National Institutes of Technology
The National Institutes of Technology are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India. They are governed by the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007, which declared them as institutions of national importance alongside Indian Institutes of Technology; these institutes of national importance receive special recognition from the Government of India. The NIT Council is the supreme governing body of India's National Institutes of Technology system and all 31 NITs are funded by the Government of India; these institutes are among the top ranked engineering colleges in India and have one of the lowest acceptance rates for engineering institutes, of around 2 to 3 percent, second only to the Indian Institutes of Technology in India. All NITs are autonomous; the language of instruction is English at all these institutes. NITs offer degree courses at bachelors and doctorate levels in various branches of engineering, architecture and science. Admission to the under-graduate courses such as Bachelor of Technology and Bachelor of Architecture programs in NITs are through the competitive Joint Entrance Examination.
Admission to postgraduate courses are through the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering for Master of Technology and Master of Science programs, Common Admission Test for Master of Business Administration program and NIMCET for Master of Computer Applications program. Since 2015, the Joint Seat Allocation Authority and Centralized Counselling for M. Tech/M. Arch and M. Plan conduct the admission process for undergraduate and postgraduate programs in all NITs; as of 2017, the total number of seats for undergraduate programs is 19,000 and for post graduate programs is 8,050 in all 31 NITs. During the second five-year plan in India, a number of industrial projects were contemplated. To ensure enough supply of trained personnel to meet the demand for these projects, a decision was taken to start the Regional Engineering Colleges, at the rate of one per each major state, which can churn out graduates with good engineering merit. Thus, seventeen RECs were established from 1959 onwards in each of the major states.
Each college was a joint and cooperative enterprise of the central government and the concerned state government. The Government opened 8 RECs in 1960 two in each region, as follows: Later on 5 more were added by 1965; the early 14 Institutes were Srinagar, Calicut, Kurukshetra, Jaipur, Rourkela, Surat, Trichy and Allahabad. It established one in Silchar in 1967 and added two others located at Hamirpur in 1986, Jalandhar in 1987; these were large-sized institutions judged by the standards prevailing in the country. The considerations that weighed in this decision were: A large-sized college would be more efficient than the equivalent small colleges, the proposed colleges have to meet the additional requirements of the country as a whole and for that purpose should have to function on an all-India basis. Therefore, the smaller they are in number and the larger in size, the better, for the same reason their location is important from an all-India point of view; the RECs were jointly operated by the concerned state government.
Non-recurring expenditures and expenditures for post-graduate courses during the REC period were borne by the central government while recurring expenditure on undergraduate courses was shared by central and state governments. The success of technology-based industry led to high demand for scientific education. Due to the enormous costs and infrastructure involved in creating globally respected Indian Institutes of Technology, in 2002 Ministry of Human Resource Development Minister Murli Manohar Joshi decided to upgrade RECs to "National Institutes of Technology" instead of creating IITs; the central government controls provides all funding. In 2002, all RECs became NITs; the upgrade was designed along the lines of the Indian Institutes of Technology after it was concluded that RECs had potential as proven by the success of their alumni and their contributions in the field of technical education. Subsequently and autonomy for NITs increased, they award degrees which have raised their graduates' perceived value.
These changes implemented recommendations of the "High Powered Review Committee". The HPRC, chaired by R. A. Mashelkar, submitted its report entitled "Strategic Road Map for Academic Excellence of Future RECs" in 1998. In 2004, MHRD issued NIT status to three more colleges, located at Patna and Agartala. Based on the request of state governments and feasibility, future NITs are either converted from existing institutes or can be freshly created; the 21st NIT is planned for Imphal in the north-eastern state of Manipur at an initial cost of Rs. 500 crores. In 2010, the government announced setting up ten new NITs in the remaining states/territories; this would lead to every state in India having its own NIT. With the technology based industry's continuing growth, the government decided to upgrade twenty National Institutes of Technology to full-fledged technical universities. Parliament passed enabling legislation, the National Institutes of Technology Act in 2007 and took effect on 15 August of that year.
