The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 is a foundational statute of United States labor law which guarantees the right of private sector employees to organize into trade unions, engage in collective bargaining, take collective action such as strikes. The act was written by Senator Robert F. Wagner, passed by the 74th United States Congress, signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; the National Labor Relations Act seeks to correct the "inequality of bargaining power" between employers and employees by promoting collective bargaining between trade unions and employers. The law established the National Labor Relations Board to prosecute violations of labor law and to oversee the process by which employees decide whether to be represented by a labor organization, it established various rules concerning collective bargaining and defined a series of banned unfair labor practices, including interference with the formation or organization of labor unions by employers. The act does not apply to certain workers, including supervisors, agricultural employees, domestic workers, government employees, independent contractors.
The NLRA was opposed by conservatives and members of the Republican Party, but it was upheld in the Supreme Court case of NLRB v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp; the 1947 Taft–Hartley Act amended the NLRA, establishing a series of unfair labor practices for unions and granting states the power to pass right-to-work laws. President Franklin Roosevelt signed the legislation into law on July 5, 1935, it has its roots in a variety of different labor acts enacted: National War Labor Board Norris–La Guardia Act National Industrial Recovery Act National Labor Board Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 including the Works Progress Administration Under section 1 of the Act, the key principles and policy findings on which the Act was based are explained. The Act aims to correct the "inequality of bargaining power between employees who, according to the Act's proponents, do not possess full freedom of association or actual liberty of contract and employers who are organized in the corporate or other forms of ownership association".
To achieve this, the central idea is the promotion of collective bargaining between independent trade unions, on behalf of the workforce, the employer. Encouraging the practice and procedure of collective bargaining and by protecting the exercise by workers of full freedom of association, self-organization, designation of representatives of their own choosing, for the purpose of negotiating the terms and conditions of their employment or other mutual aid or protection. Various definitions are explained in section 2, including 2 defining "labor organization" and 2 defining "labor dispute"; the Act aims to protect employees as a group, so is not based on a formal or legal relationship between an employer and employee. The National Labor Relations Board, established in NLRA 1935 sections 3 to 6, is the primary enforcer of the Act. Employees and unions may act themselves in support of their rights, however because of collective action problems and the costs of litigation, the National Labor Relations Board is designed to assist and bear some of the costs.
Under section 3, the NLRB has two basic functions: overseeing the process by which employees decide whether to be represented by a labor organization and prosecuting violations. Those processes are initiated in the regional offices of the NLRB; the General Counsel of the National Labor Relations Board give legal advice. Sections 4 and 5 set out provisions on the officers of the Board and their expenses. Section 6 empowers the Board to issue rules interpreting the labor legislation; this will be binding, unless a court deems it to have acted outside its authority. Under section 10 the NLRB is empowered to prevent unfair labor practices, which may be reviewed by the courts. Under section 11 it can lead investigations, collect evidence, issue subpoenas, require witnesses to give evidence. Under section 12 it is an offense for people to unduly interfere with the Board's conduct. Section 7 sets out the general principle that employees have the right to join a trade union and engage in collective bargaining.
Employees shall have the right to self-organization, to form, join, or assist labor organizations, to bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing, to engage in other concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection, shall have the right to refrain from any or all of such activities except to the extent that such right may be affected by an agreement requiring membership in a labor organization as a condition of employment as authorized in section 8. Specific rules in support of collective bargaining are as follows. There can be only one exclusive bargaining representative for a unit of employees. Promotion of the practice and procedure of collective bargaining. Employers are compelled to bargain with the representative of its employees. Employees are allowed to discuss wages. Under section 8 the law defines a set of prohibited actions by employers and unions, known as an unfair labor practice; the first five unfair labor practices aimed at employers are in section 8.
These are, "to interfere with, restrain, or coerce employees in the exercise of the rights guaranteed in section 7". This includes freedom of association, mutual aid or protection, self-organization, to form, join, or assist labor organizations, to bargain collectively for w
The Pennsylvania gubernatorial election of 1946 was held on November 5, 1946. Republican Party nominee James H. Duff defeated Democratic Party nominee John S. Rice to become Governor of Pennsylvania; as of 2020, this is the last time. The endorsed candidates for the two major parties each won by large margins, with Duff earning over three-quarters of the vote against outgoing Secretary of Highways John Shroyer of Shamokin and Rice winning by a similar margin over Mahanoy City businessman Henry Morris. John Rice, former President pro tempore of the Pennsylvania Senate running mate: John Dent, President pro tempore of the Pennsylvania Senate Jim Duff, State Attorney General running mate: Dan Strickler, former State Representative and World War II general A close confidant of popular outgoing Governor Ed Martin, running for a US Senate seat, Duff was the clear favorite throughout the campaign. Duff ran as a moderate progressive but as a hardline anti-communist, he promised to address the key topic of labor strife by limiting strikes and cracking down on union criminal activity while concurrently increasing the minimum wage.
Duff vowed to spur innovation amongst the state's fragmented local governments
The Regent Hall is a Salvation Army centre on London's Oxford Street. It is one of the oldest centres in London having been founded by the founder of the army, William Booth in 1882; the church is known as the "Rink", because it was a skating rink. The hall is known for its music, both for its own brass band which tours internationally, its high standard choral music, as a venue for visiting artists; the present officers are Majors Richard and Caroline Mingay, who succeeded Major Dawn and Major Graham Mizon in 2017. Booth bought the building on Oxford Street in 1882. Since then,'The Rink' has had many major internal improvements, most in the summers of 2015 to 2017; the main auditorium seats 550, with a stage area that can accommodate an orchestra of around 50 to 60 members. The Regent Hall website Salvation Army in the UK
José Zorrilla y Moral was a Spanish poet and dramatist. Zorrilla was born in Valladolid to a magistrate, he was educated by the Jesuits at the Real Seminario de Nobles in Madrid, wrote verses when he was twelve, became an enthusiastic admirer of Walter Scott and Chateaubriand, took part in the school performances of plays by Lope de Vega and Calderón de la Barca. In 1833 he was sent to study law at the University of Toledo, but after a year of idleness, he fled to Madrid, where he horrified the friends of his absolutist father by making violent speeches and by founding a newspaper, promptly suppressed by the government, he narrowly escaped transportation to the Philippines, passed the next few years in poverty. The death of the satirist Mariano José de Larra brought Zorrilla into notice, his elegiac poem, read at Larra's funeral in February 1837, introduced him to the leading men of letters. In 1837 he published a book of verses imitations of Alphonse de Lamartine and Victor Hugo, so favourably received that he printed six more volumes within three years.
After collaborating with Antonio García Gutiérrez on the play Juán Dondolo Zorrilla began his individual career as a dramatist with Cada cual con su razón, during the next five years he wrote twenty-two plays, many of them successful. His Cantos del trovador, a collection of national legends written in verse, made Zorilla second only to José de Espronceda in popular esteem. National legends supply the themes of his dramas, which Zorilla constructed by adapting older plays that had fallen out of fashion. For example, in El Zapatero y el Rey he recasts, his famous play Don Juan Tenorio is a combination of elements from Tirso de Molina's Burlador de Sevilla and from Alexandre Dumas, père's Don Juan de Marana. However, plays like Sancho García, El Rey loco, El Alcalde Ronquillo are much more original, he considered his last play, inconfeso y mártir his best play. Upon the death of his mother in 1847 Zorrilla left Spain, resided for a while at Bordeaux, settled in Paris, where his incomplete poem Granada was published in 1852.
In a fit of depression, he emigrated to America three years hoping, he claimed, that yellow fever or smallpox would kill him. During eleven years in Mexico he wrote little, he returned to Spain in 1866, to find himself considered old-fashioned. Friends helped Zorilla obtain a small post, but the republican minister abolished it, he was always poor for the 12 years after 1871. The publication of his autobiography, Recuerdos del tiempo viejo in 1880, did nothing to alleviate his poverty. Though his plays were still being performed, he received no money from them. In his old age, critics began to reappraise his work, brought him new fame, he received a pension of 30,000 reales, a gold medal of honor from the Spanish Academy, and, in 1889, the title of National Laureate. He died in Madrid on 23 January 1893. In his early years, Zorrilla was known as an extraordinarily fast writer, he claimed he wrote El Caballo del Rey Don Sancho in three weeks, that he put together El Puñal del Godo in two days. This may account for some of the technical faults -- verbosity -- in his works.
His plays appeal to Spanish patriotic pride, actors and audiences have enjoyed his effective dramaturgy. Don Juan Tenorio is his best-known work. Works by José Zorrilla at Project Gutenberg Works by José Zorrilla at LibriVox Works by or about José Zorrilla at Internet Archive
Maestro is a Japanese music slice of life seinen manga series written and illustrated by Akira Sasō. It was published by Futabasha, with serialization from 2003 to 2007, first on the manga magazine Manga Action and on the website Futabasha Web Magazine, it was compiled in three volumes published between 2004 and 2008. It was adapted into a live action drama film titled Maestro!, directed by Shōtarō Kobayashi and released on January 31, 2015. Tendō Kōsaka 1 2 3 It won an Excellence Prize in the Manga Division at the 12th Japan Media Arts Awards, it was nominated for the 13th Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize. Official film website Maestro at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Maestro on IMDb
Lenore Thomas Straus was an American sculptor and author. Lenore Thomas was born 1 November 1909 in Chicago, the daughter of Andrew S. Thomas and Lucy Haagsma, died at her home in Blue Hill, Maine, on 16 January 1988. Although she studied at the Chicago Art Institute, as a sculptor she was self-taught, she had an exhibit of her work in Mexico City in 1933. Much of her early work involved public art created under various New Deal programs, including terra cotta murals for several post offices, she fashioned two major pieces for the Resettlement Administration's planned community in Greenbelt, Maryland—a large Mother and Child and several panels illustrating the Preamble to the United States Constitution. Along with other Public Works Administration artists Hugh Collins, Carmelo Arutu, Joseph Goethe, she created playground sculpture for Langston Terrace, the first federally funded housing project in Washington, DC. In the early 1940s, when she was living in Accokeek, she married Robert Ware Straus, to play an integral role in the preservation of the view across the Potomac River from George Washington's home at Mount Vernon.
She maintained a studio at their Accokeek home. In 1968, she moved to Maine, where she was a student of zen teacher Walter Nowick at Moonspring Hermitage in Surry, which became the Morgan Bay zendo, she was an active member of the Morgan Bay zendo, several of her sculptures remain on its grounds. In 1987, the University of Maine honored her with the Maryann Hartman Award, which recognizes distinguished women of Maine. Shortly after her death in 1988, the Lenore Thomas Straus Scholarship was established in her name at the Haystack Mountain School of Crafts, where Straus had taught as an artist-in-residence in 1984 and 1986 and plunged into the medium of handmade paper. According to FBI files related to the House Un-American Activities Committee, Lenore Thomas Straus was investigated and admitted that she had joined the Communist Party while working for the government in 1935, her stand on social justice, like that of her husband, leaned on U. S. Communist affiliations, her art focused on equality for immigrants, along with dignity, personal power, respect for the working poor.
Idealized collective beliefs about the social benefits of Communism were a visible constant for numerous other artists in the 1930s. The annual campaign by President Franklin Roosevelt's office to reignite the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 for a decade not only worked to lift the economic down-slope in the United States, but changed career directions for numerous artists women artists living and working in the 1930s and 1940s. For many, this was the first time women were able to make a viable and valuable living as both artist and creative, it wasn’t until 1952 that Lenore took on her youngest and longest-standing art apprentice, Sue Hoya Sellars. In 1953 Lenore met and recognized thirteen year old Sellars as a young and budding teenage artist with exceptional, yet publicly ignored, talent. Lenore Thomas Straus became Sellars' legal guardian as well as her artistic mentor. Concepts in art outlining the importance of intentionality in creating art became an important creative focus for both Straus and Sellars within their lifetime as artists.
Today's modern movement in the use of art as'Intentional Creativity' has more been taught by Sellars' artist daughter Shiloh Sophia McCloud. In June 2015 the Greenbelt Museum in Greenbelt, Maryland opened an exhibit of Lenore's work called "The Knowing Hands That Carve This Stone: The New Deal Art of Lenore Thomas Straus." This show highlights the work of Lenore Thomas Straus along with the work of Sue Hoya Sellars and Shiloh Sophia McCloud as a demonstration of art reaching the public from a continuing lineage of art and artists. The Tender Stone Stone Dust: The Autobiography of a Stone Carving