David Allen Johnson is an American former professional baseball player and manager. He played for the Baltimore Orioles, Atlanta Braves, Yomiuri Giants, Philadelphia Phillies and Chicago Cubs, he has managed the New York Mets, Cincinnati Reds, Los Angeles Dodgers, Washington Nationals. Johnson was the starting second baseman for the Orioles when they won four American League pennants and two World Series championships between 1965 and 1972, he received the Rawlings Gold Glove Award three times. Johnson won the American League's Manager of the Year Award in 1997 when he led the Baltimore Orioles wire-to-wire to the American League East Division Championship, he won the same award in the National League in 2012 when he led the Nationals to the franchise's first division title since 1981. His biggest success as a manager was; the ball club captured the National League East under his watch in 1988. The teams he piloted in the three years from 1995 to 1997 all made it to their respective League Championship Series – the Cincinnati Reds in 1995 and the Orioles in both 1996 and 1997.
He managed the Dodgers and Nationals. After one season playing baseball at Texas A&M University, Johnson signed with the Baltimore Orioles as an amateur free agent in 1962. After signing, Johnson was assigned to the Stockton Ports in the Class C California League where he hit.309 with 10 home runs and 63 runs batted in in 97 games. Moved up to the AA Elmira Pioneers in 1963, Johnson hit.326 in 63 games before being promoted to the AAA Rochester Red Wings for the final 63 games of the season. Returning to the Red Wings for the entire 1964 season, Johnson had 19 HRs, 73 RBI, 87 runs. In 1965, Johnson made the Orioles out of spring training, but saw only limited time in 20 games and spent the part of the season in the minors, where he batted.301 in 52 games for the Red Wings. Back with the Orioles in 1966, Johnson saw limited playing time until June 13 when the Orioles traded second baseman Jerry Adair to the Chicago White Sox to make room for Johnson at second base, he responded with a.257 batting average, seven HRs and 56 RBI to finish third in American League Rookie of the Year balloting for the 1966 World Series champions.
Johnson would be a full-time starter in major leagues for the next eight seasons, averaging over 142 games played in a season. In the 1966 World Series, Johnson would win his first World Series ring and earn the distinction of being the last player to get a hit off Sandy Koufax. Johnson reached the World Series again with the Orioles in 1969, 1970, 1971, winning his second ring in 1970, he won the AL Gold Glove Award at second base all three seasons. Orioles shortstop Mark Belanger won the award as well in 1969 and 1971, joining a select list of shortstop-second baseman combinations to have won the honor in the same season while playing together. Third baseman Brooks Robinson was in the middle of his record 16 straight Gold Glove streak when Johnson and Belanger won their awards. Following the 1972 season, one in which Johnson would hit only.221 in 118 games, he was traded along with starting pitchers Pat Dobson and Roric Harrison, catcher Johnny Oates to the Atlanta Braves for minor league infielder Taylor Duncan and former National League Rookie of the Year catcher Earl Williams.
The following season with the Braves, Johnson enjoyed the best statistical year of his career when his offense exploded and he tied Rogers Hornsby's record for most single-season home runs by a second baseman with 42. The 1973 Braves featured the first trio of teammates to each hit 40 home runs in the same season when Johnson hit 43, Darrell Evans hit 41, Hank Aaron hit 40. Johnson's second-highest home run. Four games into the 1975 season and after getting a hit in his only at bat, Johnson was released by the Braves, he signed with the Yomiuri Giants in Japan's Central League and played with the team in both the 1975 and 1976 seasons. In 1977, he returned to the United States after signing as a free agent with the Philadelphia Phillies. Relegated to a utility infielder role, Johnson still hit.321 with 8 HRs in 78 games and played in one game in the Phillies National League Championship Series loss to the Dodgers. During the 1978 season, Johnson hit two grand slams as a pinch-hitter, becoming the first major leaguer to do it in a season.
