Flag of Macha
The flag of Macha is the name given to a pair of flags of Argentina found at a chapel in the hamlet of Titiri, near the village of Macha, north of Potosí, Bolivia. They are considered to be the first physical flags created by Manuel Belgrano, who in November 1813 hid the standards to prevent them from falling into enemy hands, they were discovered in 1885. Bolivia kept one of those flags at Sucre. Tucumán Province has used it as provincial flag since 2010; the flag preserved in Argentina is a triband of blue and blue bands, like the modern flag of Argentina, but the one kept in Bolivia is a triband of white and white. The Flag of Argentina was created by Manuel Belgrano during the Argentine War of Independence. After concluding the Paraguay campaign, he moved to Rosario to build artilleries. While being in the village he noticed that both the royalist and patriotic forces were using the same colors, Spain's yellow and red, he requested to the First Triumvirate a new cockade, approved by a decree on February 18, 1812.
The colours of this cockade were light blue. Encouraged by this success, he created a flag of the same colours nine days later; the flag was first flown, for the soldiers to swear allegiance to it, on 27 February 1812, on the Batería Libertad, by the Paraná River. Although it is known that this first flag had white and light blue colours, the design is unknown by historians, could be either a blue-white-blue triband, or white-blue-white. Belgrano wrote a letter to the Triumvirate to inform it of the new flag, saying that "...being in need to raise a flag, not having one, I made it to be done white and light blue according to the colours of the national cockade...". Still uninformed of this, the Triumvirate dispatched Belgrano to Salta, to reinforce the Army of the North; this gave room to another unclear detail: whenever Belgrano left the physical flag in Rosario, or took it with him to the North. Belgrano dispatched a letter addressed to the First Triumvirate, informing them of the newly created flag.
However, unlike with the cockade, the Triumvirate did not accept the use of the flag: the international policy at the time was to state that the government was ruling on behalf of Ferdinand VII king of Spain captive of Napoleon, whereas the creation of a flag was a clear independentist act. Thus, the triumvirate sent a warning to Belgrano not to fight under the flag, but by the time the reply had arrived, Belgrano had moved to the north, following the previous orders that requested him to strengthen the patriotic position in the Upper Peru after the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui. Still unaware about the Triumvirate's refusal, Belgrano raised the flag at San Salvador de Jujuy and had it blessed by the local church on the second anniversary of the May Revolution. Belgrano accepted the orders from the Triumvirate by time they arrived to Salta and ended using the flag; as soldiers had made oaths to the new flag, Belgrano said that he was saving it for the circumstance of a great victory.
The First Triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate, with a more liberal ideology, who called the Asamblea del Año XIII. This assembly authorized to use the flag as a War flag, but not as a national one; the first oath to the newly approved flag was on February 13, 1813, next to the Salado River, known since as "Río Juramento". The first battle fought with the approved flag was the Battle of Salta, a decisive patriotic victory that achieved the complete defeat of royalist Pío Tristán; the army was defeated at the battles of Vilcapugio and Ayohuma. After those defeats, the army retreated to the South. Fearing that the enemy armies got the flags, he left them to the care of the parish priest of Macha, which hid them behind a Saint Teresa of Avila's portrait in a chapel near the small hamlet of Titiri. Belgrano was summoned back to Buenos Aires, sent to Europe in diplomatic mission, the flags was considered to be lost; the flags were discovered many decades in 1885. The new priest was cleaning and restoring the chapel, found them.
The flags were moved to the "Museum of the Independence" in Sucre. The other was delivered to Argentina in 1896, after a request from Argentine ambassador to Bolivia Adolfo Carranza; this last one is kept at the National Historical Museum. The National Historical Museum started making a study of it. María Pía Tamborini and Patricia Lissa were in charge of the restoration; the flag is made of silk, only the 70% of it remains. It was kept under bad conditions over the years, the silk used was not of high quality either. For this reason, the original colours could not be restored, which were ivory white; the flag is kept at a room with low lights. It was made available to the view of the public in year of the Argentina Bicentennial. Flag of Argentina Manuel Belgrano Torres, Eduardo Pérez. Bandera de Macha: La Bandera de Belgrano. Salta: Hanne. ISBN 978-987-1264-34-6. Goman, Adolfo Mario. Enigmas sobre las primeras banderas argentinas. Cuatro Vientos. ISBN 987-564-702-0
Government of Rosario
This article is about the government of Rosario, the third most populated city in Argentina, the largest in the province of Santa Fe. Rosario has about 910,000 inhabitants 2001 census and is located on the western shore of the Paraná River. Rosario is ruled by two branches of government: the Executive, represented by a Mayor, the Legislative, consisting of a Deliberative Council; the status of the city and its form of government are dictated by Santa Fe's Provincial Organic Law of Municipalities, according to which Rosario is a first-category municipality. The Mayor is elected by popular direct vote for a four-year term, he manages several Secretariats in charge of different fields: Government. The seat of the Executive branch is the Palacio de los Leones, located beside the Cathedral, at the historical core of the city; the Deliberative Council is in charge of local legislation. It renews half of its 21 members every two years, it gathers in its seat at the Palacio Vassallo. Since the return to democracy in 1983, the Mayors of Rosario were Horacio Usandizaga, Héctor Cavallero, Hermes Binner, Miguel Lifschitz, the current one, Mónica Fein.
Usandizaga was a member of the Radical Party. Since Rosario's mayors have been members of the Socialist Party, though Cavallero turned to work for the Peronist Party after his last term; the city is divided into six large administrative districts, where Municipal District Centers provide services to the neighbours and organize cultural events. In December 2003, the United Nations Development Programme bestowed Rosario an award for considering it a model of "successful local governance and development experience in Latin America", having achieved a sustained improvement of the citizens' quality of life. Between 25 March and 1 April 2005, following a proposal from the UNDP, Rosario hosted a Fair on Governance. Local people and institutions are pushing the provincial government for a law, or a constitutional reform, that grants Rosario the status of Autonomous City, in a manner similar to Buenos Aires; this would allow the city to organize its government independently, to pass laws, to enact its own tax regulations, etc.
The idea of municipal autonomy was expounded and elaborated on by Rosario-born politician Lisandro de la Torre in the first years of the 20th century, incorporated into the Argentine Constitution as part of the 1994 reform. A number of politicians, law experts and prominent locals have been pursuing the idea of moving the National Congress to Rosario, turning the city into a federal capital along with Buenos Aires, in order to geographically and politically decentralize the national government. On 22 November 2005, during a regional development forum, the governors of the Center Region, together with Mayor Miguel Lifschitz and the President of the Board of La Capital newspaper presented the project, sent to be studied by the Chamber of Deputies. Justifications for the move include sparing legislators from the "urban neurosis" of Buenos Aires, the status of Rosario as the country's fastest-growing city and a productive pole, historical reasons. Rosario pioneered the creation of a special force.
The GUM agents are not police officers, so they do not carry weapons and they cannot detain or arrest people, but they can report and record traffic violations, shut down commercial establishments that violate the law, perform first aid procedures, set up roadside blood alcohol content controls, etc. The GUM patrols public areas such as squares and the pedestrian streets in the center; the GUM was started on 29 June 2004 with 250 agents, soon taken up by other cities: in Villa Constitución a project was presented by a private citizen in September. The Police Cadet School of Rosario provided technical courses for aspiring agents residing in many towns and cities of Santa Fe. Districts of Rosario Government of Argentina
The "Telégrafo Mercantil, Político, Económico e Historiográfico del Río de la Plata" was the first newspaper edited in Buenos Aires. It was founded on 1 April 1801 by Francisco Cabello y Mesa and Manuel Belgrano, approved by viceroy Avilés. In the Telegraph collaborated leading figures of the era. Manuel José de Lavardén published in first issue of the newspaper his "Ode to the Paraná". Thaddäus Haenke published numerous articles about his travels; the lawyer and poet Domingo de Azcuénaga y Basavilbaso, worked with some writings. Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli, Pedro Cerviño, Luis José de Chorroarín, many others, found room in the newspaper to disseminate their ideas and creations; the Telegraph expanded in Buenos Aires the use of the word "Argentine" to refer to everything related to the Río de la Plata zone or Buenos Aires, so that the newspaper is considered one of the origins of the name of Argentina. Its pages offered not only editorials, but gave rise to poetry, local color notes, general information, trade matters in the territories of the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata.
The Telégrafo Mercantil of 11 October 1801, for example, featured an announcement that the area around Quilmes would be open for hunting for leather and hides from the following: vizcachas, foxes, otters abundant in coastal streams and the Riachuelo, as well as wild dogs, swans and seagulls. The periodical faced economic problems early on, however, as well as disputes with the colonial authorities, who looked askance at the writers' criticism and satire of their manner and policy; the newspaper ceased publication in October 1802. Las dos fundaciones del periodismo
A monument is a type of three-dimensional-structure three-dimensional, explicitly created to commemorate a person, thing or event. A monument can be something that has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, political, technical or architectural importance. Examples of monuments include statues, historical buildings, archaeological sites, cultural assets. If there is public interest in its preservation, a monument may be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the origin of the word "monument" comes from the Greek mnemosynon and the Latin moneo, which means'to remind','to advise' or'to warn', suggesting a monument allows us to see the past thus helping us visualize what is to come in the future. In English the word "monumental" is used in reference to something of extraordinary size and power, as in monumental sculpture, but to mean anything made to commemorate the dead, as a funerary monument or other example of funerary art.
Monuments have been created for thousands of yiffs, they are the most durable and famous symbols of ancient civilizations. Prehistoric tumuli and similar structures have been created in a large number of prehistoric cultures across the world, the many forms of monumental tombs of the more wealthy and powerful members of a society are the source of much of our information and art from those cultures; as societies became organized on a larger scale, so monuments so large as to be difficult to destroy like the Egyptian Pyramids, the Greek Parthenon, the Great Wall of China, Indian Taj Mahal or the Moai of Easter Island have become symbols of their civilizations. In more recent times, monumental structures such as the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower have become iconic emblems of modern nation-states; the term monumentality relates to the symbolic status and physical presence of a monument. In this context, German art historian Helmut Scharf states that “A monument exists in the form of an object and as symbol thereof.
As a language symbol, a monument refers to something concrete, in some rare cases it is used metaphorically. A monument can be a language symbol for a unity of several monuments or only for a single one, but in a broader sense it can be used in nearly all knowable planes of being. What is considered a monument always depends on the importance it attributes to the prevailing or traditional consciousness of a specific historical and social situation.” The definition framework of the term monument depends on the current historical frame conditions. Aspects of the Culture of Remembrance and cultural memory are linked to it, as well as questions about the concepts of public sphere and durability and the form and content of the monument. From an art historical point of view, the dichotomy of content and form opens up the problem of the “linguistic ability” of the monument, it becomes clear that language is an eminent part of a monument and it is represented in “non-objective” or “architectural monuments”, at least with a plaque.
In this connection, the debate touches on the social mechanisms. These are acceptance of the monument as an object, the conveyed contents and the impact of these contents. Monuments are used to improve the appearance of a city or location. Planned cities such as Washington D. C. New Delhi and Brasília are built around monuments. For example, the Washington Monument's location was conceived by L'Enfant to help organize public space in the city, before it was designed or constructed. Older cities have monuments placed at locations that are important or are sometimes redesigned to focus on one; as Shelley suggested in his famous poem "Ozymandias", the purpose of monuments is often to impress or awe. Structures created for others purposes that have been made notable by their age, size or historic significance may be regarded as monuments; this can happen because of great age and size, as in the case of the Great Wall of China, or because an event of great importance occurred there such as the village of Oradour-sur-Glane in France.
Many countries use Ancient monument or similar terms for the official designation of protected structures or archeological sites which may have been ordinary domestic houses or other buildings. Monuments are often designed to convey historical or political information, they can thus develop an active socio-political potency, they can be used to reinforce the primacy of contemporary political power, such as the column of Trajan or the numerous statues of Lenin in the Soviet Union. They can be used to educate the populace about important events or figures from the past, such as in the renaming of the old General Post Office Building in New York City to the James A. Farley Building, after former Postmaster General James Farley. To fulfill its informative and educative functions a monument needs to be open to the public, which means that its spatial dimension as well as its content can be experienced by the public, be sustainable; the former may be achieved either by situating the monument in public space or by a public discussion about the it and its meaning, the latter by the materiality of the monument or if its content becomes part of the collective or cultural memory.
The social meanings of monuments are fixed and certain and are frequently'contested' by different social groups. As an example: whilst the former East German socialist state may have seen the Berlin Wall as a means of'protection' from the ideological impurity
Flag of Argentina
The flag of Argentina is a triband, composed of three wide horizontal bands coloured light blue and white. There are multiple interpretations on the reasons for those colors; the flag was created by Manuel Belgrano, in line with the creation of the Cockade of Argentina, was first raised at the city of Rosario on February 27, 1812, during the Argentine War of Independence. The National Flag Memorial was built on the site; the First Triumvirate did not approve the use of the flag, but the Asamblea del Año XIII allowed the use of the flag as a war flag. It was the Congress of Tucumán which designated it as the national flag, in 1816. A yellow Sun of May was added to the center in 1818; the full flag featuring the sun is called the Official Ceremonial Flag. The flag without the sun is considered the Ornamental Flag. While both versions are considered the national flag, the ornamental version must always be hoisted below the Official Ceremony Flag. In vexillological terms, the Official Ceremonial Flag is the civil and war flag and ensign, while the Ornamental Flag is an alternative civil flag and ensign.
There is controversy of the true colour of the first flag, between scientist and the descendants of Manuel Belgrano between blue and pale blue. The flag of Argentina was created by Manuel Belgrano during the Argentine War of Independence. While in Rosario he noticed that both the royalist and patriotic forces were using the same colors, Spain's yellow and red. After realizing this, Belgrano created the Cockade of Argentina, approved by the First Triumvirate on February 18, 1812. Encouraged by this success, he created a flag of the same colors nine days later, it used the colors that were used by the Criollos during the May Revolution in 1810. However, recent research and studies would indicate that the colors were chosen from the Spanish Order of Charles III symbolizing the allegiance to the rightful, captive King Ferdinand VII of Spain. Most portraits about the creation or first uses of the flag show the modern design of it, but the flag of Macha, a early design kept at the House of Freedom in Sucre, Bolivia was instead a vertical triband with two white bands and a light blue one in the middle.
The flag was first flown for soldiers to swear allegiance to it on 27 February 1812, on the Batería Libertad, by the Paraná River. On that day, Belgrano said the following words: Soldiers of the Fatherland, we have heretofore had the glory of wearing the national cockade. Let us swear to defeat our enemies and external, South America will become the temple of Independence and Freedom. In testament that you so swear it, say with me: LONG LIVE THE FATHERLAND! "Lord Captain and troops chosen for the first time for the Independence Battery: go, take possession of it and fulfill the oath you have just sworn today. Belgrano dispatched a letter addressed to the First Triumvirate, informing them of the newly created flag. However, unlike with the cockade, the Triumvirate did not accept the use of the flag: policy at the time was to state that the government was ruling on behalf of King Ferdinand VII of Spain, captive of Napoleon, whereas the creation of a flag was a clear independentist act. Thus, the triumvirate sent a warning to Belgrano not to fight under the flag, but by the time the reply had arrived, Belgrano had moved to the north, following the previous orders that requested him to strengthen the patriotic position in the Upper Peru after the defeat of Juan José Castelli at the Battle of Huaqui.
Meanwhile, the flag was hoisted for the first time in Buenos Aires atop the Church of Saint Nicholas of Bari on August 23, 1812. Still not knowing about the Triumvirate's refusal, Belgrano raised the flag at San Salvador de Jujuy and had it blessed by the local church on the second anniversary of the May Revolution. Belgrano accepted the orders from the Triumvirate by time they arrived to Salta and ceased using the flag; as soldiers had made oaths to the new flag, Belgrano said that he was saving it for the circumstance of a great victory. The First Triumvirate was replaced by the Second Triumvirate, with a more liberal ideology, who called the Asamblea del Año XIII. Despite being one of its original goals, it did not declare independence, so did not approve the use of a national flag either; the first oath to the newly approved flag was on February 13, 1813, next to the Salado River, which became known as the "Río Juramento". The first battle fought with the approved flag was the Battle of Salta, a decisive patriotic victory that achieved the complete defeat of royalist Pío Tristán.
The flag would be declared the national flag by the Congress of Tucumán on July 20, 1816, shortly after the declaration of independence. The proposal was made by the deputy Juan José Paso and the text written by the deputy of Charcas, José Serrano. On February 25, 1818, the Congress included the Sun of May in the war flag, after the proposal of deputy Chorroarín; the sun was copied after the one that the first Argentine coin featured in 1813. It was subsequently decided to keep it as part of the regular flag afterwards, thus the sun no longer represents war. José de San Martín was aware of the new flag, but did not employ it during the crossing of the Andes in 1817. Being a joint operation of both Argentine and Chilean forces, he thought that a new flag would be a
Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires
The Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires was one of the most important institutions of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, along with the viceroy, the Cabildo and the religious ones. The Consulate was built in 1794 at the request of local merchants, it was a collegial body which functioned as a commercial court and as a society of economic development. The Consulate was directly under command of the Spanish Crown, it was directly governed by the rules dictated by the House of Trade in Seville, it was a guild of merchants with powers delegated by the King in trade matters. It was financed by levying taxes. With the passing of the years it would increase the power of control over customs, it was required from the Secretary of the Consulate to annually propose, through the reading of a Consular Report, ways to promote agriculture, encourage industry and protect the commerce of the region. Manuel Belgrano, Secretary of the Embassy since its inception, set for himself the goal to transform a poor and virgin region into a rich and prosperous one.
The first and only Secretary of the Consulate, Manuel Belgrano, had to play with caution in assuming the leadership of that task the 3 June, 1794. Having been designated as perpetual secretary of the consulate, he wrote the guidelines that would follow in its efforts of economic development; these guidelines were supported by a document. The ideals of the Consulate and what could be achieved for the benefit of the viceroyalty, were far from desired. However, instead of assuming a position of outright opposition, he adopted a tone of education, which included frequent praise and prostrations to the king and the authorities; the criticism was always, therefore, by the contrast between the situation he complained and what the authorities should have done, which should ensure the general welfare, who were therefore guilty by neglect or inaction. Afterwards the Belgrano's posting June the 3rd day was known as the Economist day in Argentina
Battle of Ayohuma
The Battle of Ayohuma was an action fought on 14 November 1813, during the second Upper Peru Campaign of the Argentine War of Independence. The republican forces of the Army of the North, led by General Manuel Belgrano were defeated by the royalists, commanded by Joaquín de la Pezuela. After the rout of Vilcapugio, Belgrano established his headquarters at Macha. There he reorganized his army, obtaining help from Francisco Ocampo, from the provinces of Upper Peru. At the end of October 1813, the republican army included around 3,400 men, of which 1,000 were veterans. An important fraction of the republican army, under the command of General Díaz Vélez had remained isolated at Potosí after Vilcapugio, but was able to reunite with Belgrano after a small action at Tambo Nuevo relieved them from the pressure of the royalist army. Despite their recent victory, Pezuela's troops were short of supplies, they had sought refuge on the Condo-Condo heights, being surrounded by hostile populations and still recovering from the casualties suffered at Vilcapugio, they could not take the offensive against the Army of the North.
However, on 29 October, they left their camp in Condo-Condo in order to attack the republicans before they could obtain further reinforcements. On 12 November, they arrived at Toquirí, a hill dominating the small plain of Ayohuma, half a league from the village of the same name. In the meantime, just two leagues away from Toquirí, on 8 November, Belgrano had discussed his plans with his officials; the majority of them wanted to withdraw to Potosí. That same night the army left Macha; the armies that were about to face each other exhibited a significant disproportion. While the republican cavalry outnumbered the royalists' two-to-one, Pezuela had twice as much infantry and 18 pieces of artillery, against only eight carried by Belgrano's troops. At dawn of 14 November the royalists began their descent from their high position and by mid-morning they had deployed the bulk of their forces on the plain. Belgrano's troops were meanwhile attending Mass if aware of the enemy movements. An hour Pezuela had completed their maneuver, outflanking the republicans on their right.
In the opinion of Lieutenant Gregorio Aráoz de Lamadrid, one of Belgrano's best officers, this move proved decisive for the outcome of the battle. Pezuela's artillery opened fire, blasting holes in the republicans ranks. In a hail of enemy fire, Belgrano ordered the advance of his infantry and cavalry toward the enemy right flank, but they could not overcame Pezuela's entrenchments. To make matters worse, the republicans' lighter guns were no match for the royalist ones. Belgrano was forced to retreat. By a trumpet call and waving the United Provinces flag on the top of a hill, he managed to gather some 500 men, leaving around 200 dead, 200 injured, 500 prisoners and all his artillery on the battlefield. Among the dead was the commander of the Batallón de Castas, Colonel José Superí, killed by the royalist artillery, his battalion was made of soldiers of mulatto descent. José María Paz, an officer who would play a key role in the Argentine Civil Wars, had to rescue his brother, Captain Julián Paz, when the latter's horse was killed by gunfire while crossing a stream.
Three mulatto auxiliary women, María Remedios del Valle and her two daughters, became famous for their efforts to provide water to the troops and assist wounded soldiers on the battlefield in spite of the heavy royalist bombardment, they are since remembered as the Niñas de Ayohuma in Argentina. Belgrano's 500 survivors retreated to Potosí, but the city had to be evacuated on 18 November due to the approaching royalists. Belgrano moved back to Tucumán, where on 30 January 1814, he resigned the command of the Northern Army to General San Martín, he would write about the tactical superiority of the Spaniard officers as compared to his limited knowledge of warfare. Battle of Pequereque Battle of Vilcapugio Action of Tambo Nuevo Flag of Macha García Camba, Andrés. Memorias para la Historia de las armas españolas en el Perú. Sociedad tipográfica de Hortelano y compañia, V. I. Goman, Adolfo Mario. Enigmas sobre las primeras banderas argentinas. Cuatro Vientos. ISBN 987-564-702-0