the leaves are submerged, while others rise above the surface; the leaves are green on top. The floating leaves have undulating edges, their size is about 20–23 cm and their spread is 0.9 to 1.8 m.
This water lily has a beautiful flower, violet blue in color with reddish edges. Some varieties have white, mauve, or fuchsia-colored flowers, hence its name red and blue water lily; the flower has four or five sepals and 13-15 petals that have an angular appearance, making the flower look star-shaped from above. The cup-like calyx has a diameter of 11–14 cm, it was the National flower of the former defunct Hyderabad State. N. nouchali is the national flower of Bangladesh. A pale blue-flowered N. nouchali is the national flower of Sri Lanka, where it is known as nil mānel or nil mahanel. In Sri Lanka, this plant grows in buffalo ponds and natural wetlands, its beautiful aquatic flower has been mentioned in Sanskrit and Sinhala literary works since ancient times under the names kuvalaya, indhīwara, niluppala and nilupul as a symbol of virtue and purity. Buddhist lore in Sri Lanka claims that this flower was one of the 108 auspicious signs found on Prince Siddhartha's footprint, it is said. Claire Waight Keller included the plant to represent Sri Lanka in Meghan Markle's wedding veil, which included the distinctive flora of each Commonwealth country.
N. Nouchali might have been one of the plants eaten by the Lotophagi of Homer's Odyssey. N. nouchali is used as an ornamental plant because of its spectacular flowers, is most used for the traditional and cultural festivals in Sri Lanka. It is popular as an aquarium plant under the name "dwarf lily" or "dwarf red lily". Sometimes, it is grown for its flowers, while other aquarists prefer to trim the lily pads, just have the underwater foliage. N. nouchali is considered a medicinal plant in Indian Ayurvedic medicine under the name ambal. Like all water lilies or lotuses, its tubers and rhizomes can be used as food items. In the case of N. nouchali, its tender leaves and flower peduncles are valued as food. The dried plant is collected from ponds and marshes during the dry season and used in India as animal forage. Nymphaea caerulea, the Egyptian blue lotus or sacred blue lily Nymphaea lotus, the white lotus or Egyptian white water lily Nelumbo nucifera,the Indian lotus, sacred lotus List of freshwater aquarium plant species Neel kamal in Indian culture on Biodiversity of India portal.
"Nymphaea stellata". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Taxon: Nymphaea stellata Willd. - Synonym of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.] Perry D. Slocum: Waterlilies and Lotuses. Timber Press 2005, ISBN 0-88192-684-1 Ambal - Flowers of India - Kerala Ayurvedics
M. A. G. Osmani
Muhammad Ataul Gani Osmani known as Bangabir, was the commander-in-chief of the Bangladesh Forces during the 1971 Bangladesh War of Independence. Osmani's career spanned five decades, beginning with service in the British Indian Army in 1939, he fought in Burma during World War II, served in the Pakistan Army until 1967. Osmani was appointed head of the Bengali armed resistance in 1971 by the Provisional Government of Bangladesh, he is regarded as the founder of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. General Osmani retired in 1972. Osmani entered politics in independent Bangladesh, serving as a member of parliament and cabinet minister in the government of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, he resigned from the government after he opposed the creation of BAKSAL. Osmani is credited with introducing Kazi Nazrul Islam's "Chol Chol Chol" as Bangladesh's national march. Osmani was born to a landowning family in Sunamganj, Assam Province, British India, on 1 September 1918, he was a descendant of a 14th-century associate of Shah Jalal.
His ancestral village is in Dayamir Union within Osmani Nagar Upazila of Sylhet District. Osmani attended the Cotton School in Sylhet, matriculating at the Sylhet Government Pilot High School in 1934, he won the Pritoria Prize for excellence in English. Osmani studied geography at Aligarh Muslim University, graduated in 1938, he enrolled as a cadet at the Indian Military Academy the following year. When he joined the British Indian Army, Osmani was a member of the 4th Urban Infantry from 1939 to 1940, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant artillery officer in October 1940. Osmani was attached to the 2nd Battalion, Duke of Wellington Regiment, tasked with a New Delhi depot. After he completed the Short Mechanical Transport Course and Junior Tactical Course, he was attached to a mechanical transport battalion of the XV Corps and posted in Burma during World War II. Osmani was promoted to temporary captain on 17 February 1941, received a battlefield promotion to temporary major on 23 May 1942.