The target is to fulfill the need for quality manpower in the field of engineering and technology and to provide consistent governance, fee structure, rules across the NITs. The law designates each NIT an Institute of Na
Tripura is a state in northeastern India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491 km2 and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north and west, the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population. The area of modern Tripura—ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty—was part of an independent princely state under the protectorate of the British Empire; the independent Tripuri Kingdom joined the newly independent India in 1949. Ethnic strife between the indigenous Tripuri people and the migrant Bengali population—due to large influx of Bengali Hindu refugees and settlers from East Bengal—led to tension and scattered violence since Tripura's integration into India, but the establishment of an autonomous tribal administrative agency and other strategies have led to peace. Tripura lies in a geographically disadvantageous location in India, as only one major highway, the National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country.
Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Longtharai and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys. The state has a tropical savanna climate, receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product. According to 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87.75%. Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions and festivities; the sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions.
The Great Chinmoy in Agartala was the former royal abode of the Tripuri king. The Sanskrit name of the state is linked to the Hindu goddess of beauty. Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhyu, who belonged to the lineage of Yayati, a king of the Lunar Dynasty. There have been suggestions to the effect that the origin of the name Tripura is doubtful, raising the possibility that the Sanskritic form is just due to a folk etymology of a Tibeto-Burman name. Variants of the name include Tripra and Tippera. A Kokborok etymology from twi and pra has been suggested. Although there is no evidence of lower or middle Paleolithic settlements in Tripura, Upper Paleolithic tools made of fossil wood have been found in the Haora and Khowai valleys; the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. An ancient name of Tripura is Kirat Desh referring to the Kirata Kingdoms or the more generic term Kirata. However, it is unclear; the region was under the rule of the Twipra Kingdom for centuries, although when this dates from is not documented.
The Rajmala, a chronicle of Tripuri kings, first written in the 15th century, provides a list of 179 kings, from antiquity up to Krishna Kishore Manikya, but the reliability of the Rajmala has been doubted. The boundaries of the kingdom changed over the centuries. At various times, the borders reached south to the jungles of the Sundarbans on the Bay of Bengal. There were several Muslim invasions of the region from the 13th century onward, which culminated in Mughal dominance of the plains of the kingdom in 1733, although their rule never extended to the hill regions; the Mughals had influence over the appointment of the Tripuri kings. Tripura became a princely state during British rule in India; the kings had an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad, in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state. Udaipur, in the south of Tripura, was the capital of the kingdom, until the king Krishna Manikya moved the capital to Old Agartala in the 18th century.
It was moved to the new city of Agartala in the 19th century. Bir Chandra Manikya modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. In 1926,it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 1948,January 4. Following the independence of India in 1947, Tippera district – the estate in the plains of British India – became a part of East Pakistan, Hill Tippera remained under a regency council until 1949; the Maharani Regent of Tripura signed the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9 September 1949
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
National Institute of Technology Calicut
National Institute of Technology Calicut Regional Engineering College Calicut, is an autonomous, federally funded technical university and an institute of national importance governed by the NIT Act passed by the Parliament of India. The campus is situated near Chathamangalam, 22 kilometres north east of Kozhikode, on the Kozhikode–Mukkam Road, it was established in 1961 and was known as Calicut Regional Engineering College until 2002. It is one of the National Institutes of Technology campuses established by the Government of India for imparting high standard technical education to students from all over the country. NIT Calicut is one of the few universities in the region to hosts a supercomputer of its own, amongst the pioneers in the country to have a dedicated nanotechnology department. National Institute of Technology, Calicut was set up in 1961 as Regional Engineering College Calicut, the ninth of its kind and the first one to be established during the Third Five-Year Plan period; until the formation of Calicut University in 1963, the institute was affiliated with Kerala University.
It was due to the efforts of Pattom Thanu Pillai Chief Minister of Kerala, that the institute came into being. Prof. S. Rajaraman, first principal of Government Engineering College, Thrissur was appointed as the special officer in 1961 to organise the activities of the college until M. V. Kesava Rao took charge as the first principal of the college; the classes were held at the Government Polytechnic at West Hill, before it moved to its present campus in 1963. The college started with an annual intake of 125 students for the undergraduate courses, on a campus of 120 hectares; the intake for the undergraduate courses was increased to 250 in 1966, 150 for the first year and 100 for the preparatory course. The annual intake was reduced from 250 to 200 from the year 1968–69 on account of industrial recession. After Prof S. Unnikrishnan Pillai took charge as principal in 1983, the Training and Placement Department was started to organise campus recruitments for students; the college moved into the area of information technology in 1984 with the commissioning of multi-user PSI Omni system and HCL workhorse PCs.
In 1987 the college celebrated 25 years of its existence, postgraduate courses were started. The CEDTI was established on the campus the following year. In 1990 Shankar Dayal Sharma inaugurated the Architecture Department Block and construction of a computer centre was completed. In 1996, the institute website was launched; the Indian Institute of Management Calicut functioned from the NIT campus in its first few years of existence before moving to its new campus in Kunnamangalam in 2003. The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, accorded NIT status to REC Calicut in June 2002 granting it academic and administrative autonomy, it was a lead institute under the World Bank-funded Technical Education Quality Improvement Program which began in 2002. In 2003, students were first admitted to the flagship undergraduate B. Tech through the All India Engineering Entrance Exam. With the passing of the National Institutes of Technology Act in May 2007, NIT Calicut was declared an Institute of National Importance.
The National Institutes of Technology Act is the second legislation for technical education institutions after the Indian Institutes of Technology Act of 1961. In 2007 NIT Calicut raised its annual intake for its undergraduate program to 570; the annual intake for undergraduate program was increased to 1049 by 2011. Under the constitution of the National Institutes of Technology Act 2007, the President of India is the Visitor to the institute; the authorities of the institute are Board of the Senate. The Board is headed by the chairman, appointed by the Visitor; the Director, the secretary of the Board, looks after the day-to-day running of the institute. The Board of Governors has nominees of the Central Government, the State Government, the NIT Council and the Institute Senate. NIT Calicut was ranked 50 among engineering colleges in India by the National Institutional Ranking Framework in 2018, it was ranked 20th among engineering colleges in India in 2017 by The Week. The institute includes eleven academic departments, eight centres departments, 8 centers and three schools.
The departments include Architecture and Planning, Physics and Physical Education as well as five engineering determinants for Civil Engineering, Computer Science & Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics & Communication Engineering and Mechanical Engineering. The eight centres are the Campus Networking Centre, Centre for Biomechanics, Advanced Manufacturing Centre, Central Computer Centre, Centre for Value Education, Sophisticated Instruments Centre, Centre for Transportation Research and Centre for Scanning Microscopy; the three additional schools are the School of Biotechnology, School of Management Studies and School of Nanoscience & Technology. The School of Management Studies, NIT Calicut offers a two-year residential Master of Business Administration program for graduates in any discipline from any recognized university/institute. Admission to the MBA program is based on CAT score, performance in group discussion and personal interviews; this general MBA program offers electives in the streams – Finance, human resource management, operations management, business analytics and systems, marketing etc.
The school offers PhD program in streams of management such as Finance and Economics, Human Resource Management and Marketing. The program was initiated in 2008 and the first batch of students enrolled in 2009; the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development, has started IT finishing schoo
Indian Institutes of Technology
The Indian Institutes of Technology are autonomous public institutes of higher education, located in India. They are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as institutions of national importance and lays down their powers and framework for governance etc; the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists twenty-three institutes. Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common IIT Council, which oversees their administration; the Minister of Human Resource Development is the ex-officio Chairperson of IIT Council. As of 2018, the total number of seats for undergraduate programmes in all IITs is 11,279; the first IIT was set up in Kharagpur in 1951, soon in Bombay, Madras and Delhi. An IIT was established in Guwahati in 1994; the University of Roorkee was converted to IIT Roorkee in 2001. Eight new IITs were set up in Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Patna, Bhubaneswar and Mandi in 2008-09. Following same selection process since 1972 in 2012 the Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University was given IIT status.
