Environmental issues are harmful effects of human activity on the biophysical environment. Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organizational or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Environmentalism, a social and environmental movement, addresses environmental issues through advocacy and activism; the carbon dioxide equivalent of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has exceeded over 9000 parts per million. This level is considered a tipping point. "The amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is above the threshold that can cause dangerous climate change. We are at risk of many areas of pollution... It's not next year or next decade, it's now." The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs has stated "Climate change is not just a distant future threat. It is the main driver behind rising humanitarian needs and we are seeing its impact; the number of people affected and the damages inflicted by extreme weather has been unprecedented."
Further, OCHA has stated:Climate disasters are on the rise. Around 70 percent of disasters are now climate related – up from around 50 percent from two decades ago; these disasters come with a higher price tag. In the last decade, 2.4 billion people were affected by climate related disasters, compared to 1.7 billion in the previous decade. The cost of responding to disasters has risen tenfold between 1992 and 2008. Destructive sudden heavy rains, intense tropical storms, repeated flooding and droughts are to increase, as will the vulnerability of local communities in the absence of strong concerted action. Environment destruction caused by humans is a global problem, this is a problem, on going every day. By year 2050, the global human population is expected to grow by 2 billion people, thereby reaching a level of 9.6 billion people. The human effects on Earth can be seen in many different ways. A main one is the temperature rise, according to the report ”Our Changing Climate”, the global warming, going on for the past 50 years is due to human activities.
Since 1895, the U. S. average temperature has increased from 1.3 °F to 1.9 °F, with most of the increase taken place since around year 1970. Major current environmental issues may include climate change, environmental degradation, resource depletion etc; the conservation movement lobbies for protection of endangered species and protection of any ecologically valuable natural areas, genetically modified foods and global warming. The level of understanding of Earth has increased markedly in recent times through science with the application of the scientific method. Environmental science is now a multi-disciplinary academic study taught and researched at many universities; this is used as a basis for addressing environmental issues. Large amounts of data have been gathered and these are collated into reports, of which a common type is the State of the Environment publications. A recent major report was the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, with input from 1200 scientists and released in 2005, which showed the high level of impact that humans are having on ecosystem services.
Environmental issues are addressed at a regional, national or international level by government organizations. The largest international agency, set up in 1972, is the United Nations Environment Programme; the International Union for Conservation of Nature brings together 83 states, 108 government agencies, 766 Non-governmental organizations and 81 international organizations and about 10,000 experts and scientists from countries around the world. International non-governmental organizations include Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and World Wide Fund for Nature. Governments enact environmental policy and enforce environmental law and this is done to differing degrees around the world. Sustainability is the key to reduce the effect of environmental issues. There is now clear scientific evidence that humanity is living unsustainably, that an unprecedented collective effort is needed to return human use of natural resources to within sustainable limits. For humans to live sustainably, the Earth's natural resources must be used at a rate at which they can be replenished.
Concerns for the environment have prompted the formation of green parties, political parties that seek to address environmental issues. These were formed in Australia, New Zealand and Germany but are now present in many other countries. There are an increasing number of films being produced on environmental issues on climate change and global warming. Al Gore's 2006 film An Inconvenient Truth gained a high media profile. Index of environmental articles Human impact on the environment Global issueIssues List of environmental issues Specific issues Media related to Environmental problems at Wikimedia Commons
National Geographic Traveler
National Geographic Traveler is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society in the United States. It was launched in 1984. Local-language editions of National Geographic Traveler are published in Armenia, Belgium/the Netherlands, Croatia, Czech Republic, Latin America, Poland, Russia and Spain. A UK edition launched in December 2010. National Geographic Traveler's main competitors are Condé Travel + Leisure. Keith Bellows was the editor-in-chief until October 2014. Executive editor Norie Quintos was named acting editor-in-chief before Maggie Zackowitz was appointed editor-in-chief in May 2015. Longtime contributor George Stone was named editor-in-chief on January 27, 2016. Other contributors include Christopher Elliott, Deena Guzder, Carl Hoffman, Boyd Matson, Andrew McCarthy. Official website Official National Geographic Traveller website
Gary Evan Knell is the Chairman of National Geographic Partners. He was president and CEO of the National Geographic Society, one of the world's largest nonprofit organizations with a worldwide reach of more than 700 million people each month through its media and events, he joined National Geographic as chief executive in January 2014. He has been a member of the Society's board of trustees since April 2013 and has served on the board of governors of the National Geographic Education Foundation since November 2003. From 2011 to 2013 he was president and CEO of National Public Radio NPR. Prior to that he served as CEO of Sesame Workshop from 2000–2011. Knell graduated from Grant High School in Los Angeles and earned a BA in political science from UCLA in 1975, followed by a law degree from Loyola Law School in L. A. in 1978. While at UCLA, he worked on the Daily Bruin. Knell's media career spans nearly three decades. Before joining National Geographic as president and CEO in January 2014, Knell served as president and CEO of National Public Radio from 2011 to 2013.
