The National Endowment for the Arts is an independent agency of the United States federal government that offers support and funding for projects exhibiting artistic excellence. It was created by an act of the U. S. Congress in 1965 as an independent agency of the federal government; the NEA has its offices in Washington, D. C, it was awarded Tony Honors for Excellence in Theatre in 1995, as well as the Special Tony Award in 2016. President Lyndon Johnson promoted the arts in terms of the Great Society--he sought social betterment, not artistic creativity, he emphasized qualitative and quantitative goals the power of the arts to improve the quality of life of ordinary Americans and to reduce the inequalities between the haves and the have-nots. Karen Patricia Heath observes that, "Johnson was not much interested in the acquisition of knowledge, cultural or otherwise, for its own sake, nor did he have time for art appreciation or meeting with artists." The NEA is "dedicated to supporting excellence in the arts, both established.
Nancy Hanks served as the second Chairman of the NEA She was appointed by President Richard M. Nixon, continuing her service under President Gerald R. Ford, her political skills enabled her to increase NEA’s funding from US$8 million to US$114 million over her eight-year tenure. Nancy Hanks was the most effective and most successful of all of the Arts Endowment chairmen because she understood politics as well as how to be a diplomat. Hanks was astute at flattering members of Congress and fearlessly took control of the National Council of the Arts: Hanks' relationship to the National Council on the Arts was different from Roger Stevens', the former chair. Stevens and his first Council members were peers, equals—and their actions and decisions were a true collaboration. Hanks was not from the arts community, she controlled the Council. The Council, in Hanks's years, did little more than ratify the chair, strong in her management of them. Michael Straight describes. According to Elaine A. King: Nancy Hanks was able to accomplish her mission because she functioned as a type of benevolent art dictator rather than mucking with multiple agendas and political red-tape.
From 1969 through 1977, under Hanks' administration, the Arts Endowment functioned like a fine piece of oiled machinery. Hanks continuously obtained the requested essential appropriations from Congress because of her genius in implementing the power of the lobby system. Although she had not had direct administrative experience in the federal government, some people were skeptical at the beginning of her term; those in doubt underestimated her bureaucratic astuteness and her ability to direct this complex cultural office. Richard Nixon's early endorsement of the arts benefited the Arts Endowment in several ways; the budget for the Arts Endowment not only increased but more federal funding became available and numerous programs within the agency." Between 1965 and 2008, the agency has made in excess of 128,000 grants, totaling more than $5 billion. From the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s, Congress granted the NEA an annual funding of between $160 and $180 million. In 1996, Congress cut the NEA funding to $99.5 million as a result of pressure from conservative groups, including the American Family Association, who criticized the agency for using tax dollars to fund controversial artists such as Barbara DeGenevieve, Andres Serrano, Robert Mapplethorpe, the performance artists known as the "NEA Four".
Since 1996, the NEA has rebounded with a 2015 budget of $146.21 million. For FY 2010, the budget reached the level it was at during the mid-1990s at $167.5 million but fell again in FY 2011 with a budget of $154 million. The NEA is governed by a Chairman appointed by the President to a four-year term and confirmed by Congress; the NEA's advisory committee, the National Council on the Arts, advises the Chairman on policies and programs, as well as reviewing grant applications, fundraising guidelines, leadership initiative. This body consists of 14 individuals appointed by the President for their expertise and knowledge in the arts, in addition to six ex officio members of Congress who serve in a non-voting capacity. On August 1, 2019, Mary Anne Carter was confirmed by the Senate as the 12th chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, she had been nominated by President Donald Trump in November 2018. The NEA offers grants in the categories of: 1) Grants for Arts Projects, 2) National Initiatives, 3) Partnership Agreements.
Grants for Arts Projects support exemplary projects in the discipline categories of artist communities, arts education, design and traditional arts, local arts agencies, media arts, music, musical theater, presenting and visual arts. The NEA grants individual fellowships in literature to creative writers and translators of exceptional talent in the areas of prose and poetry; the NEA has partnerships in the areas of state and regional, international activities, design. The state arts agencies and regional arts organizations are the NEA's primary partners in serving the American people through the arts. Forty percent of all NEA funding goes to regional arts organizations. Additionally, the NEA awards three Lifetime Honors: NEA National Heritage Fellowships to master folk and traditional artists, NEA Jazz Masters Fellowships to jazz musicians and advocates, NEA Opera Honors to individuals who have made
Alfred Meyer Henningsen was a Norwegian military officer and politician for the Labour Party. He was introduced to spying and military service in World War II, made this his career path after the war as well, he was a three-term member of the Parliament of Norway. He was born in Sør-Varanger as a son of fisherman Martin Henningsen and his wife Hilda Marie Rydning, he had a politicized childhood, Ellisif Wessel was a family friend. He joined the Workers' Youth League, he finished middle school in 1937, enrolled at the Norwegian 6th Division Under-Officers' Training School in 1938. From 1943 he attended a teacher's college in Tromsø. At that time Norway was occupied by Germany as a part of World War II. Together with Torstein Raaby, Henningsen was recruited as a Soviet spy with connections to Murmansk, it only took a few months before the Gestapo tracked them down, they both had to flee the country. Via Sweden, Henningsen went to England where he received telegraphy training as well as commando-style training in melee combat.