Another six new IITs in Tirupati, Dharwad, Bhilai and Jammu, approved through a 2016 bill amendment were established in 2015-16, along with the conversion of ISM Dhanbad to IIT Dhanbad. The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions, the Joint Entrance Examination - Advanced called the IIT-JEE until 2012. JEE Advanced admits students according to their ranks in the exam; the post-graduate level program that awards M. Tech. MS degrees, the doctoral programme that offers Ph. D. in engineering is administered by the older IITs. M. Tech. and MS admissions are done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering. Additionally, IITs award other graduate degrees such as M. Sc in Maths and Chemistry, MBA, etc. Admission to these programs of IITs is done through Common Admission Test, Joint Admission Test for M. Sc. and Common Entrance Examination for Design. IIT Guwahati and IIT Bombay offer undergraduate design programmes as well. Joint Seat Allocation Authority conducts the joint admission process for a total of 23 IITs, that offer admission for 10,962 seats in 2017.
The IITs are located in: The history of the IIT system dates back to 1946 when Sir Jogendra Singh of the Viceroy's Executive Council set up a committee whose task was to consider the creation of Higher Technical Institutions for post-war industrial development in India. The 22-member committee, headed by Nalini Ranjan Sarkar, recommended the establishment of these institutions in various parts of India, with affiliated secondary institutions; the first Indian Institute of Technology was founded in May 1950 at the site of the Hijli Detention Camp in Kharagpur. The first Indian Institute of Technology was established in 1951. On 15 September 1956, the Parliament of India passed the Indian Institute of Technology Act, declaring it as an Institute of National Importance. Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, in the first convocation address of IIT Kharagpur in 1956 said: On the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, four campuses were established at Bombay, Madras and Delhi; the location of these campuses was chosen to be scattered throughout India to prevent regional imbalance.
The Indian Institutes of Technology Act was amended to reflect the addition of new IITs. Student agitations in the state of Assam made Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi promise the creation of a new IIT in Assam; this led to a sixth campus at Guwahati under the Assam Accord in 1960. The University of Roorkee, India's oldest engineering college, was conferred IIT status in 2001. Over the past few years, there have been a number of developments toward establishing new IITs. On 1 October 2003, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced plans to create more IITs "by upgrading existing academic institutions that have the necessary promise and potential". Subsequent developments led to the formation of the S K Joshi Committee in November 2003 to guide the selection of the five institutions which would become the five new IITs. Based on the initial recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, it was decided that further IITs should be spread throughout the country; when the government expressed its willingness to correct this regional imbalance, 16 states demanded IITs.
Since the S K Joshi Committee prescribed strict guidelines for institutions aspiring to be IITs, only seven colleges were selected for final consideration. Plans are reported to open IITs outside India, though not enough progress has been made in this regard. In the 11th Five year plan, eight states were identified for establishment of new IITs and IT-BHU was converted into an IIT. Indian School of Mines at Dhanbad was converted to IIT Dhanbad in 2016; the entire allocation by the Centre in 2017-18 budget for all Indian Institutes of Technology stood at over Rs 7,000 crore. However, what is important to note here is that Indian students spent six times more money on a US degree than what the Centre spends on all IITs combined; the President of India is the most powerful person in the organisational structure of Indian Institutes of Technology, being the ex officio Visitor, having residual powers. Directly under the President is the IIT Council, which comprises the minister-in-charge of technical education in the Union Government, the Chairmen of all IITs, the Directors of all IITs, the Chairman of the University Grants Commission, the Director General of CSIR, the Chairman of IISc, the Director of IISc, three members of Parliament, the Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Human Resource and Development, three appointees ea
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a
Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments used for indicating and recording physical quantities, has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making. The term instrumentation may refer to a device or group of devices used for direct reading thermometers or, when using many sensors, may become part of a complex industrial control system in such as manufacturing industry and transportation. Instrumentation can be found in the household as well; the history of instrumentation can be divide into several phases. Elements of industrial instrumentation have long histories. Scales for comparing weights and simple pointers to indicate position are ancient technologies; some of the earliest measurements were of time. One of the oldest water clocks was found in the tomb of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep I, buried around 1500 BCE. Improvements were incorporated in the clocks. By 270 BCE they had the rudiments of an automatic control system device. In 1663 Christopher Wren presented the Royal Society with a design for a "weather clock".
A drawing shows meteorological sensors moving pens over paper driven by clockwork. Such devices did not become standard in meteorology for two centuries; the concept has remained unchanged as evidenced by pneumatic chart recorders, where a pressurized bellows displaces a pen. Integrating sensors, displays and controls was uncommon until the industrial revolution, limited by both need and practicality. Early systems used direct process connections to local control panels for control and indication, which from the early 1930s saw the introduction of pneumatic transmitters and automatic 3-term controllers; the ranges of pneumatic transmitters were defined by the need to control valves and actuators in the field. A signal ranged from 3 to 15 psi as a standard, was standardized with 6 to 30 psi being used for larger valves. Transistor electronics enabled wiring to replace pipes with a range of 20 to 100mA at up to 90V for loop powered devices, reducing to 4 to 20mA at 12 to 24V in more modern systems.
A transmitter is a device that produces an output signal in the form of a 4–20 mA electrical current signal, although many other options using voltage, pressure, or ethernet are possible. The transistor was commercialized by the mid-1950s. Instruments attached to a control system provided signals used to operate solenoids, regulators, circuit breakers and other devices; such devices could control a desired output variable, provide either remote or automated control capabilities. Each instrument company introduced their own standard instrumentation signal, causing confusion until the 4-20 mA range was used as the standard electronic instrument signal for transmitters and valves; this signal was standardized as ANSI/ISA S50, “Compatibility of Analog Signals for Electronic Industrial Process Instruments", in the 1970s. The transformation of instrumentation from mechanical pneumatic transmitters and valves to electronic instruments reduced maintenance costs as electronic instruments were more dependable than mechanical instruments.
This increased efficiency and production due to their increase in accuracy. Pneumatics enjoyed some advantages, being favored in explosive atmospheres. In the early years of process control, process indicators and control elements such as valves were monitored by an operator that walked around the unit adjusting the valves to obtain the desired temperatures and flows; as technology evolved pneumatic controllers were invented and mounted in the field that monitored the process and controlled the valves. This reduced. Years the actual controllers were moved to a central room and signals were sent into the control room to monitor the process and outputs signals were sent to the final control element such as a valve to adjust the process as needed; these controllers and indicators were mounted on a wall called a control board. The operators stood in front of this board walking forth monitoring the process indicators; this again reduced the number and amount of time process operators were needed to walk around the units.
The most standard pneumatic signal level used during these years was 3-15 psig. Process control of large industrial plants has evolved through many stages. Control would be from panels local to the process plant; however this required a large manpower resource to attend to these dispersed panels, there was no overall view of the process. The next logical development was the transmission of all plant measurements to a permanently-manned central control room; this was the centralisation of all the localised panels, with the advantages of lower manning levels and easier overview of the process. The controllers were behind the control room panels, all automatic and manual control outputs were transmitted back to plant. However, whilst providing a central control focus, this arrangement was inflexible as each control loop had its own controller hardware, continual operator movement within the control room was required to view different parts of the process. With coming of electronic processors and graphic displays it became possible to replace these discrete controllers with computer-based algorithms, hosted on a network of input/output racks with their own control processors.
These could be distributed around plant, communicate with the graphic display in the control room or rooms. The distributed control concept was born; the introduction of DCSs and SCADA allowed easy interconnection and re-config