National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park is located at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers in and around Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. The park includes land in Jefferson County, West Virginia, Washington County and Loudoun County, the park is managed by the National Park Service, an agency of the U. S. Department of the Interior. Originally designated as a National Monument in 1944, the park was declared a National Historical Park by the U. S. Congress in 1963. The park includes the town of Harpers Ferry, notable as a center of 19th century industry. Due to a mixture of events and ample recreational opportunities, all within 50 miles of Washington. The Parks Superintendent is presently Tyrone Brandyburg, native American history in the region dates back to at least 8,000 years ago. One of these European immigrants, Robert Harper, obtained a patent for the land from the Virginia legislature in 1751, note that prior to 1863, West Virginia was still a part of Virginia. The town was known as Shenandoah Falls at Mr.
Harpers Ferry due to the ferry business Robert Harper managed and operated. Today, the house built by Robert Harper is the oldest remaining structure in the lower part of the park. Though it is believed that George Washington visited the area earlier, his trip to the confluence in 1785. Later, Washington began the construction of the federal Harpers Ferry Armory on the site, meriwether Lewis, under government contract, procured most of the weaponry and associated hardware that would be needed for the Lewis and Clark Expedition at the armory in Harpers Ferry. Blacksmiths built an iron boat frame for the expedition. Between the years 1820 to 1840, John H. Hall worked to perfect the manufacturing of parts at the armory. Subsequently, the development of the bullet to replace the round lead slug was achieved by James H. Burton. Employing at times up to 400 workers, the armory produced over half a million muskets, abolitionist John Brown led an armed group in the capture of the armory in 1859. Brown had hoped he would be able to arm the slaves and lead them against U. S. forces in a rebellion to overthrow slavery.
After his capture in the armory by a group of Marines, Brown was hanged, predicting in his last words that civil war was looming on the horizon, a prediction that came true less than two years later. The most important building remaining from John Browns raid is the firehouse, the American Civil War found Harpers Ferry right on the boundary between the Union and Confederate forces
United States Department of War
The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence. Retired senior General Henry Knox, in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. On November 8,1800 the War Department building with its records, foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary, winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861. The bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops, the bureaus frequently conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War generally supported the bureaus.
Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, and their chiefs looked to that body for support, during the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care, transportation, a separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees, during Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states. When military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, and the last Republican state governments in the region ended. The Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, the United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century. By contrast, France had an army of 542,000, temporary volunteers and state militia units mostly fought the Spanish–American War of 1898.
This conflict demonstrated the need for effective control over the department. Elihu Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line, Secretary Taft exercised little power, President Theodore Roosevelt made the major decisions. In 1911, Secretary Henry L. Stimson and Major General Leonard Wood, his chief of staff, the general staff assisted them in their efforts to rationalize the organization of the army along modern lines and in supervising the bureaus. Assisted by industrial advisers, they reorganized the system of the army. General March reorganized the general staff along similar lines and gave it authority over departmental operations. After the war, the Congress again granted the bureaus their former independence, in the 1920s, General John J.
Pershing realigned the general staff on the pattern of his American Expeditionary Force field headquarters, which he commanded
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park
Kennesaw Battlefield Park preserves a Civil War battleground of the Atlanta Campaign, and contains Kennesaw Mountain. It is located at 905 Kennesaw Mountain Drive, between Marietta and Kennesaw, the name Kennesaw derives from the Cherokee Indian Gah-nee-sah meaning cemetery or burial ground. The area was designated as a U. S. historic district on October 15,1966, shermans army consisted of 100,000 men,254 cannons and 35,000 horses, while Johnstons army had only 50,000 men and 187 cannons. Much of the battle took place not on Kennesaw Mountain itself, but on a spur of Little Kennesaw Mountain known now as Pigeon Hill, a total of 5,350 soldiers died during the battle, which resulted in a Confederate victory. As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, Kennesaw Mountain Battlefield Park is a 2, 923-acre National Battlefield that preserves a Civil War battleground of the Atlanta Campaign. There are three areas, In front of the Visitor Center, off Burnt Hickory Road and a major site at Cheatham Hill.
At the southern tip of the park, Peter Valentine Kolbs farm house, the Visitor Center contains an information desk, and a theater which screens movies about the battle fought there. While walking some of the 17.3 miles of hiking trails, you will see historic earthworks, cannon emplacements. There are three monuments representing some of the states who fought here - Illinois and Georgia, Kennesaw Mountain is 1,808 feet above sea level. It is approximately a 664-foot gain in elevation from the Visitor Center to the mountains summit, the hike up is approximately 1.4 miles on the road and 1. 1-mile on the trail. Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield was authorized for protection by the U. S, War Department in 1917 and was transferred to the Department of the Interior as a unit of the National Park System in 1933. The 2, 923-acre battlefield includes the site of some of the heaviest fighting of the Atlanta Campaign of the Civil War, the battlefield was set aside as an important cultural property dedicated to public inspiration and interpretation of the significant historic events that occurred here.
With the expansion of urban sprawl from nearby Atlanta, concerns have been raised that the preserved areas of the park may be in danger from overuse and/or misuse
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
A detailed history of the parks development was provided by the National Park Service in 1998. It was officially dedicated in September 1895, another early proponent and driving force behind the parks creation was Ohio General Henry M. Cist, who led the Chickamauga Memorial Society in 1888. Another former Union officer, Charles H. Grosvenor, was chairman of the commission from 1910 until his death in 1917. During the Parks early years, it was managed by the War Department, the National Park Service took over site management in 1933. The newly created Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park was utilized during the Spanish–American War as a training center for troops in the southern states. The park was temporarily renamed Camp George H. Thomas in honor of the army commander during the Civil War battle at the site. The parks proximity to the rail hub at Chattanooga and its large tracts of land made it a logical marshalling area for troops being readied for service in Cuba. The military park consists of four areas, and a few small isolated reservations.
On February 20,2003, Public Law No, 108-7 added Moccasin Bend as a new unit of the park, Moccasin Bend Archaeological District, designated a National Historic Landmark on September 8,1986, is directly across the Tennessee River from Lookout Mountain. It is significant due to its resources of American Indian settlement. There are currently minimal visitor services at Moccasin Bend, including two hiking trails and a ten acre meadow, each of these areas is open to the public. The park anticipates further development, land restoration, and visitor services in the years to come, first Battle of Chattanooga Second Battle of Chattanooga Official website Historic American Engineering Record No. http, //www. louisianadigitallibrary. org/cdm/search/collection/LSU_CNP
Fort Pulaski National Monument
Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island between Savannah and Tybee Island, Georgia. It preserves Fort Pulaski, where in 1862 during the American Civil War, the Union Army successfully tested rifled cannon in combat, the fort was used as a prisoner-of-war camp. The National Monument includes most of Cockspur Island and all of adjacent McQueens Island, following the War of 1812, U. S. President James Madison ordered a new system of coastal fortifications to protect the United States against foreign invasion. Construction of a fort to protect the port of Savannah began in 1829 under the direction of Major General Babcock, and Second Lieutenant Robert E. Lee, the new fort would be located on Cockspur Island at the mouth of the Savannah River. In 1833, the facility was named Fort Pulaski in honor of Kazimierz Pulaski, Pulaski was a noted cavalryman and played a large role in training Revolutionary troops. He took part in the sieges of Charleston and of Savannah, Fort Pulaski belonged to what is known as the Third System of coastal fortifications, which were characterized by greater structural durability than the earlier works.
Most of the nearly thirty Third System forts built after 1816 still exist along either the Atlantic or Gulf coasts, wooden pilings were sunk up to 70 feet into the mud to support an estimated 25,000,000 bricks. Fort Pulaski was finally completed in 1847 following eighteen years of construction, walls were eleven feet thick, thought to be impenetrable except by only the largest land artillery- which at the time were smooth bore cannon. These cannons had a range of only around a mile. It was assumed that the Fort would be invincible to enemy attack, LT Lee remarked that one might as well bombard the Rocky Mountains as Fort Pulaski. Though completed in 1847, Fort Pulaski was under the control of only two caretakers until 1860 when South Carolina seceded from the United States and set in motion the Civil War. It was at time that Georgia governor Joseph E. Brown ordered Fort Pulaski to be taken by the state of Georgia. A steamship carrying 110 men from Savannah traveled downriver and the fort was seized by the state of Georgia, following the secession of Georgia in February 1861, the state joined the Confederate States of America.
Confederate troops moved into the fort, by December 1861, Tybee Island was thought to be too isolated and unprepared for conflict and was abandoned by Confederate forces. This allowed Union troops to gain a foothold across the Savannah River from Fort Pulaski, Union forces under Quincy A. Gillmore began construction of batteries along the beaches of Tybee. On the morning of April 10,1862 Union forces asked for the surrender of the Fort to prevent needless loss of life, Colonel Charles H. Olmstead, commander of the Confederate garrison, rejected the offer. Fort Pulaski was prepared for an infantry attack. However, it never endured a direct land assault, using 36 guns, including the new James Rifled Cannon and Parrott rifles, Union troops began the long sustained bombardment of Fort Pulaski
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site is a National Historic Site in Kiowa County, near Eads and Chivington in Kiowa County commemorating the Sand Creek Massacre. The site is about 170 miles southeast of Denver and about 125 miles east of Pueblo, a few basic park facilities have been opened at this site. Large numbers of bullets, camp equipment, and other items convinced the NPS that they had found the correct site. Subsequent transfers of ownership from the Dawson family, former owners of the property have left the title of the site to the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes with management to be undertaken by NPS. The National Park Service offers scheduled Ranger-led programs without charge during hours of operation, from 9 am –4 pm, April 1 – December 1, or by advance appointment in the winter season. The law authorized establishment of the once the National Park Service acquired sufficient land from willing sellers to preserve, commemorate. The site near the junction of County Road 54 and County Road W was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 28,2001, on August 2,2005, President George W.
Bush gave final approval for the site. On April 23,2007 it was announced that site would become Americas 391st official park unit with a date of April 27,2007. The dedication ceremony was held on April 28,2007, currently the Site encompasses 12,583 acres of which 2,385 acres are federally owned. By 2004 the federal government acquired 920 acres from private land owners, on September 9,2006 the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes of Oklahoma conveyed to the United States title to 1,465 acres to be held in trust for the National Historic Site. Media related to Sand Creek massacre site at Wikimedia Commons Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site – National Park Service The Conservation Fund – Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
National Historic Site (United States)
A National Historic Site is a protected area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains a historical feature directly associated with its subject. As of 2015, there are 50 NHPs and 90 NHSs, most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service. Some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or privately owned, one property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service. As of October 15,1966, all areas, including NHPs and NHSs. There are about 80,000 NRHP sites, the majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites, National Historic Sites are generally federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are currently 90 NHSs, of which 78 are official NPS units,11 are NPS affiliated areas, one is managed by the US Forest Service, and one by the Bureau of Land Management.
Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, in 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies, in the United States, sites are historic, while parks are historical. The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a legal invention. As such, a park is not itself historic, but can be called historical when it contains historic resources and it is the resources which are historic, not the park. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, and Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia.
It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon, list of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Designation of National Park System Units