The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group. The chair presides over meetings of the group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. When the group is not in session, the officers duties include acting as its head, its representative to the outside world. In some organizations, this position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator, the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is often called the speaker. The term chair is used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U. S, president George H. W. Bush used chairman for men and chair for women. A1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as chairman, the Chronicle of Higher Education uses chairman for men and chairperson for women.
An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times, the National Association of Parliamentarians does not approve using chairperson. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called Mr. Chairman, the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using chair or chairperson, rather than chairman. The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the forms are gaining ground. It advocates using chair to refer both to men and to women, the word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be in the chair and is referred to as the chair. Major dictionaries state that the word derives from chair and man, some authorities, including Riddicks Rules of Procedure, suggest that the second part of chairman derives from the Latin manus, and thus claim gender-neutrality for the word.
Vladimir Lenin, for example, officially functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president, note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong, Chairman Mao. In the absence of the chairman and vice chairman, groups sometimes elect a chairman pro tempore to fill the role for a single meeting. In some organizations that have titles, deputy chairman ranks higher than vice chairman, as there are often multiple vice chairs
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed. In contrast to mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place. Surface mining began in the century and is practiced throughout the world. It gained popularity throughout the 20th century, and surface mines now produce most of the coal mined in the United States, in most forms of surface mining, heavy equipment, such as earthmovers, first remove the overburden. Next, huge machines, such as dragline excavators or Bucket wheel excavators, there are five main forms of surface mining, detailed below. Strip mining is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a strip of overlying soil. It is most commonly used to mine coal and lignite, strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is relatively near the surface. This type of mining uses some of the largest machines on earth, there are two forms of strip mining.
The more common method is area stripping, which is used on flat terrain. As each long strip is excavated, the overburden is placed in the produced by the previous strip. Contour stripping involves removing the overburden above the seam near the outcrop in hilly terrain. Contour stripping is often followed by auger mining into the hillside and this method commonly leaves behind terraces in mountainsides. Open-pit mining refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth through their removal from a pit or borrow. Although open-pit mining is sometimes referred to as strip mining. Mountaintop removal mining is a form of mining that mines coal seams beneath mountaintops by first removing the mountaintop overlying the coal seam. Explosives are used to break up the layers above the seam. Excess mining waste or overburden is dumped by large trucks into fills in nearby hollow or valley fills, MTR involves the mass restructuring of earth in order to reach the coal seam as deep as 400 feet below the surface.
Mountaintop removal replaces the original steep landscape with a flatter topography
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. SMCRA created two programs, one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands, SMCRA grew out of a concern about the environmental effects of strip mining. Coal had been mined in the United States since the 1740s, at the end of that decade, states began to enact the first laws regulating the coal mining industry, West Virginia in 1939, Indiana in 1941, Illinois in 1943, and Pennsylvania in 1945. Despite those laws, the demand for coal during World War II led to coal being mined with little regard for environmental consequences. But these state laws were unsuccessful at stemming the environmental impacts of surface mining. One problem was that the law varied from state to state, surface mining became increasingly common, in 1963 just 33 percent of American coal came from surface mines, by 1973 that figure reached 60 percent.
As Jimmy Carter campaigned in Appalachia in 1976, he promised to sign those bills, congress sent him a bill that was even more stringent than those vetoed by Ford, and President Carter signed it into law on August 3,1977. The regulation of mines under SMCRA has five major components. SMCRA and its implementing regulations set environmental standards that mines must follow while operating, SMCRA requires that companies obtain permits before conducting surface mining. This information is intended to help the government determine whether to allow the mine, SMCRA requires that mining companies post a bond sufficient to cover the cost of reclaiming the site. This is meant to ensure that the site will be reclaimed even if the company goes out of business or fails to clean up the land for some other reason. The bond is not released until the site has been fully reclaimed. SMCRA gives government regulators the authority to inspect mining operations, inspectors can issue notices of violation, which require operators to correct problems within a certain amount of time, levy fines, or order that mining cease.
SMCRA prohibits surface mining altogether on certain lands, such as in National Parks and it allows citizens to challenge proposed surface mining operations on the ground that they will cause too much environmental harm. SMCRA created an Abandoned Mine Land fund to pay for the cleanup of mine lands abandoned before the passage of the statute in 1977, the law was amended in 1990 to allow funds to be spent on the reclamation of mines abandoned after 1977. The fund is financed by a tax of 31.5 cents per ton for surface mined coal,15 cents per ton for coal mined underground, 80% of AML fees are distributed to states with an approved reclamation program to fund reclamation activities. The remaining 20% are used by OSM to respond to such as landslides, land subsidence, and fires. States with approved programs can use AML funds to set up programs to insure homeowners against land subsidence caused by underground mining, most coal-mining states have approved programs