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National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden

The National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden is the most recent addition to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D. C. in the United States. It is located on the National Mall between the National Gallery's West Building and the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. Completed and opened to the public on 23 May 1999, the location provides an outdoor setting for exhibiting several pieces from the museum's contemporary sculpture collection; the collection is centered on a fountain which, from December to March, is converted to an ice-skating rink. The outdoor Pavilion Café lies adjacent to the garden. Laurie Olin and his firm, OLIN, were the landscape architects. Claes Oldenburg.


Zweibrücken is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river. The name Zweibrücken means'two bridges'. Older forms of the name include Middle High German Zweinbrücken, Latin Geminus Pons and Bipontum, French Deux-Ponts, all with the same meaning; the town was the capital of the former Imperial State of Palatinate-Zweibrücken owned by the House of Wittelsbach. The ducal castle is now occupied by the high court of the Palatinate. There is a fine Gothic Protestant church, Alexander's church, founded in 1493 and rebuilt in 1955. From the end of the 12th century, Zweibrücken was the seat of the County of Zweibrücken, the counts being descended from Henry I, youngest son of Simon I, Count of Saarbrücken; the line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard II, who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the Count Palatine of the Rhine, held the other half as his feudal domain. Louis, son of Stephen, founded the line of the counts palatine of Zweibrücken. In 1533, the count palatine converted Palatinate-Zweibrücken to the new Protestant faith.

In 1559, a member of the line, Duke Wolfgang, founded the earliest grammar school in the town, which lasted until 1987. When Charles X Gustav, the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, succeeded his cousin, Queen Christina of Sweden, on the Swedish throne, Palatinate-Zweibrücken was in personal union with Sweden, a situation that lasted until 1718. Starting in 1680, Louis XIV's Chambers of Reunion awarded Zweibruecken and other localities to France, but under the 1697 Treaty of Rijswijk, "The Duchy of Zweibruecken was restored to the King of Sweden, as Count Palatine of the Rhine."In 1731, Palatinate-Zweibrücken passed to the Palatinate-Birkenfeld-Zweibrücken branch of the counts palatine, from where it came under the sway of Bavaria in 1799. It was occupied by France in 1793 and on 4 November 1797, Zweibrücken became a canton centre in department of Mont Tonnerre. At the Peace of Lunéville in 1801, the French annexation of Zweibrücken was confirmed; the town of Zweibrücken became part of the Palatine region of the Kingdom of Bavaria.

At the ducal printing office at Zweibrücken the fine series of the classical editions known as the Bipontine Editions was published. The last prominent social event before the First World War was the inauguration of the Rosengarten by Princess Hildegard of Bavaria in June 1914; as a consequence of the First World War, Zweibrücken was occupied by French troops between 1918 and 1930. In the course of the Kristallnacht in 1938, Zweibrücken's synagogue was destroyed. On the outbreak of the Second World War the town was evacuated in 1939-1940, as it lay in the ‘Red Zone’ on the fortified Siegfried Line. Shortly before the end of the war, on 14 March 1945, the town was nearly destroyed in an air raid by the Royal Canadian Air Force, with the loss of more than 200 lives. On 20 March, American ground troops reached Zweibrücken; the town became part of the new state of Rhineland-Palatinate after the war. In 1993, the town underwent a major change. With the departure of the Americans, the military area became free, which corresponded altogether to a third of the entire urban area.

Unemployment increased to 21%, leading to a decrease in demand in the retail trade of 25%. 1895–1904 Wolff 1905–1905 Freudenberg 1905–1932 Roesinger 1932–1945 Karl Ernst Collofong 1945–1959 Ignaz Roth 1959–1969 Oskar Munzinger 1969–1979 Helmut Fichtner 1980–1992 Werner von Blon 1993–1999 Hans Otto Streuber 1999–2004 Jürgen Lambert 2004–2012 Helmut Reichling 2012–2018 Kurt Pirmann since 2018 Marold Wosnitza Weaving and the manufacture of machinery, cigars, boots and soap were the chief industries before World War II. Nowadays Terex cranes and bulldozers and John Deere harvesting equipment are the chief industries; the Hochschule Kaiserslautern, one of the largest universities in the Rhineland-Palatinate, with more than 6,000 students is located in Zweibrücken. The city of Zweibrücken is represented at various cultural events by the Rose Queen, elected every two years; the Zweibrücken City Museum has a permanent exhibition in the former residence of court gardener Ernst August Bernhard Petri, documenting the eventful history of Zweibrücken.

In addition, special exhibitions take place e.g. on the occasion of the 200th anniversary of the State Stud. The Bibliotheca Bipontina Zweibrücken is a scientific regional library in Zweibrücken, whose holdings go back to rescued parts of the ducal libraries and therefore houses valuable first editions from the 16th century, it is part of the Landesbibliothekszentrum Rheinland-Pfalz and one of the most important old holdings libraries in the state. The Bibliotheca Bipontina is housed in the building of the Helmholtz-Gymnasium Zweibrücken; the Zweibrücken City Library, which has existed since 1903, is housed in an adjoining building of the town hall and has a stock of around 50,000 volumes. Branches are the Rimschweiler branch. Schloss – Das Herzogschloss Zweibrücken – built in its present form in 1725 - is the largest Palatine secular building in the Baroque style of Nordic coinage, it was built in 1720-1725 by master builder Jonas Erikson Sundahl and is the former residence of t

List of songs written and performed by David Cook

The list of songs written and performed by David Cook comprises original songs recorded by American singer-songwriter David Cook for his studio albums, cover versions of songs by other artists performed by Cook, original songs written by Cook that were recorded and released by other artists. David Cook's original songs include those written and/or recorded by Cook and released on a studio album or on a single album. Cook has released 14 singles. A number of songs written and performed by David Cook have never been released. Many of these have been registered with professional music and copyright bodies, including the American Society of Composers and Publishers, the Broadcast Music Incorporated and Warner/Chappell Music. Several have been acknowledged and discussed by Cook in interviews, or by other sources. David Cook has covered a number of songs during his career; because Cook has performed some of the covers several times, the year listed for each is the year in which he first performed or released it.

Cook has written several songs. The track "No Reply" was written and intended to be featured in Cook's self-titled debut album, but the track was sent to Frankie Negrón and was recorded and released as a single in 2010, where the track was included in the album Independence Day. In 2014, Cook wrote the track "Kiss You Tonight", along with writers Jay Knowles and Trent Summer, for country artist David Nail, released as the second single for the album I'm a Fire; this was the third song Cook wrote for himself after relocating to Nashville in 2012, but he felt that the song didn't suit him. Summer recorded the demo and was sent to Joe Fisher at UMG who put it on hold for David Nail

John Liggins

Rev. John Liggins was an English-born Episcopalian missionary to China and Japan; the first Protestant missionary and ordained representative of Anglican Communion to reach Japan, together with his seminary classmate Channing Moore Williams, he helped found the Nippon Sei Ko Kai. Liggins was born in 1829 in Nuneaton, England. In 1841, following the death of his father, Liggins emigrated to the United States of America residing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, he was among 14 people confirmed at Emmanuel Episcopal Church in Philadelphia's then-developing Holmesburg neighborhood by Alonzo Potter on April 4, 1848. In June 1855, Liggins graduated from the Virginia Theological Seminary at Alexandria, which had sent several missionaries to China to assist VTS graduate bishop William J. Boone after that country opened to foreigners following the First Opium War. Virginia bishop William Meade on July 1, 1855 ordained Liggins as a deacon, together with Williams and other classmates, soon the Board of Foreign Missions in New York interviewed and accepted both Liggins and Williams as missionaries.

