The Axis powers known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not coordinate their activity; the Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936. Benito Mussolini declared on 1 November that all other European countries would from on rotate on the Rome–Berlin axis, thus creating the term "Axis"; the simultaneous second step was the signing in November 1936 of the Anti-Comintern Pact, an anti-communist treaty between Germany and Japan. Italy joined the Pact in 1937; the "Rome–Berlin Axis" became a military alliance in 1939 under the so-called "Pact of Steel", with the Tripartite Pact of 1940 leading to the integration of the military aims of Germany and Japan. At its zenith during World War II, the Axis presided over territories that occupied large parts of Europe, North Africa, East Asia.
There were no three-way summit meetings and cooperation and coordination was minimal, with more between Germany and Italy. The war ended in 1945 with the dissolution of their alliance; as in the case of the Allies, membership of the Axis was fluid, with some nations switching sides or changing their degree of military involvement over the course of the war. The term "axis" was first applied to the Italo-German relationship by the Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini in September 1923, when he wrote in the preface to Roberto Suster's Germania Repubblica that "there is no doubt that in this moment the axis of European history passes through Berlin". At the time, he was seeking an alliance with the Weimar Republic against Yugoslavia and France in the dispute over the Free State of Fiume; the term was used by Hungary's prime minister Gyula Gömbös when advocating an alliance of Hungary with Germany and Italy in the early 1930s. Gömbös' efforts did affect the Italo-Hungarian Rome Protocols, but his sudden death in 1936 while negotiating with Germany in Munich and the arrival of Kálmán Darányi, his successor, ended Hungary's involvement in pursuing a trilateral axis.
Contentious negotiations between the Italian foreign minister, Galeazzo Ciano, the German ambassador, Ulrich von Hassell, resulted in a Nineteen-Point Protocol, signed by Ciano and his German counterpart, Konstantin von Neurath, in 1936. When Mussolini publicly announced the signing on 1 November, he proclaimed the creation of a Rome–Berlin axis. Italy under Duce Benito Mussolini had pursued a strategic alliance of Italy with Germany against France since the early 1920s. Prior to becoming head of government in Italy as leader of the Italian Fascist movement, Mussolini had advocated alliance with defeated Germany after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 settled World War I, he believed. In early 1923, as a goodwill gesture to Germany, Italy secretly delivered weapons for the German Army, which had faced major disarmament under the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1923, Mussolini offered German Chancellor Gustav Stresemann a "common policy": he sought German military support against potential French military intervention over Italy's diplomatic dispute with Yugoslavia over Fiume, should an Italian seizure of Fiume result in war between Italy and Yugoslavia.
The German ambassador to Italy in 1924 reported that Mussolini saw a nationalist Germany as an essential ally for Italy against France, hoped to tap into the desire within the German army and the German political right for a war of revenge against France. During the Weimar Republic, the German government did not respect the Treaty of Versailles that it had been pressured to sign, various government figures at the time rejected Germany's post-Versailles borders. General Hans von Seeckt supported an alliance between Germany and the Soviet Union to invade and partition Poland between them and restore the German-Russian border of 1914. Gustav Streseman as German foreign minister in 1925 declared that the reincorporation of territories lost to Poland and Danzig in the Treaty of Versailles was a major task of German foreign policy; the Reichswehr Ministry memorandum of 1926 declared its intention to seek the reincorporation of German territory lost to Poland as its first priority, to be followed by the return of the Saar territory, the annexation of Austria, remilitarization of the Rhineland.
