Zoar Valley is an area of deep gorges along the Main and South branches of Cattaraugus Creek in western New York, United States. The valley is located along the border of Erie County and Cattaraugus County between the villages of Gowanda to the west and Springville to the east; the core area surrounding the confluence of the Cattaraugus Creek's Main and South branches is protected as the Zoar Valley Multiple Use Area, a conservation area located within the towns of Collins and Persia. The protected area is managed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, is open to the public for fishing, hiking, white-water rafting, wildlife and scenic viewing. Canyon depths within the Zoar Valley Multiple Use Area are the greatest within the entire Cattaraugus Creek corridor, ranging up to 380 feet along the South Branch and 480 feet along the Main Branch. Several nearly vertical rock faces approach 400 feet in height; the property contains large stands of old-growth forest with trees of unusual size and height, which are further protected as part of the state-designated Zoar Valley Unique Area.
Zoar Valley is located along the border of Erie County and Cattaraugus County in New York between the villages of Gowanda to the west and Springville to the east. Cattaraugus Creek flows through the valley. An additional gorge formed by the Cattaraugus Creek's South Branch stretches south toward the village of Cattaraugus; the cliffs along Zoar Valley's gorges are composed of Devonian silt stones and shale, are part of the Canadaway Formation. The valley's gorges expose stratifications of the Onondaga Escarpment. Cliffs near the confluence of Cattaraugus Creek's South and Main branches reach heights of up to 500 feet when measured to the tops of nearby hills. Zoar Valley was named by an early 19th-century settler of the region; the name is of biblical origin. The extent of Zoar Valley's use by Native Americans is unclear due to subsequent disturbance by farming and settlement activities. Evidence of early use by settlers includes records of farming as early as 1842, in addition to evidence of shale mining and the establishment of two lime kilns during the early 1800s.
Sawmills, gas wells, a cheese factory were established in the valley during the 19th century. A Boy Scout camp was located near the confluence, a cable car was used to cross Cattaraugus Creek. Foundations of several camp buildings remain visible; the Niagara and Ontario Power Company purchased property near the confluence in 1926, with the intention of building a hydroelectric dam in the valley. However, the brittleness of the valley's shale cliffs was found to be unsuitable for construction of the dam, the project was abandoned. State ownership within the valley began in 1961 with the gift of 1,425 acres by Herbert F. Darling Sr. who had purchased land from the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation in 1952 with the intention of preserving the property. Additional lands were added under the 1960 Multiple Use Bond Act. For a time in the 1960s, a hippie commune was located within the valley. By 1971, overnight use of the property was prohibited due to "irresponsible behavior on the part of some campers".
The state-managed Zoar Valley Multiple Use Area encompasses a 3,014-acre area along an eight-mile section of the Cattaraugus Creek's Main Branch canyon and a three-mile stretch of the smaller South Branch, centered around the confluence of the two streams. The Multiple Use Area is maintained by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. In 2007, the state established the Zoar Valley Unique Area, a 1,492-acre area which further protects and preserves the entire state-owned length of the gorge's cliffs and bottomlands, in addition to a 300-foot buffer area along the gorge's upper rim and along several larger side creeks, where sufficient state-owned land is available; the Unique Area contains the majority of the known or suspected old-growth forest, all of the riverside floodplain and terrace woodlands, as well as all of the slope and talus plant communities. Within the Unique Area, activities such as logging and gas drilling are prohibited. Prior to being designated as a Unique Area, the old-growth forest within the state-owned portion of Zoar Valley was at danger of being logged.