In November of the same year they sailed for China around South America, the ship stopping in Rio de Janeiro to repair damage, Sydney, Australia to reprovision. Liggins arrived in Shanghai on June 28, 1856, attended morning prayer in Chinese the next day at the Church of Our Saviour, which Boone had established, they visited the city's other Episcopal Church, Christ Church in the city's Chinese section. They needed to learn the local dialect, as well as Mandarin and the literary language Wen-li—although dictionaries were poor, textbooks unavailable, most Chinese teachers focused on Confucian classics and memorizing thousands of characters. Boothe, Cleveland Keith and local teachers helped the young missionaries, who studied nine hours daily. Soon, Liggins substituted for the British chaplain, John Hobson, who ministered to foreign sailors and the British settlement at Trinity Church. More seasoned VTS graduates Robert Nelson and Edward Syle allowed the young missionaries to accompany them as they were able.

Before Boone returned to the United States for health and furlough, he ordained both to the priesthood on January 11, 1857. Soon and the others began to preach, including on boat journeys outside Shanghai after Keith and his wife returned to Hawaii for health reasons in the year. Liggins and Williams realized that of the 20 missionaries sent during the previous decade, half had left before their own arrival, due to fevers, rough conditions; the countryside was ambiguous about foreigners, smarting from the defeat in the First Opium War. Many were curious about Western ways, but slavery, gambling and opium addiction had become problems that some Western merchants fostered; the Taiping Rebellion had begun and in 1853 captured Nanjing only 200 miles from Shanghai. Its leader proclaimed himself as the younger brother of Jesus Christ and fought the ruling Manchus, preached about the equality of women, communal ownership and revitalized ethics. On October 2, 1857, Liggins and Williams started on a missionary journey of about 12 days toward Suzhou, about 100 miles from Nanjing.

Sometimes they preached jointly near temples and their pamphlets and books were well received. Liggins suffered health problems as November began, so Williams proceeded alone on the next journey. Nonetheless, they both traveled toward Changshu, a city of about 100,000 people, about 70 miles northwest of Shanghai in February 1858, they preached, including on Chinese New Year's Day, confirmed Nelson's suggestion that it might be a good place to establish a mission, accordingly wrote Boone for permission in May. However, a week after they received accommodation at a temple in February, a police officer advised the priest who gave them shelter not to harbor foreign devils. Before they returned in June, Britain's gunboat diplomacy had led to the Treaty of Tientsin. While Changshu's mayor was interested in their preaching, many others wanted the missionaries to stay, other Mandarin officials opposed them. On April 5, 1859, Liggins was in Changshu during a festival known for disorder, thinking locals had accepted them.

A mob beat him and stole many items. Williams arrived five days and took his incapacitated friend back to Shanghai for medical treatment. A medical missionary who had returned from Nagasaki, Japan recommended that Liggins go there to recover and teach English. Liggins arrived in the port of Nagasaki on May 2, 1859, two months before the official opening of the foreign settlement. By month-end he received a letter from the Foreign Missions Committee in New York sending him and Williams to Japan, as he noted in the Spirit of Mission. Liggins thus became the first recorded Protestant missionary to arrive in Japan after the country ended over two centuries of self-imposed isolation. Williams arrived in Nagasaki on June 29. Liggins was housed at Kotokuin within Shofukuji

Peter Singer (judge)

Sir Jan Peter Singer was a judge of the High Court of England and Wales. Singer was educated at King Edward's School, Birmingham at Selwyn College, Cambridge. Singer was a judge in the High Court of Justice, Family Division, from 1993 to 2010. After his retirement from the bench, he acted as an independent mediator and advocate consultant at No. 1 Hare Court — his former chambers. He was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1967, becoming a Queen's Counsel in 1987, he was a Recorder between 1987 and 1993. He was Chairman of the Family Law Bar Association between 1990 and 92. Member, Matrimonial Causes Rule Committee 1981-85. Senate of Inns of Court and Bar 1983-6. Vice-President, European Chapter, International Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers 1992-93, he died on 22 December 2018 at the age of 74. On 15 November 2007 the Court of Appeal gave reasons for having allowed an appeal from Mr Justice Singer's refusal to recuse himself from hearing a hotly contested matrimonial finance case; the application that he should withdraw from further participation in the matter arose because the judge had made a number of jokes about one of the parties in the case, Sheikh Khalid Ben Abdfullah Rashid Alfawaz.