In total he had four stays in Norway. One time he survived a submarine wrecking. On the last journey he participated in the liberation of Northern Norway, where Norwegian troops cooperated with the Red Army; the Germans used the scorched earth tactic. One day, Henningsen travelled down the Porsangerfjord in a small boat, which German troops managed to board. After discarding the radio transmitter, Henningsen plunged into the water, was shot, managed to swim ashore but was captured here and taken prisoner-of-war, he spent. In 1945 he was decorated with the Defence Medal 1940–1945, the St. Olav's Medal With Oak Branch and British decorations. Two Russian decorations followed in 1968 and 1994. After the war his career took a military path, he served as aide-de-camp in Finnmark from 1947 to 1948 and captain in Troms from 1948 to 1954, except for 1950 to 1951 when he served in the Independent Norwegian Brigade Group in Germany. He headed Infantry Regiment 16 from 1954 to 1956, was promoted to lieutenant colonel and head of the local Home Guard.
He retired from that position in 1974. Henningsen became acquainted with Thor Heyerdahl during the liberation of Northern Norway, in 1947 he was asked to join the Heyerdahl-led Kon-Tiki expedition, he declined due to his forthcoming marriage. Torstein Raaby was chosen instead. Henningsen was mayor of Bardu municipality during the terms 1955–1959, 1959–1962 and 1975–1979. From 1955 to 1962 he was a member of Troms county council, he was elected to the Parliament of Norway from Troms in 1961, was re-elected on two occasions. His main political interest lay in improving the communication systems in Troms county, he received some attention in his 1961 electoral campaign when he fell off a wharf on the island of Senja. Henningsen has stated that he was uninterested in Parliament, but accepted the party nomination when it came, he has referred to the Parliament as "the loony bin", was reputed for not following the political mainstream. In 1972 he supported the possible Norwegian membership in the European Communities, against the overwhelming opinion of his county Troms.
His reasoning was grounded in uniting Europe to avoid more conflicts. In 1983 he resigned his membership in the Labour Party, he had a rather unsuccessful attempt to import muskox to Troms, serving as board chairman of the company Norsk Moskus from 1969 to 1980. He was a board member of Nordisk Polarinvest from 1983 to 1988 and executive of the Svea-based company Tundra from 1984 to 1988. In 1989 the book Partisan og politiker was released, he has resided in Setermoen since 1951. He died at Barduheimen in September 2012
I'm Not Your Steppin' Stone: Shameless, known in Japan as Namaiki. is a manga written and illustrated by Shiuko Kano. It is licensed in English by Digital Manga Publishing, which published I'm Not Your Steppin' Stone: Shameless in November 2007, it involves a construction worker without a high school diploma who falls in unrequited love with a woman who likes intellectuals. He approaches her brother for tutoring, but the brother agrees on the condition that the construction worker pay him in sexual favours. A sequel volume, Maybe I'm Your Steppin' Stone: Loveliness, known in Japan as Kawaige. was published by DMP in February 2008. Rachel Bentham, writing for Active Anime, described I'm Not Your Steppin' Stone as being "some of the raciest, raunchiest stuff I’ve seen in a yaoi". Bentham commended the masculine character designs. Danielle Van Gorder found the relationship between Sakai and Ezumi to be "a lot of fun" given that Van Gorder felt that the primary purpose of I'm Not Your Steppin' Stone was to titillate.
Leroy Douresseaux felt that the masculine character designs of Maybe I'm Your Steppin' Stone came right out of "gay porn", contrasting them with Kano's "unattractive, awkward looking women". He found the characters and story to be "actually quite engaging", although he noted that these came second in the author's priorities to showing sex scenes. Danielle Van Gorder felt that Maybe I'm Your Steppin' Stone would appeal to a variety of BL readers, as she felt it was "well written", with "gorgeous art" and had "interesting characters", as well as being "dead sexy", with sex scenes "a little more hardcore" than most yaoi manga released in English. Rachel Bentham, writing for Active Anime, described Maybe I'm Your Steppin' Stone as being "one of the more raw and explicit yaoi out there", praising Kano's skill at drawing "vulnerable expressions". I'm Not Your Steppin' Stone: Shameless at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Maybe I'm Your Steppin' Stone: Loveliness at Anime News Network's encyclopedia