Traditional natural resource management activities, including logging, are permitted to take place outside of the Unique Area. 343 acres of plantation forests were established within the Zoar Valley Multiple Use Area during the 1960s and 1970s. Most are composed of non-native conifers, although several native hardwood plantations are present as well. Modern timber harvests by the state are intended to encourage native species growth and improve wildlife habitat. An American chestnut plantation is maintained as a joint venture with the American Chestnut Foundation, with the goal of developing chestnut blight-resistant trees. Additional protected lands within Zoar Valley include The Nature Conservancy's 450-acre Deer Lick Nature Sanctuary, which preserves 80 acres of old-growth forest and was designated as a National Natural Landmark in 1967; the sanctuary is located along the Cattaraugus Creek's South Branch, adjacent to the Zoar Valley Multiple Use Area. Two other owned conservation areas, the William P. Alexander Preserve and the Rodger Sweetland Memorial Preserve, are owned by the Nature Sanctuary Society of Western New York
10 Lafayette Square
10 Lafayette Square known as the Tishman building, is a high-rise office tower located in Lafayette Square in Buffalo, New York. Completed in 1959, it is the thirteenth-tallest building in Buffalo, standing at 263 feet and 20 stories tall; the building is built in the International Style. The structural frames for the building are not concrete beams and columns; the building architects were Emery Sons of New York city. For 81 years, the six-story, cast iron, Buffalo German Insurance Company Building existed on current land site prior to the Tishman Building; the Tishman building was home to the Fortune 500 company, National Fuel Gas until 2003 when the company relocated to the Buffalo suburb of Williamsville. In May 2011, the Amherst-based Hamister Group purchased the Tishman building, they spent $41 million renovating the building into a mixed use complex including the 123-room Hilton Garden Inn Buffalo Downtown, two floors of apartments, three floors of office space. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the Tishman Building.
List of tallest buildings in Buffalo Media related to 10 Lafayette Square at Wikimedia Commons 10 Lafayette official website Hilton Garden Inn Buffalo Downtown official website Skyscraperpage building page Emporis building page
An industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry; when a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies; this came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution a third of the economic output comes from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries depend on manufacturing industry. Slavery, the practice of utilizing forced labor to produce goods and services, has occurred since antiquity throughout the world as a means of low-cost production, it produces goods for which profit depends on economies of scale those for which labor was simple and easy to supervise.
International law has declared slavery illegal. Guilds, associations of artisans and merchants, oversee the production and distribution of a particular good. Guilds have their roots in the Roman Empire as collegia Membership in these early guilds was voluntary; the Roman collegia did not survive the fall of Rome. In the early middle ages, guilds once again began to emerge in Europe, reaching a degree of maturity by the beginning of the 14th century. While few guilds remain today, some modern labor structures resemble those of traditional guilds. Other guilds, such as the SAG-AFTRA act as trade unions rather than as classical guilds. Professor Sheilagh Ogilvie claims that guilds negatively affected quality and innovation in areas that they were present; the industrial revolution saw the development and popularization of mechanized means of production as a replacement for hand production. The industrial revolution played a role in the abolition of slavery in North America; the Industrial Revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production with consequent changes in society.
The factories were steam-powered, but transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process; this led to significant increases in efficiency. Automation was used to replace human operators; this process has accelerated with the development of the robot. Certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in carriage manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society; this is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturers relocate to more profitable locations through a process of off-shoring.
Measurements of manufacturing industries outputs and economic effect are not stable. Traditionally, success has been measured in the number of jobs created; the reduced number of employees in the manufacturing sector has been assumed to result from a decline in the competitiveness of the sector, or the introduction of the lean manufacturing process. Related to this change is the upgrading of the quality of the product being manufactured. While it is possible to produce a low-technology product with low-skill labour, the ability to manufacture high-technology products well is dependent on a skilled staff. An industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Today, industry is an important part of nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating industrial placement, industrial pollution and industrial labour. In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population.
This occurs in the manufacturing sector. A labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages and other working conditions; the trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This movement first rose among industrial workers; the Industrial Revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean War and the American Civil War, but its full potential showed during the world wars. See military-industrial complex, arms industries, military industry and modern warfare. Industries portal Industry information North American Industry Classification System North American Product Classification System Outline of industry Standard Industrial Classification Krahn, Harvey J. and Graham S. Lowe.
Work and Canadian Society. Second ed. Scarborough, Ont.: Nelson Canada, 1993. Xii, 430 pp. ISBN 0-17-603540-0 Media related to Industries at Wikimedia Commons Quotations related to industry at Wikiquote
Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting of methane, but including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the surface of the Earth over millions of years; the energy that the plants obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas. Natural gas is a occurring hydrocarbon used as a source of energy for heating and electricity generation, it is used as a fuel for vehicles and as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially important organic chemicals. Natural gas is called a non-renewable resource. Natural gas is found in deep underground rock formations or associated with other hydrocarbon reservoirs in coal beds and as methane clathrates. Petroleum is another fossil fuel found in close proximity to and with natural gas. Most natural gas was created over time by two mechanisms: thermogenic.