He led NPR's worldwide media operations. He oversaw the fiscal and journalistic integrity of NPR and led the building of the organization and its philanthropic base to support and leverage the strengths of NPR and its extensive network of stations. A strong advocate of innovation, he was a key driver in leveraging new technologies to advance NPR's core mission and grew audience for all of public media. Knell was CEO of Sesame Workshop for 12 years before joining NPR in 2011, he joined the company in 1989 and assumed the role of COO in 1998 before moving into the CEO role in 2000. During his tenure at Sesame, the organization expanded its revenue base and global recognition. Knell was instrumental in focusing the organization on Sesame Street's worldwide mission, including the creation of groundbreaking co-productions in South Africa, Northern Ireland and Egypt. Prior to joining Sesame Workshop, Knell was managing director of Manager Media International, a print and multimedia publishing company based in Bangkok, Hong Kong, Singapore.
He has served as senior vice president and general counsel at WNET/Channel 13 in New York, was counsel to the U. S. Senate Judiciary and Governmental Affairs Committees in Washington, D. C. and worked in Governor's Office. Knell is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he serves on the boards of Heidrick & Struggles and Common Sense Media as well as the advisory boards of the Military Child Education Coalition and the Pentagon Memorial Fund. He is an adviser to the USC Annenberg School for Journalism. A Gordon Grand Fellow at Yale University, Knell was a guest lecturer at Harvard University, Duke University, Southern Methodist University, Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Puerto Rico, he received honorary doctorates from Kenyon College in Ohio and Mercy College in New York and has served as the commencement speaker at Johns Hopkins University, UCLA, the University of Texas at Austin. Knell received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science from UCLA, where he served as Editorial Director of the UCLA Daily Bruin and was a stringer for the Associated Press.
He received a JD from Loyola University School of Law in Los Angeles. Knell is married to Kim Larson, a non-profit fund raiser, they have four children. Sesame Workshop NPR
National Geographic is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded, it contains articles about science, geography and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by The Walt Disney Company since 2019; the magazine is published monthly, additional map supplements are included with subscriptions. It is available through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued; as of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Goldberg is Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to CEO of National Geographic Partners; the first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, became well known for this style; the June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.
National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was closed. In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine, it was sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation; the magazine prevailed in the dispute, in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was updated to make more recent issues available, the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers. On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.
In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners. The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief"; the list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980. John Hyde Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor John Oliver LaGorce Melville Bell Grosvenor Frederick Vosburgh Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Wilbur E. Garrett William Graves William L. Allen Chris Johns Susan Goldberg During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain; the magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.
There were many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. There were articles about biology and science topics. In years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, chemical pollution, global warming, endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, food crop, o
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
National Geographic Kids
National Geographic Kids is a children's magazine published by the National Geographic Society. Its first issue was printed in September 1975 under the original title National Geographic World; the magazine was published for twenty-six years as National Geographic World, until the title of the magazine was changed in 2002 to National Geographic Kids. In a broad sense, the publication is a version of National Geographic, the flagship magazine of the National Geographic Society, intended for children. National Geographic Kids publishes ten issues annually; the headquarters of the magazine is in Washington, D. C; as of June, 2006, the magazine reports a circulation of more than 1.3 million in English, with an estimated English language readership of more than 4.6 million. There are eighteen editions of National Geographic Kids in languages other than English, published in Bulgaria, Egypt, Greece, Indonesia, Italy, Latin America, Belgium/Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, South Africa and the United Kingdom.
The magazine is written for children between the ages of fourteen. It solicits reader feedback after each issue; the magazine launched a spin-off, National Geographic Little Kids, targeted toward children under kindergarten age. In 2009 the magazine launched their first almanac called National Geographic Kids Almanac 2010. In 2010 the almanac continued with an updated book, National Geographic Kids Almanac 2011. There have been new updates to the almanac issued annually since then. World Atlas 1st Edition World Atlas 2nd Edition World Atlas 3rd Edition World Atlas 4th Edition These are some of the regular features, most of which appear periodically, Amazing Animals Fun Stuff The Inside Scoop Kids Did It! Go On Safari! What in the World Video Game Central Weird But True Cool Inventions Stupid Criminals Just Joking Sports Funnies Guinness World Records Wildlife Watch Unleashed Naughty Pets The Green List Bet You Didn't Know The twenty-eighth anniversary issue in June, 2002 was well publicized, it featured a "Top 25" list of the things readers most enjoyed a collection of cards people had sent to the magazine, a special "Kids Did It" column that featured updates on the lives of celebrities, featured in the magazine when they were kids, such as Michelle Kwan.
The thirtieth anniversary issue in September, 2005 featured an article describing what life might be like in thirty years. It featured thirty "cool things" of the future. Karwootadang Science education National Geographic Kids Media Kit URL accessed on November 16, 2007 Official website
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the