The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London
The statue of Charlie Chaplin in Leicester Square, London, is a work of 1979 by the sculptor John Doubleday. It portrays the actor and filmmaker in his best-known role, a memorial to Chaplin in the city of his birth was proposed on 25 December 1977, soon after Chaplins death, by Illtyd Harrington, the leader of the opposition in the Greater London Council. The bronze statue was first unveiled on 16 April 1981 at its site, on the south-western corner of the square. An inscription on the plinth read THE COMIC GENIUS/ WHO GAVE PLEASURE/ TO SO MANY, the following year a slightly modified version was erected in the Swiss town of Vevey, which had been Chaplins home from 1952 until his death. Following a refurbishment of Leicester Square in 1989–92, the statue was moved to a north of the statue of William Shakespeare. In a refurbishment of 2010–12 Chaplins statue was removed altogether, together with busts of William Hogarth, John Hunter, Sir Isaac Newton, the statue was installed in a nearby street, Leicester Place, in 2013.
This was in order to prevent damage to the sculpture during improvement works, in 2016 it returned to Leicester Square and was re-unveiled on Chaplins birthday. Media related to Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London at Wikimedia Commons
Statue of Charles II, Soho Square
The statue of Charles II is an outdoor sculpture of Charles II of England by the Danish sculptor Caius Gabriel Cibber, located near the centre of Soho Square in London. The statue was once the centrepiece of an erected in the middle of the square in 1681, each corner of which had statues of river gods representing the Thames, Humber. The water, which was pumped by a windmill in nearby Rathbone Place and it appears to have been one of a number of works by Cibber that stood in the square. By the early 19th century, the statue was described as being in a most wretched and mutilated state, in 1875–6 the square underwent substantial changes to its layout, during which the badly deteriorated statue was removed and the fountain demolished. The statue was rescued by Thomas Blackwell of the condiment firm Crosse & Blackwell and he gave it to his friend, the artist Frederick Goodall, with the intention that it might be restored. The present half-timbered gardeners shed took the place at the centre of the square.
Goodall installed the statue on an island in a lake at Grims Dyke, his house near Harrow Weald, he wrote that in the twilight it looks very mysterious and weird with its reflection in the water. The statue portrays Charles in a pose, left hand on hip, with his head turned to the right. He is shown wearing some body and thigh armour and a long cloak at the back. The low pedestal once had an inscription on it, but this became illegible as long ago as 1815, as the square was once called Monmouth Square, some people erroneously supposed the statue to represent Charles favoured illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth. By the 1920s it was described as black with age, the pedestals decorative carvings comprise a crown in relief surmounting scroll motifs on the front and rear, with each side depicting a crown surmounting crossed sceptres and a decorative riband. Both the statue and pedestal are in poor condition and are eroded, especially around the face. The baton once held in the hand has disappeared.
The statue is used as a major plot device/character in Patrick Marbers 2017 production of Don Juan in Soho starring David Tennant
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person or an event. Popular forms of memorials include landmark objects or art objects such as sculptures, statues or fountains, the most common type of memorial is the gravestone or the memorial plaque. Also common are war memorials commemorating those who have died in wars, memorials in the form of a cross are called intending crosses. Online memorials and tributes are becoming popular especially with the increase in natural burial where the laying of gravestones. When somebody has died, the family may request that a gift be given to a designated charity. Those temporary or makeshift memorials are called grassroots memorials, when a high school student has died, the memorials are placed in the form of a scholarship, to be awarded to high-achieving students in future years
Cyril Thomas Demarne OBE was a British firefighter. He served in London during the Second World War, throughout the Blitz and he was involved in establishing aviation firefighting units in Australasia and in Beirut. In retirement, he wrote books based on his wartime experiences. Demarne was born in Poplar, London, as a boy, he recalled seeing troops marching from Woolwich through the Blackwall Tunnel with horses pulling the guns. Most distinctly, he remembered the Zeppelin raids on London in 1915 and he spent the period from September 1940 to May 1941 serving in West Ham, one of the most heavily bombed areas in the country. The first day of the Blitz, Demarne recalled a lovely sunny day, there were about 300 German aircraft. Some detached and flew along the waterfront from North Woolwich to the tidal basin and these included the giant Tate and Lyle factory in Silvertown. The factories had thousands of working in them, and the bombing caused horrendous casualties. Buildings were ablaze for three miles along the River Thames, Demarne ordered 500 pumps to the scene.
His commander thought was this a bit excessive, and sent someone to check, remembering those days 60 years later, Demarne recalled In the first week of the Blitz I thought London wouldnt be able to stand up to it. The first raid was followed by 57 consecutive nights of bombing, after a night off, when the German aircraft were hampered by bad weather. The night of 29 December/30 December 1940 was one of the most destructive air raids of the London Blitz and was quickly dubbed The Second Great Fire of London. The Auxiliary Fire Service worked almost continuously, putting out fires and rescuing the injured, Demarne was appointed Company Officer at Whitechapel in October 1941, in the newly formed National Fire Service. He was twice promoted in 1943, in January 1944, as Divisional Officer, he was transferred back to West Ham in time for the Baby Blitz and flying bomb attacks. He described how one night in Forest Gate a bus laden with people going home from work was hit, the top of the bus was completely gone with the remains of the passengers scattered over nearby houses.
The passengers on the deck had all been decapitated but were sitting in their seats as if waiting to have their fares collected. It was the most horrific thing I witnessed and he was transferred again to the City and Central London in November 1944, where he was involved in three of the most deadly V-2 rocket attacks, in which more than three hundred people were killed. After two years service in the West End, based at Manchester Square Station, he was promoted to Chief Fire Officer West Ham, in 1952, he received the OBE
Victory in Europe Day
It thus marked the end of World War II in Europe. The term VE Day existed as early as September 1944, in anticipation of victory, on 30 April 1945, Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader, committed suicide during the Battle of Berlin. Germanys surrender, was authorised by his successor, Reichspräsident Karl Dönitz, the administration headed by Dönitz was known as the Flensburg Government. The act of surrender was signed on 7 May in Reims, France and on 8 May in Berlin. The former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries have historically celebrated the end of World War II on 9 May, the Baltic countries now commemorate VE day on 8 May. In Ukraine from 2015,8 May was designated as a day of Remembrance and Reconciliation, upon the defeat of Germany, celebrations erupted throughout the world. From Moscow to Los Angeles, people celebrated, in the United Kingdom, more than one million people celebrated in the streets to mark the end of the European part of the war. Princess Elizabeth and her sister Princess Margaret were allowed to wander incognito among the crowds, in the United States, the victory happened on President Harry Trumans 61st birthday.
He dedicated the victory to the memory of his predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, flags remained at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period. Truman said of dedicating the victory to Roosevelts memory and keeping the flags at half-staff that his wish was that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day. Later that day, Truman said that the victory made it his most enjoyable birthday, massive celebrations took place in Chicago, Los Angeles and especially in New Yorks Times Square. As the Soviet representative in Reims had no authority to sign the German instrument of surrender, the surrender ceremony was repeated in Berlin on 8 May, where the instrument of surrender was signed by supreme German military commander Wilhelm Keitel, by Georgy Zhukov and Allied representatives. East Germany as Tag der Befreiung, a holiday from 1950 to 1966. Between 1975 and 1990, as Tag des Sieges, France as Victoire 1945 Slovakia as Deň víťazstva nad fašizmom Czech Republic as Den vítězství or Den osvobození Poland as Narodowy Dzień Zwycięstwa – National Victory Day.
Norway as Frigjøringsdagen Ukraine День памяті та примирення Ukraine День перемоги над нацизмом у Другій світовій війні — from 2015
John Mills (British sculptor)
John William Mills PPRBS ARCA FRSA is an English sculptor. He studied at Hammersmith School of Art 1947-1954, and at the Royal College of Art 1956-1960 and he was a resident at Digswell House 1962-1966 and currently lives at Hinxworth Place in Hertfordshire. Various part-time teaching posts in UK from 1958-1962, full-time at St. Albans School of Art and Hertfordshire College of Art and Design 1962-1977. Visiting Associate Professor in Printmaking and Sculpture, Eastern Michigan University 1970-1971, visiting lecturer Detroit School of Creative Arts 1970-1971. Visiting Professor and Artist in Residence University of Michigan 1980, stopped teaching on a regular basis 1977. He was made Fellow of the Royal British Society of Sculptors 1982 and was awarded their Otto Beit medal in 1983 for the sculpture ‘Curved Neck Grace’. He was elected president of the Society in 1986 and again in 1997. He was made Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in 1993, awarded an Honorary Master of Arts Degree by University College Northampton 2000 William Blake Memorial.
Blitz the National Firefighters Memorial London River Man, the Unicorn and Wellcome Wellcome Foundation, Kent, England). The Risen Christ, St Marys Church, Hertfordshire, jackie Milburn Memorial The Meeting, Harpur Square, Bedfordshire, England. Quadriga, fountain Charleston Place Hotel, Charleston, SC USA Time, Cavendish Hotel Derbyshire, the Risen Christ, Church of Great St Mary, Essex, England. Campus Thoughts, University College Northampton, Memorial to Alan Turing, University of Surrey, England. Lion and the Unicorn and Digitalis, William Harvey Centre, Charterhouse Square, Monument to the Women of World War II Whitehall, London. Winner of the competition for ‘The Topham Trophy’1961 and 1962. Winner of the RBS silver medal in 1991 for ‘Blitz’, winner of the Royal Mint design competition for the ‘D-Day fifty pence coin 1993’. Winner of the Royal Mint design competition for the ‘VE Day two pound coin 1994, winner of the Royal Mint design competition for the Euro Cup two pound coin 1995. Winner of the Coin of the Year award for the D-Day fifty pence 1994, winner of the Royal Mint design competition for the Euro Cent, British entry for the European Competition 1996.
Winner of the Royal Mint design competition for the 25th anniversary of the our entry into the Common Market fifty pence coin 1997, winner of the Royal Mint design competition for the 50th anniversary of DNA Double Helix two pound coin. The Technique of Casting for Sculpture 1968, studio Bronze Casting 1969, this book was written in collaboration with Michael Gillespie ARBS
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon. She was the last Empress consort of India, born into a family of British nobility, she came to prominence in 1923 when she married Albert, Duke of York, the second son of King George V and Queen Mary. The couple and their daughters embodied traditional ideas of family and public service and she undertook a variety of public engagements and became known as the Smiling Duchess because of her consistent public expression. In 1936, her husband became king when his brother, Edward VIII. She accompanied her husband on diplomatic tours to France and North America before the start of World War II, during the war, her seemingly indomitable spirit provided moral support to the British public. In recognition of her role as an asset to British interests, after the war, her husbands health deteriorated and she was widowed at the age of 51. Her elder daughter, aged 25, became the new queen, on the death of Queen Mary in 1953, Elizabeth became the most senior member of the British royal family after the sovereign, and was viewed as the family matriarch.
In her years, she was a popular member of the family. She continued a public life until just a few months before her death at the age of 101, seven weeks after the death of her younger daughter. Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the youngest daughter and the ninth of ten children of Claude Bowes-Lyon, Lord Glamis, other possible locations include Forbes House in Ham, the home of her maternal grandmother, Louisa Scott. Her birth was registered at Hitchin, near the Strathmores English country house, St Pauls Walden Bury, which was given as her birthplace in the census the following year. She was christened there on 23 September 1900, in the parish church, All Saints. She spent much of her childhood at St Pauls Walden and at Glamis Castle and she was educated at home by a governess until the age of eight, and was fond of field sports and dogs. When she started school in London, she astonished her teachers by precociously beginning an essay with two Greek words from Xenophons Anabasis and her best subjects were literature and scripture.
After returning to education under a German Jewish governess, Käthe Kübler. On her fourteenth birthday, Britain declared war on Germany, four of her brothers served in the army. Her elder brother, Fergus, an officer in the Black Watch Regiment, was killed in action at the Battle of Loos in 1915, another brother, was reported missing in action on 28 April 1917. Three weeks later, the family discovered he had captured after being wounded
Equestrian statue of Charles I, Charing Cross
The equestrian statue of Charles I in Charing Cross, London, is a work by the French sculptor Hubert Le Sueur, probably cast in 1633. Its location at Charing Cross is on the site of the most elaborate of the Eleanor crosses erected by Edward I. Charing Cross is used to define the centre of London and a plaque by the statue indicates that road signage distances are measured from this point, the statue faces down Whitehall towards Charles Is place of execution at Banqueting House. The first Renaissance-style equestrian statue in England, it was commissioned by Charless Lord High Treasurer Richard Weston for the garden of his house in Roehampton. Following the English Civil War the statue was sold to a metalsmith to be broken down and it was installed in its current, far more prominent location in the centre of London in 1675, and the elaborately carved plinth dates from that time. The statue shows Charles I of England on horseback, with the wearing a demi-suit of armour. Across the chest is a scarf tied into a bow on the right shoulder, the king is holding a baton in his right hand, and the reins of the horse in his left.
The statue was commissioned by Weston in January 1630, the contract, in French with an English translation, is thought to have been drafted by the architect Balthazar Gerbier, who was building Putney Park, Westons country house in Roehampton. The statue was to be finished in 18 months but its execution was delayed, after the Parliamentary victory in the English Civil War the statue was sold to a metalsmith in the Holborn area by the name of John Rivet. Rivet received instructions from Parliament to break down the statue, but instead he hid it on his premises and it was purchased by the King and in 1675 was placed in its current location. The pedestal itself is made of Portland stone with a coat of arms, the work was completed by Joshua Marshall. On 28 October 1844, during the visit of Queen Victoria to open the Royal Exchange, the sword, during the Second World War the statue was removed by the Ministry of Works for protection, and was stored at Mentmore Park, Leighton Buzzard. Before being returned to its plinth in Whitehall, the Ministry carried out repairs on the statue, including adding a replacement sword.
Additionally, a tablet was added to the base of the plinth. In 1977, the plinth was cleaned for the first time in three centuries, the work was conducted by the Department of the Environment and the department of conservation at the Victoria and Albert Museum. As I was going by Charing Cross Bibliography Ward-Jackson, public Sculpture of Historic Westminster, Volume 1. Media related to Equestrian statue of Charles I, Charing Cross at Wikimedia Commons
Statue of George III, Somerset House
The sculptor was John Bacon, and the statue was erected between 1778 and 1789. George III is dressed in Roman apparel, leaning on a rudder, flanked by the prow of a Roman boat, father Thames is reclining on a lower, semi-circular plinth, one hand on an urn with a cornucopia behind him. When Queen Charlotte first saw the statue of her husband she asked the sculptor Why did you make so frightful a figure, Bacon bowed and replied Art cannot always effect what is ever within the reach of Nature – the union of beauty and majesty. Media related to Statue of George III, Somerset House, London at Wikimedia Commons