Texas Tech University
Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech, Tech, or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas. Established on February 10,1923, and originally known as Texas Technological College, the universitys student enrollment is the sixth-largest in Texas as of the Fall 2014 semester. The university shares its campus with Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, making it the campus in Texas to house an undergraduate university, law school. The university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through 13 colleges and hosts 60 research centers, Texas Tech University has awarded over 200,000 degrees since 1927, including over 40,000 graduate and professional degrees. The Carnegie Foundation classifies Texas Tech as having highest research activity, Research projects in the areas of epidemiology, pulsed power, grid computing, atmospheric sciences, and wind energy are among the most prominent at the university. The Texas Tech Red Raiders are charter members of the Big 12 Conference, the Red Raiders football team has made 36 bowl appearances, which is 17th most of any university.
The Red Raiders basketball team has made 14 appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament, bob Knight has coached the second most wins in mens NCAA Division I basketball history and served as the teams head coach from 2001 to 2008. The Lady Raiders basketball team won the 1993 NCAA Division I Tournament, in 1999, Texas Techs Goin Band from Raiderland received the Sudler Trophy, which is awarded to recognize collegiate marching bands of particular excellence. Though the majority of the students are from the southwestern United States. Texas Tech University alumni and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, science, education, the call to open a college in West Texas began shortly after settlers arrived in the area in the 1880s. In 1917, the Texas legislature passed a bill creating a branch of Texas A&M to be in Abilene, the bill was repealed two years during the next session after it was discovered Governor James E. Ferguson had falsely reported the site committees choice of location.
After new legislation passed in the house and senate in 1921, Governor Pat Neff vetoed it. Furious about Neffs veto, some in West Texas went so far as to recommend West Texas secede from the state, on February 10,1923, Neff signed the legislation creating Texas Technological College, and in July of that year, a committee began searching for a site. When the committees members visited Lubbock, they were overwhelmed to find residents lining the streets to support for hosting the institution. That August, Lubbock was chosen on the first ballot over other towns, including Floydada, Big Spring. Construction of the campus began on November 1,1924. Ten days later, the cornerstone of the Administration Building was laid in front of 20,000 people, chitwood served in the position only fifteen months, he died in November 1926. With an enrollment of 914 students—both men and women—Texas Technological College opened for classes on October 1,1925 and it was originally composed of four schools—Agriculture, Home Economics, and Liberal Arts
Sports Illustrated is an American sports media franchise owned by Time Inc. Its self-titled magazine has over 3 million subscribers and is read by 23 million people each week and it was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. Its swimsuit issue, which has published since 1964, is now an annual publishing event that generates its own television shows, videos. There were two magazines named Sports Illustrated before the current magazine began on August 16,1954, in 1936, Stuart Scheftel created Sports Illustrated with a target market for the sportsman. He published the magazine from 1936 to 1938 on a monthly basis, the magazine was a life magazine size and focused on golf and skiing with articles on the major sports. He sold the name to Dell Publications, which released Sports Illustrated in 1949, dells version focused on major sports and competed on magazine racks against Sport and other monthly sports magazines. During the 1940s these magazines were monthly and they did not cover the current events because of the production schedules, there was no large-base, weekly sports magazine with a national following on actual active events.
It was that Time patriarch Henry Luce began considering whether his company should attempt to fill that gap, at the time, many believed sports was beneath the attention of serious journalism and did not think sports news could fill a weekly magazine, especially during the winter. A number of advisers to Luce, including Life magazines Ernest Havemann, tried to kill the idea, but Luce, the goal of the new magazine was to be basically a magazine, but with sports. Launched on August 16,1954, it was not profitable and not particularly well run at first, but Luces timing was good. The popularity of sports in the United States was about to explode. The early issues of the magazine seemed caught between two opposing views of its audience, after more than a decade of steady losses, the magazines fortunes finally turned around in the 1960s when Andre Laguerre became its managing editor. A European correspondent for Time, Inc, in May 1956, Luce brought Laguerre to New York to become assistant managing editor of the magazine.
He was one of the first to sense the rise of national interest in professional football, Laguerre instituted the innovative concept of one long story at the end of every issue, which he called the bonus piece. His genius as an editor was that he made you want to please him, Laguerre is credited with the conception and creation of the annual Swimsuit Issue, which quickly became, and remains, the most popular issue each year. Regular illustration features by artists like Robert Riger, high school football Player of the Month awards. In 2015 Sports Illustrated purchased a group of companies and combined them to create Sports Illustrated Play. The magazines photographers made their mark with innovations like putting cameras in the goal at a hockey game, by 1967, the magazine was printing 200 pages of fast color a year, in 1983, SI became the first American full-color newsweekly
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A student athlete is a participant in an organized competitive sport sponsored by the educational institution in which he or she is enrolled. Student athletes must typically balance the roles of being a full-time student, due to educational institutions being colleges, they offer athletic scholarships in various sports. Many student athletes are compensated with scholarships to attend these institutions, the term student-athlete was coined in 1964 by Walter Byers, the first-ever executive director of the NCAA, to counter attempts to require universities to pay workers compensation. When making the decision of choosing his or her college they may sign The National Letter of Intent. The NLI is an agreement between the athlete and their school they have chosen to certify that they are entering a four-year institution for the first time, in order to sign the school has to have offered financial aid and the student has met the institutions admission requirements. Student athletes are likely to come into contact with important and influential alumni who can help them during their college years, student athletes occasionally receive athletic scholarships from a college or university, though they may be attending secondary school or a bathometric tertiary quad-mechanics school.
An athletic scholarship is a form of scholarship to attend a college or university awarded to an individual based predominantly on his or her ability to play in a sport, Athletic scholarships are common in the United States, but in many countries they are rare or non-existent. Although, every year more and more people outside the United States receive scholarships, athletes are subject to eligibility rules that may require them to maintain a certain grade point average and may bar them from participating in professional competition. Aside from scholarships, many are prohibited from receiving special treatment or incentives based on their athletic abilities, institutions may give student athletes additional assistance in academic support areas such as tutoring and library services. Many coaches hear from hundreds or even thousands of students each year who are looking for athletic scholarships and/or an opportunity to compete in intercollegiate athletics, competitive intercollegiate sports were not introduced into post secondary education in the United States until the nineteenth century.
The first popular collegiate sport was crew but this was short lived as high media coverage, as interest in football grew so did its aggressiveness and thus its resulting injuries. The NCAA was born out of President Theodore Roosevelts demand to reform college football and he wanted this because football was an extremely rough sport which caused many serious injuries. Since the 1930s the relationship between sports and universities have been turbulent, since the 1930s the medias coverage of sports has proven to be a big time revenue earner for schools sports programs. This coverage of sports draws attention towards the schools and this in not only affects the financial capabilities of the institution. To deal with many of the ills within intercollegiate sports the NCAA has put together a number of pieces of legislation, student athletes in high school are expected to meet or exceed the requirements in order to play sports in high school. Many states enforce strict rules for their student athletes which are called no pass.
Arizona, for example requires a grade in every class. California, for example, expects a 2.0 GPA or a C average in every class, College athlete Eligibility Requirements for U.000 grade-point average or better in your core courses, and earn a combined SAT score of 820 or an ACT sum score of 68
The Southwest Conference was an NCAA Division I college athletic conference in the United States that existed from 1914 to 1996. Composed primarily of schools from Texas, at times the conference included schools from Oklahoma. After a long period of stability, Arkansas left in 1991 to join the Southeastern Conference, by March 1,1914 a number of schools had responded favorably to the idea. The first organizational meeting of the conference was set to be held on April 30,1914, the date was changed because representatives from every school could not make it then. It was ultimately held on May 5 and 7,1914 at the Oriental Hotel in Dallas, Texas and it was chaired by L. Theo Bellmont. Originally, Bellmont wanted Louisiana State University and the University of Mississippi to join the conference as well, the Southwest Intercollegiate Athletic Conference became an official body on December 8,1914, at a formal meeting at the Rice Hotel in Houston. Rice University left the conference in 1916, only to re-join in 1918, phillips University was a conference member for one year.
Oklahoma left in 1919 to join the Missouri Valley Intercollegiate Athletic Association, the series between Texas and Oklahoma would continue as a non-conference matchup in the annual Red River Rivalry game held in Dallas. From 1925 until 1991, the University of Arkansas would be the only member not located within the state of Texas. By 1925, the name was shortened to simply Southwest Conference. After its organizational years, the conference settled into regularly scheduled meetings among its members, the SWC would be guided by seven commissioners, the first of whom, P. W. St. Clair, was appointed in 1938. In 1940, the conference took control of the five-year-old Cotton Bowl Classic, Texas Technological College joined the SWC in 1958, followed by the University of Houston for the 1976 season. The conference celebrated its glory years in the 1960s, dominated by two teams and Arkansas. Texas won the 1963 National Championship, and Arkansas won a National Championship in 1964 in the Football Writers Association of America, in 1969, Texas won another National Championship by beating #2-ranked Arkansas 15-14 in the regular seasons final game.
The 1969 Arkansas-Texas game in Fayetteville, attended by President Richard Nixon, is counted among the greatest college football games ever played. Texas won the 1970 United Press International National Championship, which until 1974 was awarded prior to the bowl games, opponents usually were the runners-up from the Big 8 Conference or the Southeastern Conference, although independents Penn State and Notre Dame were often featured. From the 1940s onward, the Cotton Bowl Classic was counted among the four bowl games. However, in the 1990s, the game declined in importance, in 1977, Notre Dame became the last team to win a national championship in the Cotton Bowl Classic by beating Texas in the January 1978 game
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States
In college athletics in the United States, recruiting is a term used to describe for the process in which college coaches add prospective student athletes to their roster each off-season. This process typically culminates in a coach extending an athletic scholarship offer to a player who is about to graduate high school or a junior college. During this recruiting process, schools must comply with rules that uphold the National Collegiate Athletic Association’s underlying principles of fairness and these rules or bylaws define who may be involved in the recruiting process, when recruiting may occur and the conditions under which recruiting may be conducted. Recruiting rules seek, as much as possible, to control intrusions into the lives of prospective student-athletes, to be considered a “recruited prospective student-athlete”, athletes must be approached by a college coach or representative about participating in that college’s athletic program. NCAA guidelines specify how and when they can be contacted, telephone calls, and in-person conversations are limited to certain frequency and dates during and after the students junior year.
The NCAA determines when the athletes can be contacted by dividing the year into four recruiting and non-recruiting periods,1, during a contact period, recruiters may make in-person, on- or off-campus contacts and evaluations. Coaches can write and/or phone athletes during this period, during an evaluation period, they can only assess academic qualifications and playing abilities. Letters and phone calls are permitted, no in-person, off-campus recruiting contacts arent, during a quiet period, they may make in-person recruiting contacts only on the college campus. Off-campus, recruiters are limited to phone calls and letter-writing, during a dead period, they cannot make in-person recruiting contacts or evaluations on- or off-campus or permit official/unofficial visits. However, phone calls and letters are permitted, during the recruiting process, the prospective student-athlete goes on an official visit to the school that theyre being recruited by. An official visit is a prospective student-athlete’s visit to a college campus paid for by the college, NCAA recruiting bylaws limit the number of official visits a recruit may take to five.
The NCAA has imposed stringent rules limiting the manner in which competing university-firms may bid for the newest crop of prospective student-athletes. Such rules limit the number of visits, which a student-athlete may make to a campus, the amount of his expenses that may be covered by the university-firm. During recruitment, a coach may ask a prospective player to sign a National Letter of Intent or NLI for short. The NLI is a program with regard to both institutions and student-athletes. No prospective student-athlete or parent is required to sign the NLI, by signing a NLI, a prospective student-athlete agrees to attend the designated college or university for one academic year. Student-athletes are assured of a scholarship for a minimum of one full academic year. By emphasizing a commitment to an institution, not particular coaches or teams
J. William Davis
Dr. J. William Davis is known as the father of the National Letter of Intent for college athletics. Dr. Davis was chairman of Texas Tech Universitys Athletic Council from 1948 to 1969 and he created a form, the National Letter of Intent, to prevent coaches from pulling recruits from other schools. The form was adopted in 1964 by the College Commissioners Association, Davis was educated at Tarleton State College, Texas A&M University, and the University of Texas. He came to Texas Technological College in 1938 as a professor of government, Davis was named head of the department in 1944 and served in that position for twenty years. Dr. Davis served as president of the Border Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1953-1954, as chairman of the athletic council from 1948–1967, he was instrumental in getting Texas Tech into the Southwest Athletic Conference. As the schools representative to the SWC, he served as vice president and he was the SWC’s representative to the National Collegiate Athletic Association, where he served as vice president from 1967–1971.
He was best known as the Father of the Letter of Intent, both the library in the Political Science Department at Texas Tech and the Athletic Dining Hall are named for him. An expert on the Texas Constitution, Davis served from 1957-1961 on the Citizens Advisory Committee on Constitutional Revision and he wrote the definitive work on the Texas Lieutenant Governor, And There Shall Also Be A Lieutenant Governor,1967. Davis married Edwena Barnes in 1933 and their children are James Thomas Davis of Spokane, Carolyn Davis Kennedy of Marble Falls and Donald B. Davis of Kerrville, Texas. The seven grandchildren are, Kyle Davis, Laura Davis Cook, Dana Davis Mott, King Mahon, Kirk Mahon, Jason Davis and he served in many capacities throughout his life and received many honors and awards
NCAA Division I
Division I is the highest level of intercollegiate athletics sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in the United States. This level was called the University Division of the NCAA, in contrast to the lower level College Division. For football only, Division I was further subdivided in 1978 into Division I-A, Division I-AA, in 2006, Division I-A and I-AA were renamed Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision, respectively. FCS teams are allowed to award scholarships, a practice technically allowed. FBS teams have to meet attendance requirements, while FCS teams do not need to meet minimum attendance requirements. Another difference is post season play, starting with the 2014 postseason, a four-team playoff called the College Football Playoff, replaced the previous one game championship format. Even so, Division I FBS football is still the only NCAA sport in which a champion is not determined by an NCAA-sanctioned championship event. All D-I schools must field teams in at least seven sports for men and seven for women or six for men and eight for women, with at least two team sports for each gender.
Division I schools must meet minimum financial aid awards for their athletics program, Several other NCAA sanctioned minimums and differences that distinguish Division I from Divisions II and III. Each playing season has to be represented by each gender as well, there are contest and participant minimums for each sport, as well as scheduling criteria. Mens and womens teams have to play all but two games against Division I teams, for men, they must play one-third of all their contests in the home arena. The NCAA has limits on the financial aid each Division I member may award in each sport that the school sponsors. Equivalency sports, in which the NCAA limits the total financial aid that a school can offer in a sport to the equivalent of a set number of full scholarships. Roster limitations may or may not apply, depending on the sport, the term counter is key to this concept. The NCAA defines a counter as an individual who is receiving financial aid that is countable against the aid limitations in a sport.
The number of scholarships that Division I members may award in sport is listed below. In this table, scholarship numbers for head-count sports are indicated without a point, for equivalency sports, they are listed with a decimal point. An exception exists for players at non-scholarship FCS programs who receive aid in another sport, participants in basketball are counted in that sport, unless they play football