Four other players, Mike Ivie, Darryl Strawberry, Ben Broussard, Brooks Conrad, would go on to equal Johnson's feat. Shortly afterwards, Philadelphia dealt him to the Chicago Cubs, where he played the final 24 games of his career before retiring at the end of the season. In 1979, Johnson was hired to be the manager of the Miami Amigos of the AAA Inter-American League. Although Johnson guided the team of released and undrafted players to a.708 winning percentage, the league folded 72 games into its only season. In 1981, Johnson was hired to manage the New York Mets AA team, the Jackson Mets, he led the team to a 68-66 record in his only season with the team. In 1983, Johnson was named as the manager of the Mets AAA Tidewater Tides, who finished with a 71-68 record. Johnson took over the Mets in 1984, a team that had not won a pennant since 1973, he became the first National League manager to win at least 90 games in each of his first five seasons. The highlight of his time with the Mets
Dallas Green (baseball)
George Dallas Green was an American pitcher and executive in Major League Baseball. After playing for the Philadelphia Phillies, Washington Senators, New York Mets from 1960 through 1967, he went on to manage the Phillies, New York Yankees, Mets. Green managed the Phillies when they won their first World Series title in 1980 over the Kansas City Royals, as general manager of the Chicago Cubs from 1981 to 1987 he built the club which won a division title in 1984, the Cubs' first postseason appearance in 39 years. Green had a losing record both as a manager. Nonetheless, in 1983 he was inducted into the Delaware Sports Hall of Fame, he achieved notoriety for his blunt manner. Green was born in Delaware, he was the middle of three children. Green graduated from Conrad High School, attended the University of Delaware, he played as a right fielder for the Delaware Fightin' Blue Hens baseball team. After Green pitched to a 6–0 win-loss record and an 0.88 earned run average in 1955, his junior year, Jocko Collins, a scout for the Philadelphia Phillies, signed Green as an amateur free agent.
Green made his major league debut with the Phillies in 1960. Pitching for the Phillies, Washington Senators, New York Mets, Green had a career 20–22 record and 4.26 ERA in 185 total games, with 46 games started. After his playing career ended, Green managed at the Huron Phillies of the Class A-Short Season Northern League in 1968 and the Pulaski Phillies of the Rookie-level Appalachian League in 1969. Pulaski won the Appalachian League championship. In 1970, he joined the Phillies' front office as the assistant to Paul Owens, the director of the Phillies' farm system, he became the director of the team's minor leagues operations in 1972. In 1979, the Phillies appointed Green as their manager; when he was hired as the Phillies' manager, he said: "I express my thoughts. I'm a screamer, a yeller, a cusser. I never hold back." He was notorious for his use of profanity. His difficult manner led to clashes with many of the team's star players, such as slugger Greg Luzinski, shortstop Larry Bowa and catcher Bob Boone.
He came to blows with relief pitcher Ron Reed. Green led the Phillies to victory in the 1980 World Series. Through 1981, he managed the Phillies to a 169–130 record. In 1981, the Phillies again made the postseason by winning the East division in the first half of the strike-split season, they lost to the Montreal Expos in the National League Division Series, 3 games to 2. Following the Tribune Company's purchase of the Chicago Cubs from the Wrigley family in 1981, the company hired Green away from the Phillies after the 1981 season as executive vice president and general manager, his presence was felt in the organization, as his slogan "Building a New Tradition" was a jab at the Cubs' history of losing. He hired a number of coaches and scouts away from the Phillies, such as Lee Elia, John Vukovich, Gordon Goldsberry. Green made some trades with the Phillies, acquiring players such as Bowa, Keith Moreland, Dickie Noles, Ryne Sandberg. Green continued to build the Cubs between the 1987 seasons. After acquiring left fielder Gary Matthews and center fielder Bob Dernier from Philadelphia before the 1984 season, Green's Cubs became serious contenders for the first time in more than a decade.
During the 1984 season, Green made a few more moves, most notably acquiring right-handed pitcher Dennis Eckersley from the Boston Red Sox for popular first baseman Bill Buckner in late May, sending Cubs' prospects Mel Hall and Joe Carter to the Cleveland Indians for relief pitcher George Frazier, backup catcher Ron Hassey and right-handed pitcher Rick Sutcliffe in mid-June. Sutcliffe went 16–1 with the Cubs that season to lead the Cubs to the National League East title—their first postseason appearance of any kind since the 1945 World Series; because Green neglected to renew waivers on Hall and Carter, the status of the trade was in doubt for a while, the two did not play for a week. Green's first-year manager Jim Frey won NL Manager of the Year, Sutcliffe won the NL Cy Young Award, Sandberg won the NL Most Valuable Player Award. Green was named The Sporting News Executive of the Year. Green won a power struggle within the Cubs front office; the Cubs struggled in 1985 and 1986, they finished last in 1987.
In 1987, manager Gene Michael resigned over Labor Day weekend, after Green blasted his team for quitting. Green resigned as general manager and president of the Cubs in October 1987 citing "philosophical differences" with Tribune Company executives. Green was the first Cubs executive to clash with the city of Chicago over the installation of lights in Wrigley Field. Green was a strong proponent of lights from the start of his tenure, but a city ordinance prohibited the Cubs from installing lights in the residential Lakeview neighborhood, where Wrigley Field was located; as Green saw it, the issue was not lights or no lights, but stay at Wrigley Field or move to the suburbs. Bluntly stating that "if there are no lights in Wrigley Field, there will be no Wrigley Field," he threatened to move the Cubs to a new stadium in northwest suburban Schaumburg or Arlington Heights, he considered shutting down Wrigley Field for a year and playing at Comiskey Park as tenants of the Chicago White Sox, in hopes that the loss of revenue would temper or eliminate neighborhood opposition.
Green's stance changed the context of the debate, as the staunchest opponents of installing lights did not want to be held responsible for the Cubs leaving town. Shortly before Green's departure, the Chicago City Cou
William Charles Virdon is an American former professional baseball outfielder and coach in Major League Baseball. Virdon played in MLB for the St. Louis Cardinals and Pittsburgh Pirates from 1955 through 1965 and in 1968, he served as a coach for the Pirates and Houston Astros, managed the Pirates, New York Yankees, Montreal Expos. After playing in Minor League Baseball for the Yankees organization, Virdon was traded to the Cardinals, he made his MLB debut in 1955; that year, Virdon won the National League Rookie of the Year Award. He slumped at the beginning of the 1956 season, was traded to the Pirates, where he spent the remainder of his playing career. A premier defensive outfielder during his playing days as a center fielder for the Cardinals and Pirates, Virdon led a strong defensive team to the 1960 World Series championship. In 1962, Virdon won a Rawlings Gold Glove Award. Following the 1965 season, he retired due to his desire to become a manager. Virdon managed in Minor League Baseball until returning to the Pirates as a coach in 1968.
He served as manager of the Pirates in 1972 and 1973, before becoming the manager of the Yankees in 1974. During the 1975 season, the Yankees fired Virdon, he was hired by the Astros. After being fired by the Astros after the 1982 season, Virdon managed the Expos in 1983 and 1984. Virdon won The Sporting News' Manager of the Year Award in 1974, his only full season working for the Yankees, in 1980, while managing the Astros, he returned to the Pirates as a coach following his managerial career, remains with the Pirates as a guest instructor during spring training. William Charles Virdon was born in Hazel Park, Michigan, on June 9, 1931, his parents and Charles Virdon, were from Missouri, but moved to Hazel Park during the Great Depression, where they were able to find jobs in automotive factories. When he was 12 years old, his family moved to Missouri. Virdon attended West Plains High School, he competed in American football and track and field for the school. As West Plains did not compete in baseball, Virdon traveled to Clay Center, Kansas, to play for their American Amateur Baseball Congress team as a center fielder and shortstop.
He enrolled at Drury University in Missouri. Virdon attended an open tryout held by the New York Yankees in Branson and scout Tom Greenwade signed Virdon to the Yankees for a $1,800 signing bonus. Virdon made his professional debut in 1950 with the Independence Yankees in the Class D Kansas–Oklahoma–Missouri League, was promoted to the Kansas City Blues in the Class AAA American Association for the final 14 games of the season. Virdon played for the Norfolk Tars in the Class B Piedmont League in 1951, for the Binghamton Triplets in the Class A Eastern League in 1952; the Yankees assigned him to Kansas City in 1953, but he struggled, batting.233. While he played in Kansas City, Virdon was diagnosed with astigmatism; when Kansas City manager Harry Craft noticed Virdon reading while wearing glasses, Craft told him to wear them while he played. The Yankees demoted Virdon to the Birmingham Barons in the Class AA Southern Association. In 42 games for Birmingham, Virdon had a.317 batting average. According to Hal Smith, his roommate with Birmingham, Virdon changed his approach to hitting, prioritizing line drives to all parts of the field, rather than trying to hit for power.
Virdon remained stuck behind Mickey Mantle on the Yankees' depth chart for center field, while Gene Woodling and Hank Bauer played the corner outfield positions. The Yankees traded Virdon to the St. Louis Cardinals before the 1954 season with Mel Wright and Emil Tellinger for veteran outfielder and All-Star Enos Slaughter. Virdon struggled during spring training, Cardinals manager Eddie Stanky worked with Virdon to improve his hitting; the Cardinals assigned Virdon to the Rochester Red Wings of the Class AAA International League for the season. He led the league with a.333 batting average and hit 22 home runs, finishing second in voting for the International League Most Valuable Player Award to Elston Howard. Virdon joined the Cardinals in 1955, as the Cardinals moved Stan Musial to first base to allow Virdon to play the outfield; as a rookie, Virdon had a. 281 average with 69 runs batted in. He was named the winner of the National League Rookie of the Year Award, voted on by the Baseball Writers' Association of America, beating Jack Meyer of the Philadelphia Phillies.
After the 1955 season, the Cardinals hired Frank Lane, nicknamed "The Trader", as their general manager. Virdon slumped to begin the 1956 season, the Cardinals traded him to the Pittsburgh Pirates in May 1956 for Bobby Del Greco and Dick Littlefield. Lane claimed that Virdon's late season slump in 1955 was because he tired down the stretch, and, why he chose to trade him. Lane referred to the trade as "the worst trade made"; when he arrived at Pittsburgh, he developed an eye condition, for which he received treatment, missing one week of the season. Virdon's vision improved, he challenged Hank Aaron for the NL batting title. Virdon batted.334 for the Pirates during remainder of the season, which increased his season batting average to.319, second-best in the NL to Aaron, who batted.328. Pirates' announcer Bob Prince gave Virdon the nickname "Quail" due to the frequency of his soft-hit infield hits; the Pirates hired Danny Murtaugh as their manager during the 1957 season. Virdon batted in the.260s for the next several seasons.
He led all NL center fielders in assists in 1959 with 16, in double plays turned with five. In 1960, along with right fielder Robe
Don Edward Baylor was an American professional baseball player and manager. During his 19 seasons in Major League Baseball, Baylor was a power hitter known for crowding the plate, was a first baseman, left fielder, designated hitter, he played for six different American League teams the Baltimore Orioles and California Angels, but played for the Oakland Athletics, New York Yankees, Minnesota Twins, Boston Red Sox. In 1979, Baylor won the AL Most Valuable Player Award, he won three Silver Slugger Awards, the Roberto Clemente Award, was a member of the 1987 World Series champions. After his playing career, Baylor managed the expansion Colorado Rockies for six years and the Chicago Cubs for three seasons, he was inducted into the Angels Hall of Fame. Born in Austin, Baylor grew up in Clarksville, he graduated from Stephen F. Austin High School. After being one of three African Americans to integrate Texas public schools when he was in junior high school, Baylor starred in baseball and football at Austin High, where he was the first African American to play athletics, was offered a scholarship to play college football for the Texas Longhorns of the University of Texas, which would have made him the first African American to play football at Texas.
He opted enrolling at Blinn Junior College in Brenham, Texas. The Baltimore Orioles selected Baylor in the second round of the 1967 MLB draft, he received a $7,500 signing bonus from the Orioles. In 1970, he led the league with 34 doubles, 15 triples, 127 runs, 140 games-played while playing for Rochester; the following year, he again led the league in doubles with 31 for Rochester. Baylor played for the Orioles from 1970 to 1975. Before the 1976 season, the Orioles traded him with Paul Mitchell and Mike Torrez to the Oakland Athletics for Reggie Jackson, Ken Holtzman and Bill VanBommell. In 1977, Baylor signed with the California Angels as a free agent, he led the American League with 139 runs batted in and 120 runs in 1979, was an AL All-Star. He won the AL's MVP award and led the Angels to their first AL Western Division title. Baylor signed with the New York Yankees in 1983, he was traded to the Boston Red Sox for Mike Easler in 1986. While a member of the Red Sox, Baylor delivered a key hit in the 1986 American League Championship Series when he hit a two run home run with two outs in the top of the ninth inning during game four against the California Angels.
At the time, the Angels led the series three games to one and were one out away from their first ALCS victory. The Red Sox went on to win the game and the ALCS, denying the Angels their first trip to the World Series. Al Michaels, broadcasting the game for ABC, called it the greatest baseball game he had seen. In 1987, he was traded to the Minnesota Twins for a player to be named later, he signed with the Athletics for his final season as a player. Baylor reached the World Series three times in his career, in consecutive years with three different teams —the Red Sox in 1986, the Twins in 1987, the A's in 1988—and was on the winning side in 1987. Baylor was a power hitter known for crowding the plate, he set the Red Sox' team record for most hit by pitches in a season. Baylor retired with 285 stolen bases, 2,135 hits, 338 home runs. After retiring as a player, Baylor served as a hitting coach for the Milwaukee Brewers and St. Louis Cardinals until he was named the manager of the expansion Colorado Rockies.
He led the team for six years from 1993 to 1998. The Rockies posted their first winning record in 1995 and made the postseason as the wildcard team, as a result, Baylor won the National League Manager of the Year Award. After the 1998 season, Baylor was fired, he finished his Rockies managerial career with a regular season record of 440–469 and a post–season record of 1–3. He became the hitting coach for the Atlanta Braves in 1999 and was hired to manage the Chicago Cubs in 2000 and managed through 2002, he had a record of 187–220 with the Cubs. From 2003 to 2004, he served as the bench coach for the New York Mets, he spent the 2005 season with the Seattle Mariners as hitting coach under manager Mike Hargrove, was as a fill-in analyst for MASN in 2007 on Nationals broadcasts. Baylor served as hitting coach for the Colorado Rockies during the 2010 seasons. Baylor was replaced by Carney Lansford after the Rockies hit a franchise-low.226 on the road during the 2010 season. Baylor turned it down. Baylor agreed on a two-year contract to become hitting coach for the Arizona Diamondbacks for the 2011 and 2012 seasons.
He was hired by the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim as their hitting coach for the 2014 season. On March 31, 2014, Baylor suffered a fracture to his right femur while catching the ceremonial first pitch of the 2014 season, thrown by Vladimir Guerrero. On April 1, 2014, he had surgery to have a plate and screws inserted into his leg. On October 13, 2015, the Angels announced that Baylor would not return as the team hitting coach in 2016. Baylor was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in 2003, he died on August 7, 2017, at the age of 68. List of Major League Baseball career home run leaders List of Major League Baseball career hits leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs batted in leaders List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders List of Major League Baseball annual runs batted in leaders List of Major League Ba
1982 in baseball
The following are the baseball events of the year 1982 throughout the world. World Series: St. Louis Cardinals over Milwaukee Brewers World Series MVP: Darrell Porter American League Championship Series MVP: Fred Lynn National League Championship Series MVP: Darrell Porter All-Star Game, July 13 at Olympic Stadium: National League, 4-1. Aaron fell nine votes shy of becoming the first unanimous selection, his 97.8 election percentage is second only to Ty Cobb's 98.2 percent in the inaugural 1936 election. January 22 – Reggie Jackson signs with the California Angels, thus ending his five-year stay with the New York Yankees January 27 – The Chicago Cubs complete a trade with the Philadelphia Phillies that sees Iván DeJesús go to the Phillies for Larry Bowa, Minor League prospect Ryne Sandberg goes to the Cubs. February 8 – The Los Angeles Dodgers trade away Davey Lopes to the Oakland Athletics; this trade breaks up the starting infield of Lopes, Ron Cey, Bill Russell, Steve Garvey, together since 1974.
February 11 – In a trade of shortstops, the St. Louis Cardinals acquire Ozzie Smith from the San Diego Padres for Garry Templeton. March 10 – Former New York Giants shortstop Travis Jackson and former baseball commissioner Happy Chandler are elected to the Hall of Fame by the Special Veterans Committee. Jackson hit.291 in 15 seasons between the 1920s and 1930s, while Chandler was the second commissioner and oversaw – and encouraged – the dismantling of the color barrier in 1947. April 1 – The New York Mets trade Lee Mazzilli to the Texas Rangers for Ron Darling and Walt Terrell. April 6 – In Minneapolis, the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome debuts for major league baseball, as the Seattle Mariners outslug the Minnesota Twins 11-7. Dave Engle of the Twins christens the Dome with its first home run. Muriel Humphrey, the widow of the 38th Vice President of the United States, threw out the first pitch. April 20 – Before a crowd of 37,268—the largest crowd to see a game at Fulton County Stadium this season—the Atlanta Braves beat the Cincinnati Reds 4-2 to go 12–0, the best start by any Major League team.
Steve Bedrosian was the winning pitcher. The streak would reach 13 the next day as the Braves beat the Reds 4-3. May 6 – Gaylord Perry of the Seattle Mariners becomes the 15th pitcher with 300 career wins. May 9 The New York Mets' Rusty Staub hits a game winning home run off Greg Minton of the San Francisco Giants; the home run ends Minton's streak of 2541⁄3 innings without allowing a long ball. This still stands as the longest streak in the live-ball era. Angry at the release of second baseman Rodney Scott, left-hander Bill "Spaceman" Lee spends the first six innings of the Montreal Expos' 5–4 loss to the Los Angeles Dodgers shooting pool and drinking beer at a local tavern, he returns to Olympic Stadium in the seventh and, after the game, leaves his uniform in manager Jim Fanning's office. Shortly thereafter, Lee is released. May 25 – In the third inning against the San Diego Padres, Ferguson Jenkins, playing for the Chicago Cubs, becomes the seventh pitcher to record 3,000 strikeouts, his victim is Garry Templeton of the Padres.
May 30 – Cal Ripken, Jr. starts at third base for the Baltimore Orioles against the Toronto Blue Jays. It is the first game of his record-breaking 2,632 consecutive games played streak. Coincidentally, May 31, will be the fifty-seventh anniversary of the start of Lou Gehrig's streak, which Ripken will break. June 2 – The Milwaukee Brewers, 23–24 on the season and 7 games out of first place, fire Buck Rodgers as their manager. Harvey Kuenn replaces him and will guide the Brewers to victory in 20 of their next 27 games, the Brewers taking over first place on July 11; the team soon to be known as "Harvey's Wallbangers" will go on to win the American League East title and their only American League pennant. June 6 – While crossing a street in Arlington, umpire Lou DiMuro is struck by a car. Major League Baseball retires his uniform number 16. June 20 – Pete Rose becomes only the fifth player in history to play in 3,000 Major League baseball games. July 13 – At Montreal's Olympic Stadium, in the first All-Star Game held outside the United
League Championship Series
The League Championship Series is the semifinal round of postseason play in Major League Baseball, conducted since 1969. In 1981, since 1995, the two annual series have matched up the winners of the Division Series, the winners advance to meet in the World Series; the LCS comprises National League Championship Series. The League Championship Series was created in 1969, when both the National League and the American League increased in size from ten teams to twelve with the addition, via expansion, of the Montreal Expos and San Diego Padres to the former and the Kansas City Royals and Seattle Pilots to the latter. Concomitant with this, both leagues formed Eastern and Western Divisions, the first-place teams from which faced off in the LCS. For its first sixteen seasons, the League Championship Series were best-of-five, using the 2–3 format in which the team without home field advantage hosted the first two games and the team with it hosted the remaining game, making it impossible for the disadvantaged team to win the series at home.
It allowed those teams the unusual luxury of starting a series at home having home field advantage in a three-game series, a guarantee that they play the maximum number of games possible at home. In 1985, the LCS was lengthened to best-of-seven games in the 2–3–2 format with the team holding home-field advantage opening the series at home and playing the next three games on the road, before returning home for two more possible games; the disadvantaged team would have had more games played at home than on the road if the series ends in five games. Since 1995, the LCS has matched up the winners of the Division Series, which were added when both leagues realigned into three divisions; until 1998, the home-field advantage in the LCS was allocated on a rotating basis between the two division champions. As of 2019, all thirty MLB teams have reached the LCS at least once; the Houston Astros and Milwaukee Brewers are the only teams to have played in both the ALCS and NLCS. League Championship Series Most Valuable Player Award "League Championship Series Overview".
MLB.com. League Championship Series at Baseball Almanac
The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known as the National League, is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball in the United States and Canada, the world's oldest current professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players of 1871–1875, the NL is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, founded 25 years later. Both leagues have 15 teams. After two years of conflict in a "baseball war" of 1901–1902, the two leagues of 8 team franchises each, agreed in a "peace pact" to recognize each other as "major leagues", draft rules regarding player contracts, prohibiting "raiding", regulating relationships with minor leagues and lower level clubs, with each establishing a team in the nation's largest metropolis of New York City, the league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the new professional baseball championship tournament with the inaugural "World Series" that Fall of 1903, succeeding earlier similar national series in previous decades since the 1880s.
After the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues formalized the new World Series tournament beginning in 1905 as an arrangement between the leagues themselves. National League teams have won 48 of the 114 World Series championships contested from 1903 to 2018. Due to its length, the National League's full name is used. Up until about the 1970's, the term National League was considered an informal term to be used for any North American major sports league that included those two words in its name the National Football League and National Hockey League. By the 21st century, that practice had fallen out of favor in North America, with the terms National League and NL reserved for the baseball league and similarly-named leagues in other sports being referred to by their full names or initials. By 1875, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, founded four years earlier, was suffering from a lack of strong authority over clubs, unsupervised scheduling, unstable membership of cities, dominance by one team, an low entry fee that gave clubs no incentive to abide by league rules when it was inconvenient to them.
William A. Hulbert, a Chicago businessman and an officer of the Chicago White Stockings of 1870–1889, approached several NA clubs with the plans for a professional league for the sport of base ball with a stronger central authority and exclusive territories in larger cities only. Additionally, Hulbert had a problem: five of his star players were threatened with expulsion from the NAPBBP because Hulbert had signed them to his club using what were considered questionable means. Hulbert had a great vested interest in creating his own league, after recruiting St. Louis four western clubs met in Louisville, Kentucky, in January 1876. With Hulbert speaking for the four in New York City on February 2, 1876, the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs was established with eight charter members, as follows: Chicago White Stockings from the NA Philadelphia Athletics from the NA Boston Red Stockings, the dominant team in the NA Hartford Dark Blues from the NA Mutual of New York from the NA St. Louis Brown Stockings from the NA Cincinnati Red Stockings, a new franchise Louisville Grays, a new franchise The National League's formation meant the end of the old National Association after only five seasons, as its remaining clubs shut down or reverted to amateur or minor league status.
The only strong club from 1875 excluded in 1876 was a second one in Philadelphia called the White Stockings or Phillies. The first game in National League history was played on April 22, 1876, at Philadelphia's Jefferson Street Grounds, at 25th & Jefferson Streets, between the Philadelphia Athletics and the Boston baseball club. Boston won the game 6–5; the new league's authority was soon tested after the first season. The Athletic and Mutual clubs fell behind in the standings and refused to make western road trips late in the season, preferring to play games against local non-league competition to recoup some of their financial losses rather than travel extensively incurring more costs. Hulbert reacted to the clubs' defiance by expelling them, an act which not only shocked baseball followers and the sports world, but made it clear to clubs that league schedule commitments, a cornerstone of competition integrity, were not to be ignored; the National League operated with only six clubs during 1877 and 1878.
Over the next several years, various teams left the struggling league. By 1880, six of the eight charter members had folded; the two remaining original NL franchises and Chicago, remain still in operation today as the Atlanta Braves and the Chicago Cubs. When all eight participants for 1881 returned for 1882—the first off-season without turnover in membership—the "circuit" consist