Shaheed Minar, Dhaka
The Shaheed Minar is a national monument in Dhaka, established to commemorate those killed during the Bengali Language Movement demonstrations of 1952 in East Pakistan. On 21 and 22 February 1952, students from Dhaka University and Dhaka Medical College and political activists were killed when the Pakistani police force opened fire on Bengali protesters who were demanding official status for their native tongue, Bengali; the massacre occurred near Dhaka Medical Ramna Park in Dhaka. A makeshift monument was erected on 23 February by students of Dhaka medical college and other educational institutions, but soon demolished on 24 February by the Pakistani police force; the Language Movement gained momentum, after a long struggle, Bengali gained official status in Pakistan in 1956. To commemorate the dead, the Shaheed Minar was designed and built by Bangladeshi sculptors Hamidur Rahman in collaboration with Novera Ahmed. Construction was delayed by martial law, but the monument was completed in 1963, stood until the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, when it was demolished during Operation Searchlight.
After Bangladesh gained independence that year, it was rebuilt. It was expanded in 1983. National, mourning and other activities are held each year on 21 February to mark Language Movement Day or Shaheed Dibas, centred on the Shaheed Minar. Since 2000, 21 February is recognised as International Mother Language Day; the first Shaheed Minar was built after the events of 21–22 February 1952. According to Dr. Sayeed Haider the main planner and the designer of the first Shaheed Minar, the decision to build it was first made by the students of Dhaka Medical College. Shaheed Minar is situated in the Dhaka University area, it is adjacent to the Mathematics department of Dhaka University. It is only 0.5 kilometres away from Shahbag and 0.25 km distant from Chankharpul. Shaheed Minar is an outstanding monument of Bangladesh, it was built to tribute the martyrs. The main incident had been occurring inside of Dhaka medical college hospital. So a decision was taken to build a memorial adjacent to DMCH; the planning started at midnight on 22 February, the work started the next day.
This Minar was sponsored by Pearu Sardar, one of the old Dhaka panchayet sardars, when some of the students asked his help at midnight of 22 February, to contribute the raw materials needed to build the monument. Although curfew was in place, students started building the Minar in the afternoon of 23 February, they finished it at dawn. A hand written paper was attached to the Minar with "Shaheed Smritistombho" written on it; the original Minar was on a base measuring 10.5 feet. The Minar was inaugurated by the father of Molvi. Mahabubur Rahman, who killed during the massacre, it was demolished on 26 February by Pakistani Army. Smaller versions of the memorial were built in other places. Two years after the first monument was destroyed by the police, a new Shaheed Minar was constructed in 1954 at the same place, to commemorate the protesters who lost their lives; this minar was inaugurated by the Professor of Dhaka University and the pioneer and most prominent cultural and literary personality Natyaguru Nurul Momen.
Work on a larger monument designed by the architect Hamidur Rahman began in 1957 with the support of the United Front government. Following the formation of local government by the United Front in April 1954, the anniversary of 21 February was declared a holiday and it became possible to construct the new monument. A foundation stone was laid in 1956. Sculptor Hamidur Rahman created the design of Shaheed Minar under which construction was started in 1957. Hamidur Rahman's model was a huge complex on a large area of land in the yard of Dhaka Medical College Hostel; the enormous design included a half-circular column to symbolise the mother with her fallen sons standing on the monument's central dais. Yellow and deep blue pieces of stained glass, symbolising eyes reflecting the sun, were to be placed in the columns; the marble floor was designed to reflect the moving shadows of the columns. The basement of the Minar included a 1,500-square-foot fresco depicting the history of the language movement.
A railing decorated with Bengali alphabet was to be constructed in front. Two footmarks coloured red and black, indicating the two opposite forces, were in the design. Besides this a museum and a library were included in Hamidur Rahman's design. A fountain shaped like an eye was to be constructed. Rahman designed the materials of the monument to withstand the area's tropical climate. Construction started under the supervision of Hamidur Rahman and Novera Ahmed. Most of the work, including the basement, some of the columns with the rails and some of the murals were finished when martial law was declared in the area, the construction was forced to a halt. Construction work was completed in 1963, it was inaugurated on 21 February 1963, by the mother of Hasina Begum. The Minar was damaged by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971; the columns were destroyed on the night of the commencement of the genocide, 25 March 1971. The Pakistani Army crushed the Minar and placed over the rubble a signboard reading "Mosque".
In 1972, a committee headed by the president Abu Sayeed Chowdhury was formed and renovation work began. The original sketch was ignored, while the Co
Bangladesh National Museum
The Bangladesh National Museum, is the national museum of Bangladesh. The museum is well organized and displays have been housed chronologically in several departments like department of ethnography and decorative art, department of history and classical art, department of natural history, department of contemporary and world civilization; the museum has a rich conservation laboratory. Nalini Kanta Bhattasali served as the first curator of the museum during 1914–1947. Bangladesh National Museum was established on 20 March 1913, albeit under another name, formally inaugurated on 7 August 1913 by Thomas Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael, the governor of Bengal. In July 1915 it was handed over to the Naib-Nazim of Dhaka. Bangladesh National Museum was formed through the incorporation of Dhaka museum and it was made the national museum of Bangladesh on 17 November 1983, it is located at Dhaka. The ground floor consists of some old guns at the entrance and the hall where the people book their tickets or assemble to hear the history of the museum.
The hall leads to a grand staircase. Beside the hall, there is a smaller room which acts like the hall and a simple staircase; the 1st floor is divided into 22 rooms. The first room displays a large map showing the map of its 64 districts; the 2nd room consists of an under going work of a large statue of a royal Bengal tiger. These rooms consist of natural beauties found in Bangladesh. In one of the room there is showcase of a tongue of a whale; the other rooms contain some historic relics of Bengal up to 1900. There is a room; the 2nd floor consists of photos of famous people and showcases the Bangladesh Liberation War and the Language Movement of 1952. There are posters used in a torture machine and much more. There are two libraries; the 3rd floor consists of pictures of international politicians, scientists, famous pictures and four international galleries - Chinese, Korean and Swiss. Official website Banglapedia article Bangladesh Heritage Museum
National symbols of Bangladesh
The national symbols of the Bangladesh consist of symbols to represent Bangladeshi traditions and ideals that reflect the different aspects of the cultural life and history. Bangladesh has several official national symbols including a historic document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, memorial towers as well as several national heroes. There are several other symbols including the national animal, bird and tree. Amar Sonar Bangla is song written and composed by the Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore, the first ten lines of which were adopted in 1972 as the national anthem of Bangladesh; the song was written in 1905 during the period of বঙ্গভঙ্গ Bônggôbhônggô - when the ruling British empire had the province of Bengal split into two parts. This song, along with a host of others, was written by Tagore, a pioneer of the cultural and political movement against this partition; these songs were meant to rekindle the unified spirit of Bengal, to raise public consciousness against the communal political divide.
The lyrics first appeared in the September issues of "Bongodorshon" and "Baul" in 1905. It is said that the music of this song was inspired by the Baul singer Gagan Harkara's song কোথায় পাবো তারে "Kothay Pabo Tare"; the instrumental orchestra rendition was composed by Samar Das. The English translation was done by Syed Ali Ahsan. Notuner Gaan is the national march of Bangladesh; this song is written by Kazi Nazrul Islam, the national poet of Bangladesh, in 1929. This song is belongs to his famous book titled as The Evening. Nazrul is the musician of the song too. On 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence. At any military ceremony or function, first 21 lines of the song is being played, it is known as the national military song of Bangladesh. Ekusher Gaan, more popularly known as Amar Bhaier Rokte Rangano is a Bengali song written by Abdul Gaffar Choudhury to mark the Bengali Language Movement in 1952 East Pakistan.
It was first published anonymously in the last page of a newspaper with the headline Ekusher Gaan, but was published in Ekushey's February edition. The song is recognized as the most influential song of the language movement, reminding numerous Bangladeshis about the conflicts of 1952; every 21 February sees people from all parts of the Bangladesh heading to the Shaheed Minar in the probhat feri, a barefoot march to the monument, paying homage to those killed in the language movement demonstrations by singing this song. It is regarded by the listeners of BBC Bengali Service as the third best song in Bengali
Savar is an Upazila of Dhaka District in the Division of Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is located at a distance of about 24 kilometres to the northwest of Dhaka city. Savar is famous for Jatiyo Smriti Soudho, the National Monument for the Martyrs of the Liberation War of Bangladesh; the origin of the name Savar is thought to be an evolved version of the ancient 7th-8th century township of সর্বেশ্বর Shôrbeshshôr or সম্ভার Shômbhar situated on the banks of the river known today as the Bangshi. Shôrbeshshôr, in turn, is said to have been established on the site of the ancient Sambagh Kingdom. Local legends as well as archeological finds indicate a king by the name of Harishchandra, said to be of the Pala dynasty, ruled over Shôrbeshshôr - purportedly from the first half of the 7th century having arrived from the Rarh region. There is an old shloka that goes বংশাবতী-পূর্বতীরে সর্বেশ্বর নগরী, বৈসে রাজা হরিশচন্দ্র জিনি সূরপুরী Bôngshaboti-purbotire shôrbeshshôr nôgori, boishe raja Horishchôndro jini shurpuri.
There is some contention among historians about legends surrounding the reign of Harishchandra, as they may relate to other monarchs bearing the same or similar name. In any case local legend holds that the childless Harishchandra was succeeded to the throne by his sister Rajeswari's son, Damodar. Damodar's reign started a decline for the kingdom, culminating in the reign of one of his descendants, king Ravan, a music enthusiast. During Ravan's reign, the Koch sacked the capital established by Harishchandra. However, inscriptions on an undated burnt brick fragment indicates, king Mahendra in 869 CE dedicated a matha to his father, saint king Harishchandra, son of king Ranadhirasena, son of king Dhimantasena, son of king Bhimasena; the same inscription states the Buddhist king Dhimantasena invaded and captured the land between the Bangshi and the Brahmaputra and king Ranadhirasena extended the kingdom to the Himalayas and fixed his residence in the city of Shômbhar. During the 1971 war, Savar Cantonment and the then-newly founded Jahangirnagar University were some of the first targets of military swoop outside the capital following Operation Searchlight of 25 March.
In December of that year, Savar was the last obstacle before the freedom fighters entered the capital and the Pakistan army conceded defeat. Days before the end of the war, teenager Golam Dastagirr Titu was killed in a direct encounter between the Pakistani army and the freedom fighters; the compatriots buried him near the main gate of Savar. The Bangladeshi army constructed a memorial monument in his honour. On 24 November 2012, a garment factory fire killed at least 112 people; the factory made clothes for US and European companies and was faulted for negligent safety standards. Walmart and Sears, two of the companies who contracted work from this factory, refused to compensate victims. On 24 April 2013 a building in Savar collapsed, killing 1,129 people and injuring around 2,500; the building housed a garment factory which exported clothing to European companies. Eighty percent of the workers were women aged 18–20, paid $0.12-$0.26 per hour. Savar is located at 23.8583°N 90.2667°E / 23.8583.
It has a total area of 280.13 square kilometres. It is bounded by Kaliakair and Gazipur Sadar upazilas on the north, Keraniganj upazila on the south, Mohammadpur and Uttara thanas of Dhaka City on the east, Dhamrai and Singair upazilas on the west; the land of the upazila is composed of alluvium soil of the Pleistocene period. The height of the land increases from the east to the west; the southern part of the upazila is composed of the alluvium soil of the Bangshi and Dhalashwari rivers. Main rivers are Bangshi, Turag and Karnatali; the Bangshi River has become polluted due to industrial. The total cultivable land measures 16,745.71 hectares, in addition to fallow land of 10,551.18 hectares. As of the 2011 Bangladesh census, Savar Upazila had a population of 1,387,426. Males constituted 54.20% of the population, females 45.80%. This Upazila's eighteen-up population was 207,401. Savar had an average literacy rate of 58.16%, the national average of 54.4% literate. Male literacy was 64% and female was 51%.
The religious breakdown was Muslim 88.59%, Hindu 10.41%, Christian 0.93%, Buddhist 0.03% and others 0.04%, ethnic minority group nationals numbered 319 including Buno, Garo and Burman. The main occupations are Agriculture 24.34%, agricultural labourer 12.84%, wage labourer 4.44%, cattle breeding and fishing 1.90%, industry 1.37%, commerce 17.35%, service 20.68%, construction 1.66%, transport 3.96% and others 11.46%. Agriculture and manufacturing are the two major economic sectors in Savar; the main crops grown here are Paddy, peanut, garlic and other vegetables. The extinct or nearly extinct crops in the region are Aus paddy, Asha Kumari paddy, linseed, kali mator, randhuni saj, mitha saj and mas kalai; the main fruits cultivated here are Jackfruit, olive, guava, kamranga and banana. There are 181 combined fisheries and poultries Dairy, 5 hatcheries, 209 poultries, 1319 fisheries. Manufacturing facilities include Ceramic industry, beverage industry and publication, garments industry, foot ware, jute mills, textile mills and dying factory, transformer industry, automobile industry, biscuit a
Star Mosque, is a mosque located in Armanitola area, Bangladesh. The mosque is decorated with motifs of blue stars, it was built in the first half of the 19th century by Mirza Golam Pir. Star Mosque was first built as a three-domed oblong edifice, but an over-enthusiastic and zealous merchant named Ali Jan Bepari remodeled and reconstructed it with delicate and richly colored tiles of variegated patterns. Ali Jan has added the new verandah, mentioned in the introduction, on the east and spent lavishly on importing Japanese and English decorated China clay tiles to improve the inner and outer show of the mosque, it is now a five-domed structure. In 1987, two domes have been raised on an extension to the northern side without any respect to its antiquity, architectural style, decoration. Built in the Mughal style by Mirza Ghulam in the late 18th century, this mosque was a simple rectangular mosque, measuring 33' x 11' with three doorways on the east façade and one on the north wall and another on the south wall.
Three domes crowned the mosque. Towers accented the façades displayed plastered panel decoration. In early 20th century, Ali Jan Bepari financed its renovation; the surface was redone in ` a popular broken china decoration. The mosque is one of the few examples of exclusive chinitikri mosaic, found in the striking blue star mosaic, which gave the mosque its name Star Mosque. In 1987, the prayer hall was extended by the Department of Architecture to include two more domes, it was decorated with imported china clay tiles and used both methods of applying chinitikri and used solid colour, cur clay tiles and formed patterns by placing the coloured tiles in white plaster. The domes and the exterior are covered with different coloured star shaped china clay tiles; the upper portion of the eastern façade incorporates a crescent motif. The work assumed another texture by using assorted glazed tiles on the interior; the three mihrabs and the doorways are decorated with mosaic floral pattern. A plant and vase motif is repeated as a decorative element on the pendentive and the interior of the verandah wall.
In early 20th century, Ali Jan Bepari, a local businessman, financed the renovation of the mosque and added a new eastern verandah. The surface was redecorated with Chinitikri work, a decorative style, popular during the 1930s; the mosque, which lacked any historical significance, is one of the few remaining architectural example of the Chinitikri method of mosaic decoration. This decorative technique is found in the striking star motif, in part the reason for the mosque's current acclaim and popular name, Star Mosque or Sitara Masjid. In 1987, the Ministry of Religious Affairs commissioned Giasul Huque and Zahiruddin to make additions to the prayer hall, extended to include two more domes; the mosque is decorated with Japanese and English china clay tiles and used both methods of the Chinitikri application. One approach uses solid colour, cut clay tiles and form patterns through the placement of these coloured tiles in white plaster; the domes and the exterior surface are covered with different coloured star shaped China clay tiles.
The upper portion of the eastern façade incorporates a crescent motif. Chinitikri tile work assumes another texture by using assorted pieces of different designs of glazed tiles on the interior surfaces of the mosque; the three mihrabs and the doorways are decorated with mosaic floral pattern. A plant and vase motif is repeated as a decorative element on the pendentives as well as on the interior of the verandah wall; as a decorative element, the Japanese Fujiyama motif, is found on the surface between the doors. Haque, Enamul. 1983. Islamic Art Heritage of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Bangladesh National Museum, 98. Ahmed, Nazimuddin. 1984. Discover the Monuments of Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press Limited, 181. Hasan, Syed Mahmudul. 1981. Dacca: The City of Mosques. Dhaka: Islamic Foundation, 46. Imamuddin, Abu H. 1993. Architectural Conservation Bangladesh: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 239. Rahman, Mahbubur. 2009. Old but new:: new but old: architectural heritage conservation: UNESCO, 339. ABM, Hussain. 2007. The Archaeological Heritage of Bangladesh.
Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Ahmed, Sharif Uddin. 1991. Dhaka Past Present Future. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. A photo blog post on Tara Mosjid /Star Mosque in Kothay
Dhaka District is a district in central Bangladesh, is the densest district in the nation. It is a part of the Dhaka Division. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, rests on the eastern banks of the Buriganga River which flows from the Turag to the south of the district. While Dhaka occupies only about a fifth of the area of Dhaka district, it is the economic and cultural centre of the district and the country as a whole. Dhaka District is an administrative entity, like many other cities, it does not cover the modern conurbation, Greater Dhaka, which has spilled into neighbouring districts, nor does the conurbation cover the whole district, as there are rural areas within the district; the administrative Dhaka District was first established in 1772. But, the existence of urbanised settlements in the area, now Dhaka city – dates from the 7th century; the present day Savar was the capital of the Sanbagh Kingdom during eighth century. The city area of Dhaka was ruled by the Buddhist kingdom of Kamarupa and the Pala Empire before passing to the control of the Hindu Sena dynasty in the 9th century.
Many believe that the name of the city was derived after the establishment of the Goddess Dhakeshwari's temple by Ballal Sena in the 12th century. Dhaka and its surrounding area was identified as Bengalla around that period; the town itself consisted of a few market centres like Lakshmi Bazar, Shankhari Bazar, Tanti Bazar, Kumartuli, Bania Nagar and Goal Nagar. After the Sena dynasty, Dhaka was successively ruled by the Turkish and Afghan governors descending from the Delhi Sultanate before the arrival of the Mughals in 1608; the development of townships and a significant growth in population came as the city was proclaimed the capital of Bengal under Mughal rule in 1608. During Mughal rule the areas under Dhaka district was famous for its textile products – the Muslin. Mughal subahdar Islam Khan was the first administrator of the city. Khan named the town "Jahangir Nagar" in honour of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, although this name was dropped soon after Jahangir's death; the main expansion of the city took place under Mughal general Shaista Khan.
The city measured 19 by 13 kilometres, with a population of nearly a million people. The city passed to the control of the British East India Company in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey and to the Crown, British Empire, in 1765 at the Battle of Buxar; the city's population shrank during this period as the prominence of Kolkata rose, but substantive development and modernisation followed. A modern civic water supply system was introduced in 1874 and electricity supply launched in 1878; the Dhaka Cantonment was established near the city, serving as a base for British and Indian soldiers. During the abortive Partition of Bengal in 1905, Dhaka was declared to be the capital of the newly established state of Eastern Bengal and Assam, but Bengal was reunited in 1911; the rural areas under present Dhaka district Dohar Upazila were used for the production of indigo. Following the partition of Bengal in appending the partition of British India in 1947, Dhaka became the capital of East Bengal as a part of the new Muslim state of Pakistan, while western part of Bengal with a majority Hindu population had become a part of the new and independent India, designated as West Bengal with Calcutta as state capital.
Calcutta witnessed communal violence. A large proportion of the city's Hindu population departed for India, while the city received hundreds of thousands of Muslim immigrants from Calcutta, India; the city's population rose in a short period of time, which created severe shortages and infrastructural problems. As the centre of regional politics, Dhaka saw an increasing number of political strikes and incidents of violence; the adoption of Urdu as the sole official language of Pakistan led to protest marches involving large crowds. Known as the language movement of 1952, the protests resulted in police firing which killed students who were demonstrating peacefully. Throughout the 1950s and'60s, Dhaka remained a hotbed of political activity, the demands for autonomy for the Bengali population gained momentum; the 1970 Bhola cyclone devastated much of the region. More than half the city of Dhaka was flooded and millions of people marooned. With public anger growing against ethnic discrimination and poor cyclone relief efforts from the central government, Bengali politician Sheikh Mujibur Rahman held a nationalist rally on 7 March 1971 at the Race Course Ground.
An estimated one million people attended the gathering, leading to Ziaur Rahman's 26 March declaration of Bangladesh's independence. In response, the Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight, which led to the arrests and killing of hundreds of thousands of people Hindus and Bengali intellectuals. During the Bangladesh Liberation War the Pakistan army arrested and killed fourteen Muktijoddhas from Dhamrai Bazar. A mass grave created during the war still exists in the western side of Kalampur Bazar; the Pak army burnt down many houses in Konakhola, Brahmankirtha and Khagail Kholamora villages of Keraniganj Upazila. The fall of Dhaka city to the allied forces led by Jagjit Singh Aurora on 16 December marked the surrender of Pakistan army; the post-independence period has seen a rapid and massive growth of the city population, attracting migrant workers from rural areas across Bangladesh. A real estate boom has followed the expansion of city limits and the development of new settlements such as Gulshan and Motijheel.
The population of the div
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban
Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban or National Parliament House, is the house of the Parliament of Bangladesh, located at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar in the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka. Designed by architect Louis Kahn, the complex is the largest legislative complexes in the world, comprising 200 acres; the building was featured prominently in the 2003 film My Architect, detailing the career and familial legacy of its architect, Louis Kahn. Robert McCarter, author of Louis I. Kahn, described the National Parliament of Bangladesh as one of the twentieth century's most significant buildings. Before its completion, the first and second Parliaments used the Old Sangsad Bhaban, which serves as the Prime Minister's Office. Construction was started in 1961 when Bangladesh was East Pakistan, led by Ayub Khan from the West Pakistan capital of Islamabad; as part of his efforts to decrease the disparity and secessionist tendencies of East Pakistan, Khan aimed to make Dhaka a second capital, with appropriate facilities for an assembly.
Jatiya Sangsad was designed by Louis Kahn. The government sought assistance from South Asian activist and architect Muzharul Islam who recommended bringing in the world's top architects for the project, he attempted to bring Alvar Aalto and Le Corbusier, who were both were unavailable at the time. Islam enlisted his former teacher at Yale, Louis Kahn. Construction was halted during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and was completed on 28 January 1982. Kahn died when the project was three-quarters completed and it continued under David Wisdom, who worked for Kahn. Seven Parliaments have used the Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban as the assembly building: Second Parliament: 2 years 11 months Third Parliament: 1 year 5 months Fourth Parliament: 2 years 7 months Fifth Parliament: 4 years 8 months Sixth Parliament: 12 days Seventh Parliament: 5 years Eighth Parliament: 5 years Ninth Parliament: 5 years Tenth Parliament: Running Louis Kahn designed the entire Jatiya Sangsad complex, which includes lawns and residences for the Members of the Parliament.
The architect's key design philosophy was to represent Bangladeshi culture and heritage, while at the same time optimizing the use of space. The exterior of the building is striking in its simplicity, with huge walls recessed by porticoes and large openings of regular geometric shapes; the main building, at the center of the complex, is divided into three parts – the Main Plaza, South Plaza and Presidential Plaza. An artificial lake surrounds three sides of the main building of Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban, extending to the Members of Parliament hostel complex; this skillful use of water to portray the riverine beauty of Bangladesh adds to the aesthetic value of the site. Kahn's key design philosophy optimizes the use of space while representing Bangladeshi heritage and culture. External lines are recessed by porticoes with huge openings of regular geometric shapes on their exterior, shaping the building's overall visual impact. In the architect Louis Kahn's own words: In the assembly I have introduced a light-giving element to the interior of the plan.
If you see a series of columns you can say. The columns as solids frame the spaces of light. Now think of it just in reverse and think that the columns are hollow and much bigger and that their walls can themselves give light the voids are rooms, the column is the maker of light and can take on complex shapes and be the supporter of spaces and give light to spaces. I am working to develop the element to such an extent that it becomes a poetic entity which has its own beauty outside of its place in the composition. In this way it becomes analogous to the solid column, it was not belief, not design, not pattern, but the essence from which an institution could emerge... The lake on three sides of the Bhaban, extending up to the Members' hostel adds to site's aesthetics and portrays the riverine beauty of Bangladesh; the assembly building received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1989. The Bhaban consists of nine individual blocks: the eight peripheral blocks rise to a height of 110' while the central octagonal block rises to a height of 155'.
All nine blocks include different groups of functional spaces and have different levels, inter-linked horizontally and vertically by corridors, stairs, light courts, circular areas. The entire structure is designed to blend into one single, non-differentiable unit, that appears from the exterior to be a single story; the main committee rooms are located at level two in one of the peripheral blocks. All parliamentary functionaries, including Ministers and chairpersons of some Standing Committees, have offices in the Bhaban; the Parliament Secretariat occupies offices in the same building. The most important part of the Main Plaza is the Parliament Chamber, which can house up to 354 members during sessions. There are two podia and two galleries for VIP visitors; the chamber has a maximum height of 117 feet with a parabolic shell roof. The roof was designed with a clearance of a single story to let in daylight. Daylight, reflecting from the surrounding walls and octagonal drum, filters into the Parliament Chamber.
The efficient and aesthetic use of light was a strong architectural capability of Louis Kahn. The artificial lighting system has been devised to provide zero obstruction to the entry of daylight. A composite chandelier is suspended from parab