Map series occur when an area is to be covered by a map that, due to its scale, must be spread over several sheets. Nevertheless, the sheets of a map series can be used quite independently, as they generally have full map surround details. If a publisher produces several map series at different scales, these series are called scale series, in everyday use, individual maps and atlases are sometimes described as being part of a map series. The scope of a map series can range from as few as two sheets to at least tens of thousands of sheets, obsolete maps, especially of the 19th century, are often named Topographic Atlases, because their small-sized sheets were bound into atlases. An example of such a map series is the Topographic Atlas of the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick. It is technically difficult, and it would be highly impractical, to print. For that reason, map series are issued and preserved in loose-leaf form, in extreme cases, a map series can include thousands of sheets.
Probably the greatest map series ever created is the 1,25,000 topographic map of the Soviet Union, with about 300,000 sheets, completed in 1987. Occasionally, smaller map series will be compiled by the buyer into a bound volume, the sheets of a map series can be glued by the buyer to their neighbouring sheets, especially as a wall decoration. So, for example, the National Map of Switzerland, which consists of 22 sheets, can be seen as a decoration in the Federal Palace of Switzerland. Map series are divided into systems of single sheets named and numbered according to common principles. Thus, the characteristics of a sheet in a map series apply equally to all the other sheets of the map series. So, for example, all normally have the same cartographic projections, scale. Theoretically, almost any sheet network design can be used, in practice, variants of the mercator projection are the most widely used today, frequently in conjunction with the UTM coordinate system. All sheets of a map series are created in the same way, an individual sheets title and number identifies and locates that sheets place in the map series.
The sheets are divided from each other either square to the map grid, or along the meridians, in the first case, the sheets will all be the same size. In the second case, the size will decrease towards the north or the south. To determine whether a map sheet forms part of a map series
The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. So, for example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear much larger than they actually are relative to land masses near the equator, Mercators 1569 edition was a large planisphere measuring 202 by 124 cm, printed in eighteen separate sheets. As in all cylindrical projections and meridians are straight, being a conformal projection, angles are preserved around all locations. At latitudes greater than 70° north or south the Mercator projection is practically unusable, a Mercator map can therefore never fully show the polar areas. All lines of constant bearing are represented by segments on a Mercator map. The name and explanations given by Mercator to his world map show that it was conceived for the use of marine navigation. The development of the Mercator projection represented a breakthrough in the nautical cartography of the 16th century. However, it was ahead of its time, since the old navigational.
If these sheets were brought to the scale and assembled an approximation of the Mercator projection would be obtained. English mathematician Edward Wright, who published accurate tables for its construction, english mathematicians Thomas Harriot and Henry Bond who, associated the Mercator projection with its modern logarithmic formula, deduced by calculus. As on all map projections, shapes or sizes are distortions of the layout of the Earths surface. The Mercator projection exaggerates areas far from the equator, for example, Greenland appears larger than Africa, when in reality Africas area is 14 times greater and Greenlands is comparable to Algerias alone. Africa appears to be roughly the size as Europe. Alaska takes as much area on the map as Brazil, when Brazils area is nearly five times that of Alaska, finland appears with a greater north-south extent than India, although Indias is greater. Antarctica appears as the biggest continent, although it is actually the fifth in area, the Mercator projection is still used commonly for navigation.
On the other hand, because of land area distortions. Therefore, Mercator himself used the equal-area sinusoidal projection to show relative areas, the Mercator projection is still commonly used for areas near the equator, where distortion is minimal. Arno Peters stirred controversy when he proposed what is now called the Gall–Peters projection as the alternative to the Mercator
Geneva is the second most populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic, the municipality has a population of 198,072, and the canton has 484,736 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France, within Swiss territory, the commuter area named Métropole lémanique contains a population of 1.25 million. This area is essentially spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, Geneva is the city that hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world. It is the place where the Geneva Conventions were signed, Geneva was ranked as the worlds ninth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, ahead of Frankfurt, and third in Europe behind London and Zürich. A2009 survey by Mercer found that Geneva has the third-highest quality of life of any city in the world, the city has been referred to as the worlds most compact metropolis and the Peace Capital.
In 2009 and 2011, Geneva was ranked as, the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava, probably from a Celtic toponym *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis, the name takes various forms in modern languages, Geneva /dʒᵻˈniːvə/ in English, Genève, Genf, Italian and Romansh, Genevra. The city in origin shares its name, *genawa estuary, with the Italian port city of Genoa, Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, and acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, around this time the House of Savoy came to dominate the city. In the 15th century, a republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council.
In 1541, with Protestantism in the ascendancy, John Calvin, by the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, in 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, in 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12 North, 6°09 East, at the end of Lake Geneva. It is surrounded by two chains, the Alps and the Jura
Pierres du Niton
The Pierres du Niton are two unusual rocks which are visible from Quai Gustave-Ador in the harbor of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. They are remnants from the last ice age, left by the Rhone glacier, the Repère Pierre du Niton is the name of the rock which is bigger and further from the shore. The word Niton is derived from the ancient water god Neptune, guillaume-Henri Dufour used the Repère as a height starting point by the development of the Dufourmaps from 1845 to 1864 in the graduation 1,100000. At that time the height over sea level was estimated and decreed to be 376.86 m, up to today, this stone forms the authoritative point of the Swiss height measurement system. However, the height was newly evaluated in 1902 to be 373.6 m over sea level and this is why the data in maps of Switzerland made before 1902 differ by 3.26 m from todays official values. In the Bronze Age, these stones likely had a significance and were used in religious ceremonies. This has been hypothesized due to square holes at the top of the stone, discovered in 1660
A CD-ROM /ˌsiːˌdiːˈrɒm/ is a pre-pressed optical compact disc which contains data. The name is an acronym which stands for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory, computers can read CD-ROMs, but cannot write to CD-ROMs which are not writable or erasable. From the mid-1990s until the mid-2000s, CD-ROMs were popularly used to distribute software for computers, some CDs, called enhanced CDs, hold both computer data and audio with the latter capable of being played on a CD player, while data is only usable on a computer. An early CD-ROM format was developed by Sony and Denon, introduced at a Japanese computer show in 1984 and it was an extension of Compact Disc Digital Audio, and adapted the format to hold any form of digital data, with a capacity of 540 MiB. The Yellow Book is the standard that defines the format of CD-ROMs. One of a set of books that contain the technical specifications for all CD formats. CD-ROMs are identical in appearance to audio CDs, and data are stored and retrieved in a similar manner.
Discs are made from a 1.2 mm thick disc of polycarbonate plastic, data is stored on the disc as a series of microscopic indentations. A laser is shone onto the surface of the disc to read the pattern of pits. This pattern of changing intensity of the beam is converted into binary data. Several formats are used for data stored on discs, known as the Rainbow Books. The Yellow Book, published in 1988, defines the specifications for CD-ROMs, the CD-ROM standard builds on top of the original Red Book CD-DA standard for CD audio. Other standards, such as the White Book for Video CDs, the Yellow Book itself is not freely available, but the standards with the corresponding content can be downloaded for free from ISO or ECMA. There are several standards that define how to structure data files on a CD-ROM, ISO9660 defines the standard file system for a CD-ROM. ISO13490 is an improvement on this standard which adds support for non-sequential write-once and re-writeable discs such as CD-R and CD-RW, as well as multiple sessions.
The ISO13346 standard was designed to address most of the shortcomings of ISO9660, and a subset of it evolved into the UDF format, which was adopted for DVDs. The bootable CD specification was issued in January 1995, to make a CD emulate a hard disk or floppy disk, is called El Torito, data stored on CD-ROMs follows the standard CD data encoding techniques described in the Red Book specification. This includes cross-interleaved Reed–Solomon coding, eight-to-fourteen modulation, and the use of pits, the structures used to group data on a CD-ROM are derived from the Red Book
Digital elevation model
A digital elevation model is a digital model or 3D representation of a terrains surface — commonly for a planet, moon, or asteroid — created from terrain elevation data. There is no usage of the terms digital elevation model, digital terrain model. In most cases the term digital surface model represents the earths surface, in contrast to a DSM, the digital terrain model represents the bare ground surface without any objects like plants and buildings. DEM is often used as a term for DSMs and DTMs. Other definitions equalise the terms DEM and DTM, or define the DEM as a subset of the DTM, there are definitions which equalise the terms DEM and DSM. On the Web definitions can be found which define DEM as a regularly spaced GRID, most of the data providers use the term DEM as a generic term for DSMs and DTMs. All datasets which are captured with satellites, airplanes or other flying platforms are originally DSMs and it is possible to compute a DTM from high resolution DSM datasets with complex algorithms.
In the following the term DEM is used as a term for DSMs and DTMs. A DEM can be represented as a raster or as a vector-based triangular irregular network, the TIN DEM dataset is referred to as a primary DEM, whereas the Raster DEM is referred to as a secondary DEM. The DEM could be acquired through techniques such as photogrammetry, lidar, IfSAR, land surveying, DEMs are commonly built using data collected using remote sensing techniques, but they may be built from land surveying. DEMs are used often in information systems, and are the most common basis for digitally produced relief maps. Mappers may prepare digital elevation models in a number of ways, the SPOT1 satellite provided the first usable elevation data for a sizeable portion of the planets landmass, using two-pass stereoscopic correlation. The HRS instrument on SPOT5 has acquired over 100 million square kilometers of stereo pairs, older methods of generating DEMs often involve interpolating digital contour maps that may have been produced by direct survey of the land surface.
This method is used in mountain areas, where interferometry is not always satisfactory. Note that contour line data or any other sampled elevation datasets are not DEMs, a DEM implies that elevation is available continuously at each location in the study area. The quality of a DEM is a measure of how accurate elevation is at each pixel, the limitation with the GTOPO30 and SRTM datasets is that they cover continental landmasses only, and SRTM does not cover the polar regions and has mountain and desert no data areas. SRTM data, being derived from radar, represents the elevation of the first-reflected surface — quite often tree tops, so, the data are not necessarily representative of the ground surface, but the top of whatever is first encountered by the radar. Submarine elevation data is generated using ship-mounted depth soundings, when land topography and bathymetry is combined, a truly Global Relief Model is obtained
Vector graphics is the use of polygons to represent images in computer graphics. Vector graphics are based on vectors, which lead through locations called control points or nodes, one of the first uses of vector graphic displays was the US SAGE air defense system. Vector graphics systems were retired from U. S. en route air traffic control in 1999. Vector graphics were used on the TX-2 at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory by computer graphics pioneer Ivan Sutherland to run his program Sketchpad in 1963. Subsequent vector graphics systems, most of which iterated through dynamically modifiable stored lists of drawing instructions, include the IBM2250, Imlac PDS-1, storage scope displays, such as the Tektronix 4014, could display vector images but not modify them without first erasing the display. In computer typography, modern outline fonts describe printable characters by cubic or quadratic mathematical curves with control points, bitmap fonts are still in use. Processing outline character data in sophisticated fashion to create satisfactory bitmaps for rendering is called hinting, although the term implies suggestion, the process is deterministic, and done by executable code, essentially a special-purpose computer language.
While automatic hinting is possible, results can be inferior to that done by experts, although a typical plot might easily require a few thousand paper motions and forth, the paper doesnt slip. In a tiny roll-fed plotter made by Alps in Japan, teeth on thin sprockets indented the paper near its edges on the first pass, some Hewlett-Packard pen plotters had two-axis pen carriers and stationery paper. However, the moving-paper H-P plotters had grit wheels which, on the first pass, indented the paper surface, present-day vector graphic files such as engineering drawings are typically printed as bitmaps, after vector-to-raster conversion. The term vector graphics is used today in the context of two-dimensional computer graphics. It is one of several modes an artist can use to create an image on a raster display, Vector graphics can be uploaded to online databases for other designers to download and manipulate, speeding up the creative process. Other modes include text, and 3D rendering, virtually all modern 3D rendering is done using extensions of 2D vector graphics techniques.
Plotters used in technical drawing still draw vectors directly to paper, the World Wide Web Consortium standard for vector graphics is Scalable Vector Graphics. The standard is complex and has been slow to be established at least in part owing to commercial interests. Many web browsers now have support for rendering SVG data. In recent years, SVG has become a significant format that is independent of the resolution of the rendering device. SVG files are essentially printable text that describes both straight and curved paths, as well as other attributes, wikipedia prefers SVG for images such as simple maps, line illustrations, coats of arms, and flags, which generally are not like photographs or other continuous-tone images
Ski mountaineering is a skiing discipline that involves climbing mountains either on skis or carrying them, depending on the steepness of the ascent, and descending on skis. There are two categories of equipment used, free-heel Telemark skis and skis based on Alpine skis, where the heel is free for ascents. The discipline may be practiced recreationally or as a competitive sport, competitive ski mountaineering is typically a timed racing event that follows an established trail through challenging winter alpine terrain while passing through a series of checkpoints. Racers climb and descend under their own power using backcountry skiing equipment, more generally, ski mountaineering is an activity that variously combines ski touring, backcountry skiing, and mountaineering. Military patrol was an event at the 1924 Winter Olympics, followed by demonstration events at the 1928 Winter Olympics, in 1936. Military patrol is considered to be a predecessor of the biathlon, from 1992 to 2009, the Comité International du Ski-Alpinisme de Compétition, founded by France, Slovakia and Switzerland, sanctioned the European Championship.
Then the CISAC merged with the International Council for Ski Mountaineering Competitions in 1999, outside Europe, international championships started with the 2007 South American Ski Mountaineering Championship and the 2007 Asian Championship of Ski Mountaineering. The 2012 North American Ski Mountaineering Championship was the first edition of a North American Championship of Ski Mountaineering, three important races are the Italian Mezzalama Trophy the Swiss Patrouille des Glaciers, and the French Pierra Menta. Bindings, Should be reliable and durable, Should be light and flexible. Skis, Should weigh 4 pounds or less, Ski skins are used for walking up slopes
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips, Sony and Panasonic in 1995. The medium can store any kind of data and is widely used for software. DVDs offer higher capacity than compact discs while having the same dimensions. Pre-recorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD, such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be read and not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded using a DVD recorder. Rewritable DVDs can be recorded and erased many times, DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs. The OED states that in 1995, The companies said the name of the format will simply be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disk’, but that was switched to ‘digital versatile disk’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications, Digital versatile disc is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forums mission statement.
There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD, Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States and it used much larger discs than the formats. CD Video used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs, Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc formats were being developed. By the time of the launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, and Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the system to use for their disc. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBMs Almaden Research Center, got that request and this group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG.
On August 14,1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a release stating that they would only accept a single format. The TWG voted to both formats unless the two camps agreed on a single, converged standard. They recruited Lou Gerstner, president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions, as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc