National Endowment for the Humanities

The National Endowment for the Humanities is an independent federal agency of the U. S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D. C. From 1979 to 2014, NEH was at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N. W. Washington, D. C. in the Nancy Hanks Center at the Old Post Office. On February 10, 2020, the NEH was presented by the Trump administration with a FY2021 budget that included an orderly wind-down of the agency; the NEH provides grants for high-quality humanities projects to cultural institutions such as museums, libraries, universities, public television, radio stations, to individual scholars. NEH was created in 1965 under the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, which included the National Endowment for the Arts and the Institute for Museum Services, as a move to provide greater investment in culture by the federal government.

NEH was based upon recommendation of the National Commission on the Humanities, convened in 1963 with representatives from three US scholarly and educational associations, the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Council of Graduate Schools. The agency creates incentives for excellent work in the humanities by awarding grants that strengthen teaching and learning in the humanities in schools and colleges across the nation, facilitate research and original scholarship, provide opportunities for lifelong learning and provide access to cultural and educational resources and to strengthen the institutional base of the humanities; as part of its mandate to support humanities programs in every US state and territory, the agency supports a network of private, nonprofit affiliates, the 56 humanities councils in the states and territories of the United States. The ninth NEH Chair was Jim Leach. President Obama nominated the former Iowa congressman, a Republican, to chair the NEH on June 3, 2009.

Leach began his term as the NEH Chair on August 12, 2009 and stepped down in May 2013. Between November 2009 and May 2011, Leach conducted the American "Civility Tour" to call attention to the need to restore reason and civility back into politics, a goal that in his words was "central to the humanities." Leach visited each of the 50 states, speaking at venues ranging from university and museum lecture halls to hospitals for veterans, to support the return of non-emotive, civil exchange and rational consideration of other viewpoints. According to Leach, "Little is more important...than establishing an ethos of thoughtfulness and decency of expression in the public square. Words reflect emotion as well as meaning, they clarify—or cloud—thought and energize action, sometimes bringing out the better angels in our nature, sometimes lesser instincts." The tenth Chair of the NEH was William'Bro' Adams, who served from 2014 to 2017. President Obama nominated Adams on April 4, 2014. Adams appointed Margaret Plympton as the Deputy NEH Chair in January 2015.

Before Adams's appointment, the NEH was headed by Acting Chair Carole M. Watson. Adams resigned his appointment on May 23, 2017, when he cited accomplishments under the "Common Good" initiative and the appointment of new administration officials; the Endowment is directed by the NEH Chair. Advising the Chair is the National Council on the Humanities, a board of 26 distinguished private citizens who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate; the National Council members serve staggered six-year terms. The Endowment is directed by a Chair, who has legal authority to approve all recommendations and award grants and cooperative agreements; the Chair is nominated by the President and confirmed with the advice and consent of the U. S. Senate; the Chair's decisions are informed by recommendations from the National Council on the Humanities, peer-reviewers who are selected to read each project proposal submitted to the Endowment, as well as by the Endowment's staff. The NEH has six grant-making divisions and offices: The Division of Preservation and Access awards grants to preserve and improve access to primary sources in the humanities, in both digital and analog form.

The Division of Public Programs supports projects that bring the humanities to large audiences through libraries and museums and radio, historic sites, digital media. The Division of Research makes awards to support the publication of books in and outside the humanities; the Division of Education works to strengthen teaching of the humanities. The Office of Federal/State Partnership collaborates with 56 state and territory humanities councils to strengthen local programs; the Office of Digital Humanities coordinates. The Office of Challenge Grants, dissolved in 2017, administered grants intended to support capacity building and encourage fundraising in humanities institutions; the Division of Preservation and Access now offers a grant program, similar to previous programs in the Challenge Grants office. These are special priorities of the endowment that indicate critical areas of the humanities as identified by the NEH Chair, they differ from the divisions of the endowment in that they do not sponsor or coordinate specific grant programs.

Bridging Cultures was an NEH initiative that explored ways the humanities promote understanding and mutual respect for people with diverse histories and perspectives. Projects supported through this initiative focused on cultures globally as well as within the United States; this initiative


Himatangi is a small settlement in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand's North Island. It is located at the junction of State Highways 1 and 56, 25 kilometres west of Palmerston North, seven kilometres east of the coastal settlement of Himatangi Beach. Himatangi was once the location of the junction between the New Zealand Railways Department's Foxton Branch railway and the Manawatu County Council's Sanson Tramway. Both lines are now closed; the area has two marae: Motuiti Marae and its Rakau or Paewai meeting house is affiliated with the Rangitāne hapū of Ngāti Mairehau and the Ngāti Raukawa hapū of Ngāti Rākau. Paranui Marae and its Turanga meeting house is affiliated with the Ngāti Raukawa hapū of Ngāti Te Au and Ngāti Tūranga. Himatangi Beach

Musuan Peak

Musuan Peak or Mount Musuan known as Mount Calayo is an active volcano on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. It is 4.5 kilometres south of the city of Valencia, province of Bukidnon, 81 kilometres southeast of Cagayan de Oro City. Musuan is a lava tuff cone, it has an elevation of 646 metres asl, a base diameter of 3 kilometres. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology reports that Musuan erupted in 1866 and 1867, but the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program records another eruption phreatic, that "burned everything around it." The explosion occurred four years before the 1891 visit of a Jesuit priest, who reported that he could not examine the volcano more because of strong solfataric activity. A strong seismic swarm occurred near Musuan in 1976, again around mid-2011. Musuan is one of the active volcanoes in the Philippines, which are all part of the Pacific ring of fire. Mount Musuan's northern slope is still covered by a primary rainforest; the rest is covered predominantly by Cogon grass.

Reforestation efforts on the bare areas, both in tree-planting drives and by Central Mindanao University personnel, have established temporary forests of Acacia mangium and conifers. There are 524 species of plants in Mount Musuan under 135 families. 301 species are trees, 51 shrubs, 50 grasses and sedges, 46 herbs, 42 vines, 31 ferns, 3 fern allies. 188 species are economically important, 128 species are endemic, 3 are endangered species. Musuan peak has 6,354 individual trees; the most common tree species are the Melanolepis multiglandulosa and Colona serratifolia, followed by Clausena brevistyla and Alstonia scholaris. Three species of pteridophytes are locally threatened: Marsilea crenata, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Lycopodiella cernua. 10 species of pteridophytes are endemic to the area. Mount Musuan's lack of any visible crater has led to some local skepticism of it being an active volcano. Still, the imagery evoked by its name variant'Mount Calayo' and the stories told by local Bukidnon tribesmen keeps people wary of the small mountain which doesn't look like a volcano at all.

Valencia City is located North of the peak, the Central Mindanao University and Barangay Dologon at the southwest, the Pulangi River on the entire eastern side. At the foot of Musuan Peak is the Mount Musuan Zoological and Botanical Garden of the Central Mindanao University, it includes a reforestation nursery among its buildings. The Sayre Highway and a research center of the Philippine Carabao Center are located on the western slopes, it has a tourist shop. South of the mountain are the university agricultural facilities including a cattle ranch, a poultry farm, a dairy. Due to its proximity to the university and the university town proper, it has become a popular destination for students and tourists. From its isolated position in the middle of the valley and the small surface area of its highest point, the entire countryside is visible from the top, its slopes has been the target of extensive reforestation efforts paid for by the establishment of toll gates to hikers intending to go up the mountain.

List of active volcanoes in the Philippines List of active volcanoes in the Philippines List of inactive volcanoes in the Philippines Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology Pulangi River Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology Musuan Volcano page "Musuan". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution