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National Football League Most Valuable Player Award

The National Football League Most Valuable Player Award is an award given by various entities to the American football player, considered the most valuable in the National Football League during the regular season. Organizations which give an NFL MVP award or have in the past include the Associated Press, the Newspaper Enterprise Association, Pro Football Writers of America, United Press International; the first award described as a most valuable player award was the Joe F. Carr Trophy, awarded by the NFL from 1938 to 1946. Today, the AP award is considered the de facto official NFL MVP award. Since the 2011 season, the NFL has held the annual NFL Honors ceremony to recognize the winner of the Associated Press MVP award; the AP has presented an MVP award since 1957. The award is voted upon by a panel of 50 sportswriters at the end of the regular season, before the playoffs, though the results are not announced to the public until the day before the Super Bowl. Pro Football Writers of America began naming their most valuable player in 1975 and continue to do so as of the 2019 season.

Sporting News began awarding a National Football League player of the year award in 1954. From 1970 to 1979, Sporting News chose American Football Conference and National Football Conference players of the year, returned to a single winner in 1980. Beginning in 2012 Sporting News chose an offensive player of the year and a defensive player of the year; the Newspaper Enterprise Association presented its MVP award from 1955 to 2008. The winner was chosen by a poll of NFL players and received the Jim Thorpe Trophy, which by 1975 was described as "one of the pros' most coveted honors." Beginning in 1997, the trophy was presented by the Jim Thorpe Association, with the winner determined by a "vote of NFLPA representatives". The Joe F. Carr Trophy was the first award in the NFL to recognize a most valuable player, it was named in honor of NFL commissioner Joseph Carr. United Press International gave an NFL MVP/player of the year award from 1948 through 1969, excepting 1949–50, 1952. In 1970 UPI instituted separate awards for the NFC and AFC.

In 1975 UPI added a Defensive Player of the Year Award for both the NFC and AFC. American Football League Most Valuable Player Award Bert Bell Award Football Digest § NFL Player of the Year Sporting News NFL Player of the Year Award UPI AFL-AFC Player of the Year UPI NFC Player of the Year Washington D. C. Touchdown Club § NFL Player of the Yearawards General"Joe F. Carr Trophy Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 15, 2016. "UPI NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. "Newspaper Ent. Assoc. NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. "AP NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. "PFWA NFL Most Valuable Player Winners". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved June 20, 2016. Footnotes -->|}

Katsuma Dan

Katsuma Dan was a Japanese embryologist and cell biologist. He was born in 1904 in Tokyo, the youngest son of Baron Dan Takuma, president of the Mitsui Gomei Kaisha Corporation. Takuma Dan was educated in the United States, graduating from MIT in 1878, he was one of the first foreign students to be educated at MIT and as president of the Japan Steel Works, he initiated and maintained close research ties with The Institute. After receiving his undergraduate degree in Japan, Katsuma Dan came to the United States where he studied embryology with Prof. L. V. Heilbrunn at the University of Pennsylvania. In addition Dan worked and studied at the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole from 1931 to 1934, in 1936, it was here. Clark, a student of Heilbrunn's, studied fertilization in marine invertebrates; the couple raised five children. They maintained lasting ties to the MBL and returned in years as summer researchers and lecturers in embryology. In March 1932, while Dan was studying at the MBL, his father was assassinated in Japan by ultra-nationalist radicals in the'League of Blood Incident'.

Katsuma Dan returned to Japan in the late 1930s and worked at the Misaki Marine Biological Station in Morioso Bay. He and his students maintained a remarkable degree of scientific productivity during World War II, his spirit is reflected in a letter written after the war to a friend in the United States: “...ducking under bombs was not so bad. Rather it was a great excitement. Hide and seek at the expense of your life can't help being exciting. There was, however, an awful side to it too.” Near the end of the war the Japanese Navy took over the Misaki Marine Station and converted it into a base for miniature submarines. Although displaced and his students set up a crude laboratory nearby and continued their work. At the end of the war Dan posted a hand-written note on the door of Misaki, addressed to advancing America forces, in which he said: “... you can destroy the weapons and the war instruments but save the civil equipments for the Japanese students. When you are through with your job here notify to the university and let us come back to our scientific home.”

The note was signed, “The last one to go.” The obvious humanity and the mention of American marine biological laboratories appealed to a US Naval officer who passed the note on to the MBL. It was published in Time Magazine under the headline, “Appeal to the Goths”. Dan's scientific work focused on using marine invertebrates as model organisms to study fundamental questions in cell biology and embryonic development, he and his students focused on direct observation of cell behavior using light microscopy and discovered many of the fundamental aspects of fertilization and morphogenesis. To settle a long-standing debate over the existence of the mitotic spindle, he encouraged his student, Shinya Inoue, to construct polarized light microscopes and look for evidence of organized polymer networks in living cells. And, together with Daniel Mazia, he was the first to isolate the mitotic apparatus and subject it to biochemical study; this work demonstrated conclusively the existence of the mitotic spindle and initiated the modern biochemical study of mitosis.

Dan and his students developed methods for measuring small, local movements of the cell surface during division. This enabled quantitative studies of the process of cell cleavage. Based on this work, Dan proposed the novel idea that cell cleavage is driven directly by elongation of the mitotic spindle; that is, the spindle itself attaches to the cell surface via'astral rays' and physically draws in the cleavage furrow. Subsequent work indicated that cleavage is driven by contraction of an actin filament network in the cortex rather than by expansion of the spindle but this idea was the forerunner of the current view of cytokinesis, in which interaction of spindle microtubules with the cell cortex determines the position of the cleavage furrow. Katsuma Dan was professor of zoology at the Tokyo Metropolitan University from 1949-1968, he served as president of the university from 1964 until his retirement in 1972. Dan was president of both the Zoological Society of Japan and the Japanese Society of Developmental biologists.

In 1976 he received the Second Order Imperial Medal, in 1987 he received the Emperor's Award for Cultural Merit. A fellowship honoring Katsuma and Jean Clark Dan was established in 1979 for cultural exchange between the United States and Japan. Katsuma Dan died in 1996 in Osaka, Japan, at the age of 91. Obituary, Falmouth Enterprise, May 24, 1996. Schneider, M. MBL/WHOI Archives, Woods Hole MA. Inoue, S. Achievements of Professor Katsuma Dan. MBL/WHOI Archives, Woods Hole MA. Ewick, D. 2003. Untitled note. Japanisme, Modernism: An archive of Japan in English-language verse. Katsuma Dan at MBL

St Elmo Courts

St Elmo Courts was a residential high rise building constructed in 1930 in the city centre of Christchurch, New Zealand. Used as an office building in years, it had a Category II heritage listing by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust, it was demolished in March 2011, having suffered significant damage in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and more damage in the subsequent February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. The site of the building, on the corner of Hereford and Montreal Streets, was occupied by the St Elmo Boarding House, it was advertised as "superior private accommodation". A replacement building, St Elmo Courts, was designed in 1929 by B. J. Ager; this reflected a movement in the larger New Zealand cities in the 1920s and 1930s for apartment living. The appeals were inexpensive living in a central location, with apartments offering modern conveniences and built in furniture. St Elmo Courts was constructed in 1930. Accordingly, St Elmo Court provided two-bedroom apartments. Many of those were converted to office space.

After the 2010 Canterbury earthquake, the building was yellow stickered. The building's owner and his insurance company agreed that it was too damaged after the 22 February 2011 earthquake for it to be saved. Demolition began on 20 March 2011. St Elmo Court had a light reinforced concrete frame, infilled with masonry. Following the 4 September 2010 earthquake, diagonal shear cracks were visible in the façade in the vertical piers. One column had a shear failure; the damage became more extensive in the 22 February 2011 earthquake. A modern, 5-storey replacement has been constructed on the Hereford Street site; the new building is to 180% of the new building code, features base isolators. Law firm Wynn Williams has taken naming rights and the building is now called Wynn Williams House. On 26 November 1981, the building was registered by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust as a Category II historic place, with the registration number being 3133

Springdale, Lexington County, South Carolina

Springdale is a town in Lexington County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 2,636 at the 2010 census, it is part of South Carolina Metropolitan Statistical Area. Springdale is located at 33°57′39″N 81°6′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.0 square miles, of which 4.0 square miles is land and 0.04 square mile is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,877 people, 1,206 households, 869 families residing in the town; the population density was 718.8 people per square mile. There were 1,334 housing units at an average density of 333.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 88.91% White, 7.75% African American, 0.66% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.24% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.70% of the population. There were 1,206 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families.

22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.77. In the town, the population was spread out with 19.8% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,456, the median income for a family was $57,014. Males had a median income of $40,531 versus $26,658 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,260. About 3.2% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. Town of Springdale

Yoo Eun-hae

Yoo Eun-hae is a South Korean politician serving as the Minister of Education and ex officio Deputy Prime Minister of South Korea since her appointment by President Moon Jae-in in October 2018 as well as a two-term parliamentarian of ruling party. She is the first woman to serve as a Deputy Prime Minister in South Korea. While studying at Sungkyunkwan University, she joined pro-democracy movement against authoritarian regime of then-president Chun, she has bachelor's degree in Eastern Philosophy from Sungkyunkwan University and Master's degree in public policy from Ewha Woman's University. She first met Moon when he then-lawyer helped her family to receive benefits from her father's overwork death, she was the spokesperson of Moon's second presidential campaign in 2017. Minister of Education

Heinrich Jasper

Heinrich Jasper was a German politician. During the 1920s he served three terms as regional prime minister of the Free State of Brunswick, he died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Heinrich Jasper was born in a village in the countryside to the southeast of Hanover, his father, Carl August Jasper, was a wealthy tenant farmer. He attended secondary school in nearby Hildesheim till 1886 when his parents divorced and his father relocated to Braunschweig, where Jasper completed his schooling at the Wilhelm-Gymnasium, he went on to study jurisprudence at Munich and Berlin. He received his doctorate in 1900 and returned to Braunschweig as a referendary, setting up his own legal practice in 1902, he joined the Social Democratic Party. The ban on SPD participation in elections had been lifted in 1890, but the party was not, at this stage, considered mainstream by members of the political class: Jasper's decision to join it in 1902 was an unusual one for a man from his background. Within the party locally he stood out both on account of his education and because he was a good speaker.

In 1909 he was the first Social Democrat elected to the Regional Legislature. Between 1903 and 1933 Jasper represented the SPD as a Braunschweig city councillor. In July 1915 he went off to serve in the war, having risen to the rank of a Vizefeldwebel by the time he arrived home from the front on 11 November 1918. National military defeat was followed by a revolutionary eruption in many parts of Germany. In Braunschweig Ernst August, the hereditary ruler had abdicated on 8 November 1918. Jasper took a lead in the political fight against Sepp Oerter and the workers' council, which he condemned as the "dictatorship of an undemocratic minority". On the national stage, from January 1919 he is listed as a member of the Weimar National Assembly, precursor to a national democratically elected parliament, although his political focus during this period continued to be on his own region of Braunschweig. On 10 February 1919 Jasper was unanimously elected president of the Braunschweig Regional Legislature.

A week on 19 February 1919, he was elected chairman of the SPD, reflecting the party split in 1917) in the local Council of the People's Deputies. In April 1919 the Workers' General Strike was ended in Braunschweig, occupied by a Freikorps unit under the command of General Maercker, after which a level of political stability was restored and Jasper served for several years as president of the Regional Legislature. Jasper was a member of the Regional Legislature between 1919 and 1933. During this time he served as Minister-president of the Free State of Braunschweig from April 1919 till June 1920, from May 1922 till December 1924, again between December 1927 and October 1930. During the decade his leadership of the party was undisputed, he always combined the office of minister-president with that of finance minister. His period as minister-president ended for the last time with the regional elections of 14 September 1930, which resulted in a regional government for the Free State of Braunschweig led by the so-called Citizens' Unity List, a coalition of right wing parties which together had amassed 11 seats.

They now governed in alliance with the Nazi party, which had received 9 seats, under the leadership of Werner Küchenthal of the National People's Party. The new regional government now set about purging the educational and cultural departments of Social Democrat elements. Between 1930 and 1933, now in opposition, Jasper continued to lead a vigorous opposition from the SPD group in the regional legislature, while the Nazi party gave Braunschweig a foretaste of life in the Third Reich. Before the Nazi party took power nationally at the beginning of 1933, Heinrich Jasper found himself on the receiving end of persecution from the new minister-president, the Nazi party member Dietrich Klagges, both his successor and his political opponent in the Braunschweig Legislature. During the early part of 1933 the Nazis took power and converted Germany into a one-party dictatorship. Political activity was becoming illegal. For Jasper long recognised as the leader of the Braunschweig Social Democrats, according to one source "one of the people most hated by the Nazis" locally, the backdrop was dire.

On 9 March 1933 the Nazi party's quasi-military wing took over the "House of the Friends of the People", a substantial building, build for and owned by the SPD, in the city. Among other things, the party used it for meetings and for printing their local newspaper, "Der Volksfreund". One employee was shot and several others were badly beaten up. Jasper sent a telegramme to President Hindenburg in which he protested against these excesses. On 17 March 1933 the Braunschweig SPD party leadership met in the "Hotel Monopol" in order to discuss the situation and what to do next. On the way to the meeting Jasper was arrested and taken into "protective custody" on the orders of Klagges, he was taken to the AOK building, which the Nazis had commandeered, badly mishandled. He was taken to the "House of the Friends of the People", now under Nazi control, subjected to further mistreatment. Jasper reported that Friedrich Alpers, the local SS leader, offered to guarantee Jasper's release from "protective custody"