Biogenic gas is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs and shallow sediments. Deeper in the earth, at greater temperature and pressure, thermogenic gas is created from buried organic material. In petroleum production gas is burnt as flare gas; the World Bank estimates that over 150 cubic kilometers of natural gas are flared or vented annually. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas; the by-products of this processing include: ethane, butanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor, sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural gas is informally referred to as "gas" when compared to other energy sources such as oil or coal. However, it is not to be confused with gasoline in North America, where the term gasoline is shortened in colloquial usage to gas. Natural gas was discovered accidentally in ancient China, as it resulted from the drilling for brines.
Natural gas was first used by the Chinese in about 500 BCE. They discovered a way to transport gas seeping from the ground in crude pipelines of bamboo to where it was used to boil salt water to extract the salt, in the Ziliujing District of Sichuan; the discovery and identification of natural gas in the Americas happened in 1626. In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well at Fredonia, New York, United States, which led to the formation of the Fredonia Gas Light Company; the state of Philadelphia created the first municipally owned natural gas distribution venture in 1836. By 2009, 66 000 km³ had been used out of the total 850 000 km³ of estimated remaining recoverable reserves of natural gas. Based on an estimated 2015 world consumption rate of about 3400 km³ of gas per year, the total estimated remaining economically recoverable reserves of natural gas would last 250 years at current consumption rates. An annual increase in usage of 2–3% could result in recoverable reserves lasting less as few as 80 to 100 years.
In the 19th century, natural gas was obtained as a by-product of producing oil, since the small, light gas carbon chains came out of solution as the extracted fluids underwent pressure reduction from the reservoir to the surface, similar to uncapping a soft drink bottle where the carbon dioxide effervesces. Unwanted natural gas was a disposal problem in the active oil fields. If there was not a market for natural gas near the wellhead it was prohibitively expensive to pipe to the end user. In the 19th century and early 20th century, unwanted gas was burned off at oil fields. Today, unwanted gas associated with oil extraction is returned to the reservoir with'injection' wells while awaiting a possible future market or to repressurize the formation, which can enhance extraction rates from other wells. In regions with a high natural gas demand, pipelines are constructed when it is economically feasible to transport gas from a wellsite to an end consumer. In addition to transporting gas via pipelines for use in power generation, other end uses for natural gas include export as liquefied natural gas or conversion of natural gas into other liquid products via gas to liquids technologies.
GTL technologies can convert natural gas into liquids products such as diesel or jet fuel. A variety of GTL technologies have been developed, including Fischer–Tropsch, methanol to gasoline and syngas to gasoline plus. F–T produces a synthetic crude that can be further refined into finished products, while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, jet fuel and aromatic chemicals directly from natural gas via a single-loop process. In 2011, Royal Dutch Shell's 140,000 barrels per day F–T plant went into operation in Qatar. Natural gas can be "associated", or "non-associated", is found in coal beds, it sometimes contains a significant amount of ethane, propane and pentane—heavier hydrocarbons removed for commercial use prior to the methane being sold as a consumer fuel or chemical plant feedstock. Non-hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide must be removed before the natural gas can be transported. Natural gas extracted from oil wells is called casinghead gas (whether or not produced up the a
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans and goods from one location to another. In other words the action of transport is defined as a particular movement of an organism or thing from a point A to the Point B. Modes of transport include air, water, cable and space; the field can be divided into infrastructure and operations. Transport is important because it enables trade between people, essential for the development of civilizations. Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations, including roads, airways, waterways and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, trucking terminals, refueling depots and seaports. Terminals may be used both for maintenance. Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, buses, trucks, watercraft and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated, the procedures set for this purpose, including financing and policies. In the transport industry and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Passenger transport may be public. Freight transport has become focused on containerization, although bulk transport is used for large volumes of durable items. Transport plays an important part in economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While it is subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is essential to make traffic flow and restrain urban sprawl. Humans' first means of transport involved walking and swimming; the domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing the hauling of heavier loads, or humans riding animals for greater speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and the sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.
The first forms of road transport involved animals, such as horses, oxen or humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley, constructed paved roads. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath kept such roads dry; the medieval Caliphate built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two; the importance of water has led to most cities that grew up as sites for trading being located on rivers or on the sea-shore at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, production and consumption gravitated as close to each other as feasible; the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport.