Since the 1920s Italy had identified the year 1935 as a crucial date for preparing for a war against France, as 1935 was the year when Germany's obligations under the Treaty of Versailles were scheduled to expire. Meetings took place in Berlin in 1924 between Italian General Luigi Capello and prominent figures in the German military, such as von Seeckt and Erich Ludendorff, over military collaboration between Germany and Italy; the discussions concluded that Germans still wanted a war of revenge against France but were short on weapons and hoped that Italy could assist Germany. However at this time Mussolini stressed one important condition that Italy must pursue in an alliance with Germany: that Italy "must... tow them, not be towed by them". Italian foreign minister Dino Grandi in the early 1930s stressed the importance of "decisive weight", involving Italy's relations between France and Germany, in which he recognized that Italy was not yet a major power, but perceived that Italy did have
In political science, Marxism–Leninism was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union, of the parties of the Communist International, after their Bolshevisation, is the ideology of Stalinist political parties. As Stalin's synthesis of Leninism, the political praxis of Lenin, of Marxism, the politico-economic theories of Karl Marx, the purpose of Marxism–Leninism is the transformation of a capitalist state into a socialist state, by way of two-stage revolution and led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries, drawn from the proletariat. To realise the two-stage transformation of the state, the vanguard party establishes the dictatorship of the proletariat, which determines policy with democratic centralism. Politically, the Marxist–Leninist communist party is the vanguard for the organisation of a capitalist society into a socialist society, the lower stage of socio-economic development, progress towards the upper-stage communist society, stateless and classless. In the late 1920s, after the death of Lenin, Stalin established universal ideologic orthodoxy among the Communist Party, the USSR, the Communist International, with his coinage Marxism–Leninism, a term which redefined theories of Lenin and Marx to establish universal Marxist–Leninist praxis for the exclusive, geopolitical benefit of the USSR.
In the late 1930s, Stalin's official textbook The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, made the term Marxism–Leninism common, political-science usage among communists and non-communists. Critical of Stalin's political economy and single-party government in the USSR, the Italian Left-communist Amadeo Bordiga said that Marxism–Leninism was a form of political opportunism, which preserved rather than destroyed capitalism, because of the claim that the exchange of commodities would occur under socialism; the American Marxist Raya Dunayevskaya dismissed Marxism–Leninism as a type of state capitalism because: state ownership of the means of production is a form of state capitalism. In 1929, within five years of the death of Lenin, Stalin was the Government of the Soviet Union, a ruler who flouted and applied the socialist principles of Lenin and Marx as political expediencies used to realise his plans for the USSR and for world socialism. Stalin justified his régime's deviations from Lenin's practices with the book Concerning Questions of Leninism, in which Stalin represented Marxism–Leninism as a separate communist ideology, which featured an omniscient leader, hierarchies of one global communist party and communist vanguard parties in each country of the world.
Stalin's interpretations of Lenin and Marx became Stalinism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union. As the Left Opposition to Stalin within the Communist Party and the Soviet government, Leon Trotsky and the Trotskyists argued that Stalin's Marxist–Leninist ideology contradicted Marxism and Leninism in theory and in practice, thus was illegitimate socialist philosophy for the practical implementation of Socialism in Russia. Moreover, within the Party, the Trotskyists identified their communist ideology as Bolshevik–Leninism, to politically differentiate their ideology from the ideology Stalin used to justify and implement his theory of Socialism in One Country. In Marxist political discourse the term Marxism–Leninism and connoting the theory and praxis of Stalinism, has two usages: praise of Joseph Stalin, by Stalinists who believe Stalin developed Lenin's legacy. Consequent to the Sino-Soviet split, in each socialist country, the Communist Party of China and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union each claimed to be the sole heir-and-successor to Stalin, regarding the correct interpretation of Marxism–Leninism, thus ideological leader of world communism.
In that vein, the History of the People's Republic of China represents Maoism as Mao Zedong's fundamental up-dating and adaptation of Leninism to Chinese conditions, in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideologic orthodoxy is secondary. The Sino-Albanian split was caused by Socialist Albania's rejection of the PRC's Realpolitik of Sino–American rapprochement the Mao–Nixon meeting, which the anti-revisionist Albanian Labor Party perceived as an ideological betrayal of Mao's own Three Worlds Theory, which excluded such political relations of rapprochement. To the Albanians, the Chinese dealings with the U. S. were a lessening of Mao's practical commitments to proletarian internationalism. Enver Hoxha, the head of the Albanian Labor Party, theorised an anti-revisionist Marxism-Leninism referred to as Hoxhaism, which attempted to retain an'authentic' socialism in comparison to the post-Stalinist Soviet Union
Baba Faja Martaneshi
Baba Faja Martaneshi was an Albanian Bektashi baba and a resistance leader during the National Liberation War of the Albanian People. Baba Faja was born Mustafa Xhani in Luz i Madh, Kavajë and pursued religious studies to become a baba at the tekke of Martanesh, where he acquired the religious name he would become popularly known by. Following the Italian invasion of Albania he led one of the earliest guerrilla bands against the occupiers, denouncing Fascist Italy as anti-Islamic and establishing contacts with the Albanian communist movement, becoming one of the most wanted men in the country in the process. In his memoirs Enver Hoxha wrote that during the war the Baba was "one of those clergy men who wore the cap and the cloak of a dervish, but who had Albania in his heart and in his hand the rifle for its liberation.... did not discard his clerical cap and robe, he was quite right, because in this way he rendered greater service to the line of the Party and the National Liberation Front for uniting everybody in the war without distinction as to region, or political and religious beliefs."
David Smiley described Baba Faja as a likable "scoundrel," who "delighted in singing partisan songs in his deep bass voice after consuming large quantities of raki."He became a founding member of the National Liberation Front upon its establishment in September 1942, serving on its General Council alongside Enver Hoxha, Myslym Peza and other resistance fighters, in July 1943 he became a member of the General Staff of the Albanian National Liberation Army. In May 1944 he was elected a Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Anti-Fascist National Liberation Council. After the war he served as a representative from Elbasan in the Constituent Assembly, subsequently becoming Deputy Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly. During the war he asked Hoxha to admit him as a member of the Communist Party. To this Baba Faja said, "For the Party I shall discard my clerical robes," to which Hoxha replied, "No, you should stick to the robes you wear; this is not a matter of deceiving people, but you wore the religious robes as a priest before the war and before the formation of the Party.
Therefore, go on wearing them, because we have to respect the sentiments of believers and utilize the sympathy which the people have for you and the tekke of Martanesh. So, since you are resolutely for the war and love the Party and apply its line, we will admit you as member of the Party." He was subsequently made a member. In May 1945 he presided over the Fourth Congress of the Bektashi Community, which formally severed relations between the sect and the rest of the Islamic world; as the most prominent Bektashi figure to work with the Communists he led reformers within the sect who advocated allowing the clergy to marry, allowing them to shave their beards and to limit the wearing of religious clothing to ceremonies. On March 18, 1947 the conservative head of the sect, Abas Hilmi, was confronted by Baba Faja and Baba Fejzo Dervishi who demanded he accept these policies or else face reprisals from the government. Hilmi proceeded to shoot both men and commit suicide
Tirana is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. Tirana is located in the center of Albania and is enclosed by mountains and hills, with Dajt on the east and a slight valley on the northwest overlooking the Adriatic Sea in the distance. Due to its location within the Plain of Tirana and the close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, the city is influenced by a Mediterranean seasonal climate, it is with 2,544 hours of sun per year. Tirana flourished as a city in 1614 but the region that today corresponds to the city's territory has been continuously inhabited since the Iron Age; the city's territory had no importance within Illyria. Indeed, it was annexed by Rome and became an integral part of the Roman Empire following the Illyrian Wars; the heritage of that period represented by the Mosaics of Tirana. In the 5th and 6th centuries, a Paleochristian basilica was built around this site. After the Roman Empire split into East and West in the 4th century, its successor the Byzantine Empire took control over most of Albania, built the Petrelë Castle in the reign of Justinian I.
The city was unimportant until the 20th century, when the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed it as Albania's capital, after the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912. Tirana is the most important economic, financial and trade center in Albania due to its significant location in the center of the country and its modern air, maritime and road transportation, it is the seat of power of the Government of Albania, with the official residences of the President and Prime Minister of Albania, the Parliament of Albania. The discovery of the Pellumbas Cave near Tirana shows that ancient human culture was present in Albania as early as the Paleolithic era. Nonetheless, the oldest discovery within the urban area of Tirana was a Roman house, transformed into an aisleless church with a mosaic floor, dating to the 3rd century, with other remains found near a medieval temple at Shengjin Fountain in the eastern suburbs. A castle called Tirkan, whose remnants are found along Murat Toptani Street, was built by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and restored by Ahmed Pasha Toptani in the 18th century.
The area had no special importance in classical times. Tirana is mentioned in Venetian documents in 1418, one year after the Ottoman conquest of the area: "...the resident Pjeter, son of late Domenik from the village of Tirana...". Records of the first land registrations under the Ottomans in 1431–32 show that Tirana consisted of 60 inhabited areas, with nearly 2,028 houses and 7,300 inhabitants. In 1510, Marin Barleti, an Albanian Catholic priest and scholar, in the biography of the Albanian national hero Skanderbeg, Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi Epirotarum principis, referred to this area as a small village, distinguishing between "Little Tirana" and "Great Tirana", it is mentioned in 1572 as Borgo di Tirana. According to Hahn, the settlement had started to develop as a bazaar and included several watermills before 1614, when Sulejman Bargjini, a local ruler, built the Old Mosque, a small commercial centre, a hammam; this is confirmed by oral sources, which state that there were two earlier mosques 300-400 m from the Old Mosque, towards today's Ali Demi Street.
The Mosque of Reç and the Mosque of Mujo were positioned on the left side of the Lana river and were older than the Old Mosque. The Et'hem Bey Mosque, built by Molla Bey of Petrela, was constructed, it employed the best artisans in the country and was completed in 1821 by Molla's son Etëhem, Sulejman Bargjini's great-nephew. In 1800, the first newcomers arrived in the so-called ortodoksit, they were Vlachs from villages near Korçë and Pogradec, who settled around modern day Tirana Park on the Artificial Lake. They started to be known as the llacifac and were the first Christians to arrive after the creation of the town. After Serb reprisals in the Debar region, thousands of locals fled to Tirana. In 1807, Tirana became the center of the Subprefecture of Krujë-Tirana. After 1816, Tirana languished under the control of the Toptani family of Krujë. Tirana became a sub-prefecture of the newly created Vilayet of Shkodër and the Sanjak of Durrës. In 1889, the Albanian language started to be taught in Tirana's schools, the patriotic club Bashkimi was founded in 1908.
On 28 November 1912, the national flag was raised in agreement with President Ismail Qemali. During the Balkan Wars, the city was temporarily occupied by the Serbian army and it took part in uprising of the villages led by Haxhi Qamili. In August 1916, the first city map was compiled by the specialists of the Austro-Hungarian army. On 8 February 1920, the Congress of Lushnjë proclaimed Tirana as the temporary capital of Albania, which had gained independence in 1912; the city acquired that status permanently on 31 December 1925. In 1923, the first regulatory city plan was compiled by Austrian architects; the centre of Tirana was the project of Florestano Di Fausto and Armando Brasini, well-known architects of the Mussolini period in Italy. Brasini laid the basis for the modern-day arrangement of the ministerial buildings in the city centre; the plan underwent revisions by Albanian architect Eshref Frashëri, Italian architect Castellani and Austrian architects Weiss and Kohler. The modern Albanian parliament building served as an officers' club.
It was there that, in September 1928, Zog of Albania was crowned King Zog King of the Albanians. Tirana was the venue for the signing of the P
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Shkodër or Shkodra known as Scutari or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding county of Shkodër, one of 12 constituent counties of the republic; the city is one of the most ancient cities in the Balkans and the fourth most populous city in the country and exerts strong influences in culture, religion and entertainment of northern Albania. Geographically, the city of Shkodër sprawls across the Mbishkodra plain between the freshwater marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps. Like most of the Dinaric Alps, the mountains are dominated by dolomite rocks; the lake, named after the city of Shkodër, is the largest lake in Southern Europe close to the Adriatic Sea. The city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west; the region that today corresponds to the city territory was founded in the 4th century BC by the ancient Illyrian tribes of the Ardiaei and Labeates. It is evidenced by the inscriptions that were discovered in the Rozafa Castle.
During that time the city was known under the name Scodra. The city has developed on a 130 metres hill, strategically located in the outflow of Lake Shkodër into the Buna; the Romans annexed the city after the third Illyrian War in 168 BC, when Gentius was defeated by the Roman force of Anicius Gallus. In the 3rd century AD, Shkodër became the capital of Praevalitana due to the administrative reform of the Roman emperor Diocletian. With the spread of Christianity in the 4th century, the Archdiocese of Scodra was founded and was assumed in 535 by Byzantine Justinian I. During many different epochs it has retained its status as a major city in the wider region, due to its strategic position close to the Adriatic Sea and the Italian port cities, but with land-routes to other important cities and towns in neighbouring regions; the etymology of the term Shkodër is a subject. The name was first attested in antiquity in the Latin form Scodra, the Ancient Greek Σκόδρα and the Ancient Greek genitive Σκοδρινῶν, discovered on coins from the 2nd century BC.
Although the ultimate origin of the term is uncertain. The further development of the name has been a subject of discussion among linguists over the linguistic provenance of the Albanian people and the Albanian language. While Eqrem Çabej and Shaban Demiraj treat the development from Skodra to modern Shkodra as evidence of regular development within the Albanian language, Matzinger argues that it fails to display certain known phonological changes that would have to have happened if the name had been continually in use in proto-Albanian since pre-Roman times. In modern times, the term was adapted to Italian as Scutari. In Serbo-Croatian, Shkodër is known as Skadar, in Turkish as İşkodra. Shkodër is the largest city in northern Albania, lying near latitude 42° 4' N, longitude 19 ° 31' E. Geologically, Shkodër extends strategically on the Mbishkodra Plain between the marshlands of Lake Shkodër and the foothills of the Albanian Alps, the southernmost continuation of the Dinaric Alps; the northeast is dominated by Mount Maranaj standing at 1,576 metres above the Adriatic.
Hydrologically, the city is trapped on three sides by the rivers Kir in the east, Drin in the south and Buna in the west. Rising From Lake Shkodër, Buna flows into the Adriatic Sea; the river joins the Drin for 2 kilometres southwest of the city. In the east, Shkodër is bordered by Kir, which originates from the north flowing into the Drin, that surrounds Shkodër in the south; the location of Shkodër has been of great strategic importance in its history. It has helped the city to its wealth in its history or made it the subject of conflicts between foreign powers. Lake Shkodër forms the frontier of Albania and Montenegro; the lake became the symbol of the consistent economic and social divide of the city. Although, the lake is the largest lake in Southern Europe and an important habitat for various animal and plant species. Further, the Albanian section has been designated as a Nature Reserve. In 1996, it has been recognised as a wetland of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention.
River Buna connects the lake with the Adriatic Sea, while the Drin provides a link with Lake Ohrid in the southeast of Albania. It is a cryptodepression, filled by the river Morača and drained into the Adriatic by the 41 km long Buna. According to the Köppen climate classification, Shkodër experiences mediterranean climate, wet enough in July to be a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences; the average yearly temperature varies from 14.5 °C to 16.8 °C. Although, mean monthly temperature ranges between 1.4 °C to 9.8 °C in January and 19.3 °C to 32.4 °C in August. The average yearly precipitation is about 1,700 millimetres, which makes the area one of the wettest in Europe; the earliest signs of human activity in the lands of Shkodër can be traced back to the Bronze Age. The favorable conditions on the fertile plain, around the lake, have brought people here from early antiquity. Artefacts and inscriptions, discovered in the Rozafa Castle, are assumed to be the earliest examples of symbolic behaviour in humans in the city.
Although, it was known under the name Scodra and was inhabited by the Illyrian tribe of the Ardiaei, which ruled over a large territory between modern Albania up to Croatia. Queen Teuta, King Agron, King Gentius, were among the mos
Vasil Shanto, called Vasko was one of the founders of the Albanian Communist Party. He was the leader, along with Qemal Stafa, of the Shkodër communist group. One of the delegates of the party, he was sent to meet with the Yugoslavian Communist Party. Shanto was born on August 17, 1913, in the village of Vrakë, his family owned a bakery in Shkodër, hailed from Struga. Prior to World War II, the family had a bakery in Tirana. In 1928, he joined the Albanian Communist Party, he worked as a baker. At the time of the Italian invasion of Albania, the Shkodër communist group included Qemal Stafa, a student, Shanto, an artisan, Liri Gega, an intellectual, Imer Dishnica, a doctor, Zef Mala and others; the leaders were Mala, Shanto and Themelko. The Shkodër group's activities spanned over Kosovo and western Macedonia, the organization included several emigrants from Gjakova and other places in Kosovo, who had moved to Albania between 1930 and 1937. In spring 1941, Shanto and Stafa met with fellow Communist Fadil Hoxha due to his earlier contact with Yugoslav communist Miladin Popović.
Miladin Popović and Dušan Mugoša were the Yugoslav delegates that helped unite the Albanian communist groups in 1941. In August 1941, the Albanian Communist Party was established through the agreement between the Shkodër, Korçë and Tirana communist groups, he was one of the founding assembly members from the Shkodër group along with Stafa, Kristo Themelko, Tuk Jakova, in 8–14 November 1941 in Tirana. Among the founding members, there were 8 Christian members: Koço Tashko, Koçi Xoxe, Pandi Kristo, Gjin Marku, Vasil Shanto, Tuk Jakova, Kristo Themelko and Anastas Lula. In April 1942, there were only 300 communists in Albania. Around 8 November 1943, Shanto arrived at the headquarters of 2nd Corpus of the Yugoslav Partisans in Kolašin, he came in the capacity of delegacy of the Central Committee of the Albanian Communists to meet with Ivan Milutinović and the 2nd Corpus regarding party and military questions important for the further development of the Albanian Communists. He came into conflict with Hoxha but this was concealed from the people.
He was killed in action on 1 February 1944, in a skirmish with German forces in Shkodër. Shanto's sister, was married to Petar Bulatović-Bulat, a former colonel in the Albanian Ministry of Internal Affairs, with dual citizenship. Bullati was accused in 1956 of being an "enemy of the people" and "UDBA agent" and executed. Shanto's sister with the rest of the family were sent to an internment camp, he posthumously received the Albanian honorary title "People's Hero". He was one of five members of the Yugoslav community of Albania, along with Branko Kadija, Jordan Misja, Vojo Kushi and Danilo Mateja, who received the award. Mihajlov, Mile. Kuzman Josifovski-Pitu: vreme, život, delo, 1915-1944: prilozi od nauchniot održan na 23 i 24 fevruari 1944 godina vo Prilep. Institut za nacionalna istorija. Pearson, Owen. Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume II: Albania in Occupation and War, 1939-45. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-104-5. Pearson, Owen. Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History: Volume III: Albania as Dictatorship and Democracy, 1945-99.
I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84511-105-2. Pavlović, Blagoje K.. Albanizacija Kosova i Metohije. Evropsko slovo. Vickers, Miranda; the Albanians: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85773-655-0. Dedijer, Vladimir. Jugoslovensko-albanski odnosi. Borba. JournalsVojnoistorijski institut. Zbornik Dokumenta. 3. Institut za savremenu istoriju. Sabrana djela. 18. Komunist. News articlesJevtić, Miroljub. "Цела земља 300 комуниста!". Novosti