Between 1941 and 1945, he held the posts of platoon commander, battalion adjutant, company 2IC and battalion commander. From November 1944 to February 1945, Osmani was a grade-two general staff officer at his formation headquarters, completing the Senior Officers Course after the war, he was attached to British Indian Army HQ Bihar and Orissa Area from May to July 1946 before attending the Senior Officers Course. When Osmani completed the course in February 1947, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, he was posted to British Indian Army GHQ in Simla in the Quartermaster General and Ordnance Branches until August 1947, from August to 6 October 1947 as GSO-2 at the HQ of Claude Auchinleck in New Delhi. Although Osmani had passed the Indian Civil Service examination, he declined a foreign-service position in 1947 to remain with the Pakistan Army, he witnessed the end of the British Indian Army, representing Pakistan during the division of army assets between India and Pakistan. After the 1947 birth of India and Pakistan in 1947 following the departure of Lord Mountbatten, Governor-General of British India, Osmani joined the Pakistan Army on 7 October 1947 and was promoted to acting lieutenant colonel on 7 January 1948.
He was assigned to general-staff headquarters as GSO-1, Coordination and Personnel. Osmani attended the Long Term Staff Course at the Quetta Staff College and served with Yahya Khan, Tikka Khan and A. A. K. Niazi, all of whom led the Pakistan Army against his Bangladesh forces in 1971. After completing the course, Osmani joined the staff of army chief of staff Reginald Hutton in January 1949 and recommended the establishment of cadet colleges in East Pakistan, he became an assistant adjutant general. After serving as a staff officer for eight years, Osmani joined the Pakistan Army infantry. With a rank of major and after induction training, he joined the 5/14 Punjab, he was posted as 2IC and company commander of the 5th Punjab Battalion of the 14th Punjab Regiment, part of a brigade commanded by Ayub Khan, in 1950. Osmani became commander of the 105th Brigade Training Team in January 1951 and commander of the 5/14 Punjab in May, followed by a four-month tour of duty in Kashmir and Waziristan.
Osmani disagreed with Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army Gen. Ayub Khan over the treatment of Ishfakul Majid, the senior Bengali army officer in, falsely accused in the Rawalpindi conspiracy and forced to resign. In August 1951 Osmany left 5/14 Punjab and was posted as third CO of the 1st East Bengal Regiment, the first Bengali to hold the post, in October. Osmani became the CO of the 1st East Bengal Regiment, stationed in Jessore as part of the 107th Brigade, on 8 November 1951, he chose Bengali songs for regimental marching and its band, the Bratachari became the regimental dance. Osmani ordered his NCOs to submit the daily situation report in Bangla; the display of Bengali culture was frowned on by his Punjabi superiors, who disliked the adoption of what they saw as Hindu culture. Osmani was commandant of the East Bengal Regimental Center in Chittagong from February 1953 to January 1955, he commanded the 107th Brigade in Jessore from April to October 1953, rejoining 1 EBR as CO until February 1954.
After Osmani completed the GHQ law course and left the EBRC, he became an additional commandant of the East Pakistan Rifles under the provincial governmen
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. He is the founding father of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, he served as the first President of Bangladesh and as the Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 17 April 1971 until his assassination on 15 August 1975. He is considered to be the driving force behind the independence of Bangladesh, he is popularly dubbed with the title of Bangabandhu by the people of Bangladesh. He became a leading figure in and the leader of the Awami League, founded in 1949 as an East Pakistan-based political party in Pakistan. Mujib is credited as an important figure in efforts to gain political autonomy for East Pakistan and as the central figure behind the Bangladesh Liberation Movement and the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. Thus, he is regarded Jatir Jatir Pita of Bangladesh, his daughter Sheikh Hasina is the current leader of the Awami League and the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. An advocate of democracy and socialism, Mujib rose to the ranks of the Awami League and East Pakistani politics as a charismatic and forceful orator.
He became popular for his opposition to the ethnic and institutional discrimination of Bengalis in Pakistan, who comprised the majority of the state's population. At the heightening of sectional tensions, he outlined a 6-point autonomy plan and was jailed by the regime of Field Marshal Ayub Khan for treason. Mujib led the Awami League to win the first democratic election of Pakistan in 1970. Despite gaining a majority, the League was not invited by the ruling military junta to form a government; as civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, Mujib indirectly announced independence of Bangladesh during a landmark speech on 7 March 1971. On 26 March 1971, the Pakistan Army responded to the mass protests with Operation Searchlight, in which Prime Minister-elect Mujib was arrested and flown to solitary confinement in West Pakistan, while Bengali civilians, intellectuals and military defectors were murdered as part of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. During Mujib's absence, many Bengalis joined the Mukti Bahini and defeated the Pakistan Armed Forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War.
After Bangladesh's independence, Mujib was released from Pakistani custody due to international pressure and returned to Dhaka in January 1972 after a short visit to Britain and India. Sheikh Mujib became the Prime Minister of Bangladesh under a parliamentary system adopted by the new country, his government enacted a constitution proclaiming secular democracy. The Awami League won a huge mandate in the country's first general election in 1973. However, Mujib faced challenges of rampant unemployment and corruption, as well as the Bangladesh famine of 1974; the government was criticized for denying constitutional recognition to indigenous minorities and human rights violations by its security forces, notably the National Defence Force para militia. Amid rising political agitation, Mujib initiated one party socialist rule in January 1975. Six months he and most of his family were assassinated by renegade army officers during a coup. A martial law government was subsequently established. In a 2004 BBC poll, Mujib was voted the Greatest Bengali of all time.
Mujib was born in Tungipara, a village in Gopalganj District in the province of Bengal in British India, to Sheikh Lutfur Rahman, a serestadar of Gopalganj civil court. He was born into a Muslim, native Bengali family as the third child in a family of four daughters and two sons. In 1929, Mujib entered into class three at Gopalganj Public School, two years class four at Madaripur Islamia High School. From early age Mujib showed a potential of leadership, his parents noted in an interview that at an young age, he organized a student protest in his school for the removal of an inept principal. Mujib withdrew from school in 1934 to undergo eye surgery, returned to school only after four years, owing to the severity of the surgery and slow recovery, he passed his Matriculation from Gopalganj Missionary School in 1942, Intermediate of Arts from Islamia College in 1944 and BA from the same college in 1947. After the partition of India, he got himself admitted into the University of Dhaka to study law but could not complete it due to his expulsion from the University in early 1949 on the charge of'inciting the fourth-class employees' in their agitation against the University authority's indifference towards their legitimate demands.
After 61 years, in 2010, the expulsion has been withdrawn terming the expulsion as unjust and undemocratic. Mujib became politically active when he joined the All India Muslim Students Federation in 1940, when he was a student of Islamia College, he joined the Bengal Muslim League in 1943. During this period, Mujib worked for the League's cause of a separate Muslim state of Pakistan, in 1946 he went on to become general secretary of the Islamia College Students Union. M. Bhaskaran Nair describes that Mujib "emerged as the most powerful man in the party" because of his proximity to Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. After obtaining his BA degree in 1947, Mujib was one of the Muslim politicians working under Suhrawardy during the communal violence that broke out in Calcutta, in 1946, just before the partition of India. After the Partition of India, Mujib chose to stay in the newly created Pakistan. On his return to what became known as East Pakistan, he enrolled in the University of Dhaka to study law and founded the East Pakistan Muslim Students' League.
He became one of the most prominent student politica
National symbols of Bangladesh
The national symbols of the Bangladesh consist of symbols to represent Bangladeshi traditions and ideals that reflect the different aspects of the cultural life and history. Bangladesh has several official national symbols including a historic document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, memorial towers as well as several national heroes. There are several other symbols including the national animal, bird and tree. Amar Sonar Bangla is song written and composed by the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, the first ten lines of which were adopted in 1972 as the national anthem of Bangladesh; the song was written in 1905 during the period of বঙ্গভঙ্গ Bônggôbhônggô - when the ruling British empire had the province of Bengal split into two parts. This song, along with a host of others, was written by Tagore, a pioneer of the cultural and political movement against this partition; these songs were meant to rekindle the unified spirit of Bengal, to raise public consciousness against the communal political divide.
The lyrics first appeared in the September issues of "Bongodorshon" and "Baul" in 1905. It is said that the music of this song was inspired by the Baul singer Gagan Harkara's song কোথায় পাবো তারে "Kothay Pabo Tare"; the instrumental orchestra rendition was composed by Samar Das. The English translation was done by Syed Ali Ahsan. Notuner Gaan is the national march of Bangladesh; this song is written by Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh, in 1929. This song is belongs to his famous book titled as The Evening. Nazrul is the musician of the song too. On 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence. At any military ceremony or function, first 21 lines of the song is being played, it is known as the national military song of Bangladesh. Ekusher Gaan, more popularly known as Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano is a Bengali song written by Abdul Gaffar Choudhury to mark the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 East Pakistan.
It was first published anonymously in the last page of a newspaper with the headline Ekusher Gaan, but was published in Ekushey's February edition. The song is recognized as the most influential song of the language movement, reminding numerous Bangladeshis about the conflicts of 1952; every 21 February sees people from all parts of the Bangladesh heading to the Shaheed Minar in the probhat feri, a barefoot march to the monument, paying homage to those killed in the language movement demonstrations by singing this song. It is regarded by the listeners of BBC Bengali Service as the third best song in Bengali