With telegraphy, communication became independent of the transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independently of natural resources; the 19th century saw the development of the steam ship, which sped up global transport. With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile around 1900, road transport became more competitive again, mechanical private transport originated; the first "modern" highways were constructed during the 19th century with macadam. Tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controllable airplane, after World War I aircraft became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances. After World War II the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger services.
Scientific spaceflight began in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, fostering globalization. International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started attracting passengers on long-haul routes away from the airlines. Early in U. S. history, private joint-stock corporations owned most aqueducts, canals, railroads and tunnels. Most such transport infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail-service with the establishment of Amtrak. However, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some ground and adherents.
A mode of transport is a solution that makes use of a particular type of vehicle and operation. The transport of a person or of cargo may invol
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost, financially feasible at the present price of oil. Hence reserves will change with the price, unlike oil resources, which include all oil that can be technically recovered at any price. Reserves may be for a reservoir, a field, a nation, or the world. Different classifications of reserves are related to their degree of certainty; the total estimated amount of oil in an oil reservoir, including both producible and non-producible oil, is called oil in place. However, because of reservoir characteristics and limitations in petroleum extraction technologies, only a fraction of this oil can be brought to the surface, it is only this producible fraction, considered to be reserves; the ratio of reserves to the total amount of oil in a particular reservoir is called the recovery factor. Determining a recovery factor for a given field depends on several features of the operation, including method of oil recovery used and technological developments.
Based on data from OPEC at the beginning of 2013 the highest proved oil reserves including non-conventional oil deposits are in Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and Iran. Because the geology of the subsurface cannot be examined directly, indirect techniques must be used to estimate the size and recoverability of the resource. While new technologies have increased the accuracy of these techniques, significant uncertainties still remain. In general, most early estimates of the reserves of an oil field are conservative and tend to grow with time; this phenomenon is called reserves growth. Many oil-producing nations do not reveal their reservoir engineering field data and instead provide unaudited claims for their oil reserves; the numbers disclosed by some national governments are suspected of being manipulated for political reasons. All reserve estimates involve uncertainty, depending on the amount of reliable geologic and engineering data available and the interpretation of that data; the relative degree of uncertainty can be expressed by dividing reserves into two principal classifications—"proven" and "unproven".
Unproven reserves can further be divided into two subcategories—"probable" and "possible"—to indicate the relative degree of uncertainty about their existence. The most accepted definitions of these are based on those approved by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the World Petroleum Council in 1997. Proven reserves are those reserves claimed to have a reasonable certainty of being recoverable under existing economic and political conditions, with existing technology. Industry specialists refer to this as "P90". Proven reserves are known in the industry as "1P". Proven reserves are further subdivided into "proven developed" and "proven undeveloped". PD reserves are reserves that can be produced with existing wells and perforations, or from additional reservoirs where minimal additional investment is required. PUD reserves require additional capital investment to bring the oil to the surface; until December 2009 "1P" proven reserves were the only type the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission allowed oil companies to report to investors.
Companies listed on U. S. stock exchanges must substantiate their claims, but many governments and national oil companies do not disclose verifying data to support their claims. Since January 2010 the SEC now allows companies to provide additional optional information declaring 2P and 3P provided the evaluation is verified by qualified third party consultants, though many companies choose to use 2P and 3P estimates only for internal purposes. Unproven reserves are based on geological and/or engineering data similar to that used in estimates of proven reserves, but technical, contractual, or regulatory uncertainties preclude such reserves being classified as proven. Unproven reserves may be used internally by oil companies and government agencies for future planning purposes but are not compiled, they are sub-classified as possible. Probable reserves are attributed to known accumulations and claim a 50% confidence level of recovery. Industry specialists refer to them as "P50"; the sum of proven plus probable reserves is referred to in the industry as "2P".
Possible reserves are attributed to known accumulations that have a less chance of being recovered than probable reserves. This term is used for reserves which are claimed to have at least a 10% certainty of being produced. Reasons for classifying reserves as possible include varying interpretations of geology, reserves not producible at commercial rates, uncertainty due to reserve infill and projected reserves based on future recovery methods; the cumulative amount of proven and possible resources are referred to in the industry as "3P". In Russia, reserves categories A, B, C1 correspond to proved developed producing, proved developed nonproducing, proved undeveloped, respectively; the Russian category C2 includes possible reserves. Many countries maintain government-controlled oil reserves for both economic and national security reasons. According to the United States Energy Information Administration 4.1 billion barrels of oil are held in strategic reserves, of which 1.4 billion is government
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai