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National Guard Bureau

The National Guard Bureau is the federal instrument responsible for the administration of the United States National Guard established by the United States Congress as a joint bureau of the Department of the Army and the Department of the Air Force. It was created by the Militia Act of 1903; the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, elevated the National Guard to a joint function of the Department of Defense. This act elevated the Chief of the National Guard Bureau from Lieutenant General to General with the appointment of General Craig R. McKinley, U. S. Air Force; the National Guard Bureau holds a unique status as operation agency. United States Secretary of War Elihu Root militated for reform of the militia, in annual reports of 1901 of 1903 and in public letters, he argued that state militias should be more like the Army in discipline, uniforms and training, to mitigate problems that arose in the U. S. Civil War and the recent Spanish–American War of 1898; the Militia Act of 1792 was obsolete.

The resulting Militia Act of 1903 became law. It gave federal status to the militia and required the organized militia of the States to conform to Regular Army organization and standards, it increased federal funding of the militia: between 1903 and 1916, the federal government spent $53 million on the Guard, more than the total of the previous hundred years. The 1903 act authorized the creation of a separate section responsible for National Guard affairs. Located in the Miscellaneous Division of the Adjutant General's office, this small section, headed by Major James Parker, with four clerks, was the predecessor of today's National Guard Bureau; this section remained under the supervision of the Adjutant General's Office until War Department Orders on February 12, 1908 created the Division of Militia Affairs in the Office of the Secretary of War. The Division remained a part of the Office of the Secretary of War until July 25, 1910 when the Chief was directed to report directly to the Army Chief of Staff.

The Division continued to perform under the direct jurisdiction of the Chief of Staff until the passage of the National Defense Act of June 3, 1916. The Division of Militia Affairs became the Militia Bureau of the War Department, under the direct supervision of the Secretary of War; the National Defense Act of 1916 stated that all units would have to be federally recognized, that the qualifications for officers would be set by the War Department. It increased the number of annual training days to 15, increased the number of yearly drills to 48, authorized pay for drills; the 1916 act transformed the Division of Militia Affairs into a separate Militia Bureau, increasing its autonomy and authority. Eight new civilian positions were authorized, something which the various Chiefs had been requesting for years; the National Defense Act authorized the President to assign two National Guard officers to duty with the Militia Bureau. The inclusion of National Guard officers in the Militia Bureau was an important step towards creating a centralized planning organization for the National Guard headed by its own officers.

The first National Guard officer assigned to the Bureau was Major Louis C. Wilson of Texas in 1916. On September 11, 1917, War Department General Order 119 stated that the jurisdiction of the Militia Bureau includes "coordination through the office of the Chief of Staff, of the organization and instruction of the National Guard under department commanders in a manner similar to the coordination by the Chief of Staff of the organization and training of the Regular Army under department commanders." Thus the National Guard Bureau was charged with the responsibility of maintaining high standards in the National Guard. Prior to 1910 the Chief of the Militia Bureau was a Regular Army officer; this situation changed on June 4, 1920, when Congress passed an amendment to the National Defense Act of 1916. One of the amendment's conditions stated that effective January 1, 1921, the Chief of the National Guard Bureau would be selected from lists of present or former National Guard officers; the act reads: The Chief National Guard Bureau shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, by selection from the lists of officers of the National Guard of the United States recommended as suitable for such appointment by their respective Governors, who have had ten or more years commissioned service in the National Guard...

The Chief of the National Guard Bureau shall hold office for four years unless sooner removed for cause, shall not be eligible to succeed himself... Upon accepting his office, the CNGB shall be appointed a Major General in the National Guard of the United States, commissioned in the Army of the United States, while serving shall have the rank and allowances of a Major General; the act was amended so that the Chief could succeed himself. The first appointee under these provisions was Major General George C. Rickards of Pennsylvania; the amendment provided for the creation of a General Staff committee of National Guard officers, which could recommend policies affecting the Guard. The Bureau was known as the Militia Bureau until it was designated as the National Guard Bureau by an amendment to Section 81 of the National Defense Act on June 15, 1933. Furthermore, this amendment worked towards settling the issue of the National Guard as a reserve component, it stated that there would be two National Guards: the National Guard of the several states, the National Guard of the United States.

The former would be the individual state militias, employed in local emergencies and national defense. The latter

Province of Agrigento

The Province of Agrigento is a province in the autonomous island region of Sicily in Italy, situated on its south-western coast. Following the suppression of the Sicilian provinces, it was replaced in 2015 by the Free municipal consortium of Agrigento, it has an area of 3,041.90 square kilometres, a total population of 474,493. There are 43 comunes in the province, it is surrounded by Province of Palermo in the north, Trapani in the west, Mediterranean Sea in the south and Caltanissetta in the east. Gela inhabitants founded the province in 6th century B. C. as Akragas. The province was destroyed by the Carthage in 406 B. C. but was ruled by the Romans, Goths and Arabs. The Arabs rebuilt several parts of the province. Several ancient Doric temples were constructed during the 6th and 5th century B. C. for the purpose of worshiping Hercules, Olympian Jupiter, Castor and Demeter. They are located in the Valley of Temples; the ancient temples and other architectural structures were built using the stones of the hills near Capo San Marco.

The most important cities are Agrigento, Canicattì, Licata, Porto Empedocle. Agrigento is the birthplace of the noted writer Luigi Pirandello and the philosopher Empedocles. According to the government records the number of unemployed people is about 17% of the total labour force; the province is known for its beaches. The beaches of Torre Salsa have been designated as natural reserves and are protected due to their environmental importance; the province is well known for its wines. The total areas covered by vineyards in 1984 was triple to that in 1949. During this period Marsala based wine merchants used the grapes produced in the province to produce Marsala wine. In 1984 the local government passed a law. Around three-quarters of the Sicilian land devoted to growing Fiano grapes is in the province; some of the important municipalities known for their vineyards include Sambuca di Sicilia and Santa Margherita di Belice. The road network in the province comprises 540 km. of street roads, 1,000 km. of provincial roads, 260 km. of communal roads and 56 km. of regional roads.

55% of the total rail network is suitable for electric trains. Nesto, Bill; the World of Sicilian Wine. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-95507-3

Piano Trio No. 2 (Mendelssohn)

Felix Mendelssohn's Piano Trio No. 2 in C minor, Op. 66 was composed in 1845 and published in February 1846. The work is scored for a standard piano trio consisting of violin and piano. Mendelssohn dedicated the work to the violinist Louis Spohr, who played through the piece with the composer at least once; the trio has four movements: Allegro energico e con fuoco Andante espressivo Scherzo: Molto allegro quasi presto Finale: Allegro appassionato A typical performance lasts just under 30 minutes. A notable feature of the finale of this work is its use of the melody of a chorale taken from the sixteenth-century Genevan psalter, "Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir", as the culminating melody; the tune is known in English as Old Hundredth from its association with the Psalm 100 and is sung to the lyrics "Praise God from whom all blessings flow." Bach used the chorale as the basis for his chorale cantata "Herr Gott, dich loben alle wir, BWV 130, as the theme in the contrapuntal first movement and as the unadorned chorale in the last.

The chorale in the finale of the piano trio has and erroneously been identified as "Vor deinen Thron", which pictures humans before the Throne of God, a dark and serious chorale as opposed to the triumphal Old Hundredth. Bach wrote a chorale prelude Vor deinen Thron on his deathbed, it was published as an addendum to the unfinished Art of the Fugue, in the collection known as the Leipzig Chorales. The opening theme of the finale was adopted by Brahms for the Scherzo of his Piano Sonata No. 3, Op. 5, Brahms used the opening of the first movement of this trio as the basis for the piano line in the finale of his Piano Quartet No. 3 in C minor, Op. 60. Piano Trio No. 2: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Performance of Piano Trio No. 2 by the Claremont Trio from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in MP3 format

J. Geraint Jenkins

John Geraint Jenkins, known as J. Geraint Jenkins, was a Welsh maritime historian and historian of rural crafts. Jenkins was born in 1929 into a Welsh-speaking "seafaring" family based near Llangrannog in Ceredigion, he graduated from the Aberystwyth in 1950 with a degree in geography and anthropology, completed a master's degree there under E. G. Bowen and Alwyn J. Rees, he worked at a museum in Leicester from 1952 to 1953, when he was appointed Assistant Keeper at the Museum of English Rural Life in Reading, which came with a part-time lectureship at the University of Reading. In 1960, he returned to Wales as Assistant Keeper of the Welsh Folk Museum at St Fagans, nine years he secured promotion as Keeper of Material Culture, he moved in 1977 to the Welsh Industrial and Maritime Museum in Cardiff, to be closer to the sea and his interest in maritime history. In 1981, the University of Wales conferred on him a doctor of science degree, but his move back to St Fagans and the Folk Museum in 1987 to be its Curator was less happy, owing in part to clashes with management and what Jenkins regarded as English interference.

He retired early in 1992, moved to Penbryn. He was the High Sheriff of Dyfed in 1994–95 and joined Ceredigion County Council, serving as its Chairman in 2002–03. Jenkins died on 15 August 2009, leaving a widow and two sons and Gareth. According to his obituary in The Independent, "Geraint Jenkins played a leading role in the preservation and interpretation of the maritime history of Wales, he published more than 50 books, many to do with the seafaring traditions of west Wales, was an acknowledged authority on the subject. He made expert studies of other aspects of Welsh folk life, including traditional farm implements, rural crafts, the woollen industry and Cardiff ship-owners." The English Farm Wagon The Welsh Woollen Industry Crefftwyr Gwlad Nets and Coracles Life and Tradition in Rural Wales The Inshore Fishermen of Wales Traddodiad y Môr Welsh Ships and Sailing Men Ar Lan Hen Afon Y Cwrwgl

Off-TV Play

Off-TV Play is a feature of Nintendo's eighth-generation video game console, the Wii U. Like all video game consoles, the Wii U uses a console and a controller to manipulate an image on a television screen; the Wii U's unique feature is that its controller, the Wii U GamePad, has its own built-in screen for displaying images. It can display an different image, or duplicate the television screen into the Wii U GamePad. Off-TV Play is the term used for when an entire game is played on the controller, without the use of a television; the Wii U console was unveiled at E3 2011 in June 2011, where it was first detailed that the console's controller would feature a tablet-like touchscreen. Nintendo announced that a major focus of the console would be the ability to display the image seen on the television on the touchscreen, to continue playing the game if the television was needed for other uses, or the player needed to move away from the television. Official terms were given at E3 2012. For supported games, a television isn't required to be connected to the Wii U.

However, as the processing is done on the console, transmitted to the GamePad, the user must still keep within the transmitting range for it to work. Not all games support Off-TV Play, as some games conceptually rely on the asymmetric interplay between the television screen and the Wii U GamePad screen, such as Nintendo Land and ZombiU. However, All Wii U Virtual Console titles purchased from the Nintendo eShop include the option to use Off-TV Play. Original Wii games and Virtual Console games were not compatible either, although this was changed in the Wii U's September 30, 2013 system update, which allows it, but only through the use of original Wii peripherals as input methods, meaning that the image would appear on Wii U Gamepad screen, but its buttons would not work, requiring the use of Wii Remotes and Wii Nunchuks for button and joystick input; this was revised again in January 2015. Because games re-released in this fashion were reworked to run straight from the Wii U operating screen, not Wii Mode, the game allowed for Off TV Play on Wii games with GamePad controls, provided the game allowed for Classic Controller usage in its Wii release.

^ Off-TV Play must be activated via a menu on the TV screen. ^ Off-TV Play can not be disabled mid-game ^ An update is required to use Off-TV Play. ^ When using the feature in multiplayer mode, only platforms can be placed using the Wii U GamePad's touchscreen and a Wii Remote and/or Wii U Pro Controller is required. ^ Off-TV Play is activated by swiping down on touchscreen. ^ Some activities are not compatible with Off-TV Play. The concept has received positive reviews; the CNET praised the feature as being "nothing short of fantastic because it prevents the monopolization of a TV while gaming – something anyone who doesn't live alone can appreciate. For those households where the main TV is in constant demand, off-TV sounds like a godsend." However, a major concern cited is that it wasn't a required feature, meaning the developers can opt out of making it possible in their respective games, so in theory, it could become obsolete. Kotaku praised it as well, stating that it is a good feature for those who like to multi-task, since it frees up the television for other uses.

TechSpot described it as "a luxury few people asked for but that turns out to be wonderful to have". Destructoid praised it for being the same as playing on the television, only "with some limited portability for no extra charge. Hard to find fault in that." GamesRadar praised the feature for being perfect for the avid television watcher, but criticized the fact that there wasn't a standardized way to activate it, such as its own button. IGN stated in their review for the Wii U, that in regards to single player experiences, they preferred it when the entire game could be transferred to the GamePad over using it in conjunction with a television; some critics have argued that the image has superior quality while using Off-TV Play, while others have cited concerns over the small size of the screen making it difficult to see all the details of the image. Eurogamer's "Digital Foundry" testing showed that the Wii U's Off-TV Play feature outperformed Sony's similar Remote Play feature on its PlayStation 4 and PlayStation Vita systems in image quality and frame-rate.

Pocket Gamer agreed. While critics praised the Wii U update enabling Off-TV Play support to original Wii software played in Wii Mode, they lamented the update's shortcoming of requiring Wii controllers and peripherals to play rather than the Wii U GamePad itself; this was rectified by Nintendo in January 2015, when they announced that Wii games digitally re-released for the Wii U eShop would allow for GamePad controls, because they play directly through the Wii U, not "Wii Mode" when using the disc version of the games. Remote Play Wii U GamePad Xbox SmartGlass List of Wii U software

Scouting in Kentucky

Scouting in Kentucky has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live. Kentucky has a early Scouting heritage, as the home state of Daniel Carter Beard. Burnside, in south-central Kentucky, is believed to be home to the first Boy Scout troop in the United States. In 1908, two years before the Boy Scouts of America was organized, Mrs. Myra Greeno Bass organized a local troop of 15 boys, using official Boy Scout materials she had acquired from England. A sign at the edge of town declares Burnside "Birthplace of Boy Scouts of America", an official state historical society marker commemorates the troop. Burnside is now part of the Blue Grass Council. Boy Scouts of America Troop 1 in Frankfort, Kentucky was established in 1909 by Stanley A. Harris. There has been a long-standing belief that this was the first Boy Scout troop in the United States. However, Troop 1 was formed under the British Boy Scouts and the charter was destroyed in a fire around 1920.

Nonetheless, Troop 1 is still active and is sponsored by the First Christian Church of Frankfort, Kentucky. Outside of Frankfort, in towns like Danville, Kentucky in Boyle County, 3 new troops organized in December 1911. Troop 1, Christian Church with nelson Rodes as Scoutmaster, Troop 2, Centenary Methodist Church with Sandridge as Scoutmaster, Troop 3, Presbyterian Church, no Scoutmaster listed. Of these, Troop 1 continues today as Troop 326 and Troop 2 continues today as Troop 27. In addition, small councils began in a number of places, with the Issac Shelby Area Council, made up of Mercer and Jessamine Counties and the Daniel Boone Council of Winchester and the Frankfort Council; these were among the councils who merged to create the Blue Grass Council in 1927 in Lexington, Kentucky. Kentucky claims an early unofficial girl's scouting group, an 8 girl patrol of Boy Scout Troop #17 in Louisville in July 1911; the first official troops was formed in 1917 in Scottsville. In 1914, the BSA gave local councils the power to ban African Americans from Scouting.

In 1922, the BSA revised that ban and allowed local Councils to create "shadow Councils" for their black and other racial/ethnic minorities. Until 1974, some southern councils of the Boy Scouts of America were still racially segregated; the Louisville Area Council, headquartered in Louisville, was the first BSA local Council to develop such a "shadow Council" and board members of that "inter-racial council" were permitted to serve on the Louisville Area Council's board without vote. The BSA's "inter-racial council" program ended in 1954. Most Girl Scouts of the USA units were segregated by race according to state and local laws and customs. By the 1950s, the GSUSA began significant national efforts to desegregate the camps and maintain racial balance. One of the first desegregations was Camp Shantituck in Kentucky, accomplished by Murray Walls in 1956; the National Scouting Museum was located on the campus of Murray State University in Murray, before being relocated to the National BSA Headquarters in Irving, Texas.

Recognized by Governor Carroll in 1975 for this achievement, he was just 11 years old when awarded his faith's religious emblem. Mike Walton of Rose Terrace became the state's only black Exploring representative in 1976, ran unsuccessfully for national Explorer President in 1977. Since that time, two other Kentuckians—James "Buddy" Lockhart of Owensboro, Colleen McWhorter of Paris, served as "Area Exploring Chair" of the area encompassing not only Kentucky but Tennessee. Hazen A. Dean, a Scoutmaster of BSA Troop 24 at Settle Memorial Methodist Church in Owensboro, KY was the first Kentuckian to receive a "70 Continuous Years of Service Award" from Boy Scouts of America in 1983, he served as Scoutmaster for over 50 years with Owensboro's oldest troop #24, from 1949 till death in 1984. Among his many honors, he received the Scoutmaster's Silver Beaver Awards. Recognized for having led 86 scouts to achieve the coveted rank of Eagle Scout. S. A. at that time. Governor's Outstanding Kentuckian Award in 1982 by Lt.

Governor and Governor, Martha Layne Collins. A Kentucky Historical marker #1747 was dedicated in special ceremonies held in downtown Owensboro by U. S. Senator and former Governor Wendell H. Ford and Owensboro Mayor Jack C. Fisher in 1984. A portion of the Boy Scout camp Wildcat Hollow at Russellville, KY was named in honor of Hazen A. Dean. Dean did not receive the Eagle Scout Award until he was an adult in 1958. There are six BSA local councils in Kentucky. Two councils are headquartered in Kentucky; the other four councils are headquartered in neighboring states. All of Kentucky lies within Southern Region