They included the observations — That the sheikh could choose “to depart on his flying carpet” to escape paying costs — That the sheikh should be available to attend hearings “at this fast-free time of the year” — That he should be in court so that “every grain of sand is sifted” — And that the sheikh’s evidence was “a bit gelatinous... Like Turkish Delight”. In his judgment in the Court of Appeal Lord Justice Ward said, of the remarks complained of, that: Unfortunately, every one of the four remarks can be seen to be not "colourful language" as the judge sought to excuse them but, to adopt submission, to be mocking and disparaging of the third respondent for his status as a Sheikh and/or his Saudi nationality and/or his ethnic origins and/or his Muslim faith In a statement after the judgment, issued on his behalf by the Judicial Communications Office, the judge said: “I wish publicly to apologise to Sheikh Khalid Ben Abdfullah Rashid Alfawaz for these remarks. My comments were poorly chosen.

They were not intended to be racist, nor have I intended any disrespect or disregard for the tenets of Islam, or for the sheikh’s Saudi nationality and Arab ethnicity. My judicial work and public speeches demonstrate that I am in no sense racist.... I did attempt to arrange for the final hearing to be conducted by one of my colleagues, but the workload on the Family Division of the High Court and the judicial resources available to us did not permit this if a long postponement of the final hearing was to be avoided. Though this does not excuse the way I expressed myself” Joint editor, Rayden on Divorce, 14th Ed. 1983. Joint editor, At a Glance, annually, 1992-. Consulting editor, Essential Family Practice 2000, he has Laura and a son, Luke. Who's Who 2010

Baker Boys: Inside the Surge

Baker Boys: Inside the Surge, is a 2010 four-part documentary series following the soldiers of Baker Company, Task Force 1-15 Infantry, 3d Heavy Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Infantry Division, during their deployment in Operation Iraqi Freedom at Combat Outpost Carver during the troop surge of 2007. The series provides an intimate view of soldiers on the front lines during the Surge of coalition troops in Iraq; when veteran war cameraman Jon Steele embedded with Baker Company in February, 2008, he came with no media affiliation or assignment from the news desk... only to ask the soldiers "What do you think?" and "How do you feel?" Over the next 90 days, he filmed everything they said from sun up to sundown. With startling access, the film documents what a counter-insurgency looks like up close and personal, as the "Surge" transforms the art of war into the "art of the deal". Along with footage from ground and air combat missions, the film focused around interviews with individual members of Baker Company."This documentary series is powerful," said Mark Cuban, chairman and co-founder of HDNet.

"Our viewers will be moved by these soldiers and the stories that they tell us in their own words. We're proud to be a part of this project and to present our viewers with this inside look at life in Iraq."This 4-part miniseries was directed by two-time Emmy Award winner Kern Konwiser and presented in association with Gigapix Studios, PointProd, Sandbag Productions. Baker Boys: Inside the Surge was first aired on January 4, 2010, in four 1 hour segments every Monday, on HDNet; the series was released for screening on April 2010 at the Newport Beach Film Festival. On January 4, 2011, Baker Boys was released on DVD exclusive through the Army and Air Force Exchange Service; the National Infantry Museum will be hosting a film premiere event for the Fort Benning community, home of the 1-15 Infantry featured in the film, by screening Baker Boys: Inside the Surge in its IMAX theatre on January 19 & 20, 2011. Following the screenings, there will be an open Q&A with journalist Jon Steele, director Kern Konwiser, several members of Baker Company who are now stationed at Fort Benning, including Baker Company's former commander, MAJ Rich Thompson.

This event was made possible through the collaborative efforts of Kern Konwiser and Richard Hagan, event's coordinator of the National Infantry Museum. Baker Boys: Inside the Surge has won awards at every festival in which it has been played, including: Baker Boys: Inside the Surge official website Baker Boys: Inside the Surge on IMDb Baker Boys: Inside the Surge at AllMovie Baker Boys: Inside the Surge's channel on YouTube