Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeastern Europe. It has a population of 3.03 million as of 2016, Tirana is the nations capital and largest city, followed by Durrës and Vlorë. The country has a coastline on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, the Adriatic Sea to the west. Albania is less than 72 km from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which connects the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. In antiquity, the area of Albania was home to several Illyrian, Thracian. After the Illyrian Wars, it part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia and Moesia Superior. In 1190, the first Albanian state, the Principality of Arbanon was established by archon Progon in the region of Krujë, the territory of Albania was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, of which it remained part of for the next five centuries. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, following the Balkan Wars, the Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943.
The following year, a socialist Peoples Republic was established under the leadership of Enver Hoxha, Albania experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the Republic of Albania was established, Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The service sector dominates the economy, followed by the industrial. After the fall of communism in Albania, Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy, Albania has a high HDI and provides universal health care system and free primary and secondary education to its citizens. Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the Council of Europe, the OSCE and it is an official candidate for membership in the European Union. Albania is one of the members of the Energy Community, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation.
It is home to the largest lake in Southern Europe and one of the oldest lakes in Europe, Albania is the Medieval Latin name of the country. The name may have a continuation in the name of a settlement called Albanon and Arbanon. During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni, Albanians today call their country Shqipëri. As early as the 17th century the placename Shqipëria and the ethnic demonym Shqiptarë gradually replaced Arbëria, the two terms are popularly interpreted as Land of the Eagles and Children of the Eagles
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
Architecture of Albania
The Architecture of Albania is influenced by Illyrian, Roman and Italian architecture, while preserving distinct Albanian features such as the Albanian house. The beginnings of architecture in Albania date to the middle Neolithic Age with the discovery of prehistoric dwellings in Dunavec and they were built on a wooden platform that rested on stakes stuck vertically into the soil. Prehistoric dwellings in Albania consist of three types, houses enclosed either completely on the ground or half underground, both found in Cakran near Fier, and houses constructed above ground. From the 5th century BC, the Roman colonies of Apollonia and Dyrrachium flourished, while a number of Illyrian cities emerged such as Byllis, Dimali and they were built on top of the highest hills surrounded by heavily fortified walls. Social structures were constructed such as the Durrës Colosseum, the temples of Apollonia, Orik and various promenades, theaters. Between the 1st and 5th centuries AD, the walls of Dyrrah were reinforced with three layers, a hypodrome was constructed, while run off and sanitation systems were perfected.
Meanwhile, additional structures were added to the centre of Apollonia such as an odeon, the period marks the construction of thermal baths that were of social importance as places of gathering. One of the early Christian structures is the Basilica, the largest of its kind in Albania is that of Butrint, located in the south-eastern part of the ancient city. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the central plan-based Baptiseri of Butrint emerges, during the Middle Ages, a variety of architecture styles developed in the form of dwelling, defense and engineering structures. However, some inherited historic structures were damaged by invading Ottoman forces, in the 13th and 14th centuries, the consolidation of the Albanian feudal principalities gave rise to Varosha, or neighborhoods outside city walls. Examples of such developments are the Arberesh principalities centred in Petrele, Kruje, in the 15th century, close attention was given to protective structures such as the castle fortifications of Lezha, Devoll and Shkodra.
More reconstructions took place in strategic points such as the Castle of Elbasan, Preza and Vlora and it is important to note that Ali Pashe Tepelena embarked on a major castle building campaign throughout Epirus. During the medieval period, mosques in Albania fell into two categories, those covered with a dome, and those with a covered hall. The latter were immediately adopted following the Ottoman invasion, by transforming the existing churches of Shkodra, Berat, for instance, the Lead Mosque built by Mustafa Pasha Bushati in Shkodra resembles a typical Istanbul mosque. On the other hand, Christian religious structures inherited many features from their palaeochristian predecessors, between the 16th and 19th centuries, a series of small structures for Christian with simple layouts were built like the Voskopoja basilica, Ardenica Monastery, and Church of St. Nicholas in Voskopoja. The latter is one of the most valuable architectonic monuments in Albania and its interior walls are covered with paintings by the renowned painter David Selenica, and by brothers Constantine and Athanasios Zografi.
During the 18th century, the city silhouette in Albania began to include places of worship and these, together with other social structures such as thermal baths and medrese further enriched the city centre and its neighborhoods. In the 19th century, the bazaar emerges as a production and exchange centre, while the city expands beyond the castle, during this period and Korca become important commerce and skilled crafts centres
Enver Halil Hoxha was the communist leader of Albania from 1944 until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He was chairman of the Democratic Front of Albania and commander-in-chief of the forces from 1944 until his death. He served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and at times served as foreign minister. His rule was characterized by the use of Stalinist methods to destroy associates who threatened his power. Hoxhas government was characterized by his firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism from the mid-1970s onwards. After his break with Maoism in the 1976–78 period, numerous Maoist parties around the world declared themselves Hoxhaist, the International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations is the best known association of these parties today. Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania that has home to many prominent families. He was the son of Halil Hoxha, a Muslim Tosk cloth merchant who travelled widely across Europe and the United States, and Gjylihan Hoxha.
The Hoxha family was attached to the Bektashi tradition, fourteen years before Enver set off for France to study, at age 16, Hoxha helped found and became secretary of the Students Society of Gjirokastër, which protested against the monarchist government of Zog I. After the government closed the Society, he moved to Korçë, there he learned French history and philosophy, and read the Communist Manifesto for the first time. In 1930, Hoxha went to study at the University of Montpellier in France on a scholarship given to him by the Queen Mother for the faculty of natural sciences. He attended the lessons and the conferences of the Association of Workers organised by the French Communist Party, after a year, lacking interest in biology, and after not having passed any university exams, he left Montpellier to go to Paris hoping to continue his studies. He attended philosophy classes at Sorbonne, again, did not sit for any exam, in Paris, it is said that he collaborated with LHumanité, writing articles on the situation in Albania under the pseudonym Lulo Malësori.
He got involved in the Albanian Communist Group under the tutelage of Llazar Fundo and he dropped out once more, and from 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels, attached to the personnel office of the Queen Mother. He was dismissed after the consul discovered that his employee kept Marxist materials and he returned to Albania in 1936 and taught grammar school in the French Lyceum of Korçë. His extensive education left him fluent in French with a knowledge of Italian, English. As a leader, he would often reference Le Monde and the International Herald Tribune, on 7 April 1939, Albania was invaded by Fascist Italy. The Italians established a government in Albania under Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
The Kunsthistorisches Museum is an art museum in Vienna, Austria. Housed in its festive palatial building on Ringstraße, it is crowned with an octagonal dome, the term Kunsthistorisches Museum applies to both the institution and the main building. It is the largest art museum in the country and it was opened around 1891 at the same time as the Naturhistorisches Museum, by Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary. The two museums have similar exteriors and face each other across Maria-Theresien-Platz, both buildings were built between 1871 and 1891 according to plans drawn up by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer. The two Ringstraße museums were commissioned by the Emperor in order to find a shelter for the Habsburgs formidable art collection. The façade was built of sandstone, the building is rectangular in shape, and topped with a dome that is 60 meters high. The inside of the building is decorated with marble, stucco ornamentations, gold-leaf. It was featured in an episode of Museum Secrets on the History Channel and it had been the biggest art theft in Austrian history.
Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós Media related to Kunsthistorisches Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official website Spherical panorama of entrance Hofburgs Armory - photo gallery in Flickr
After leaving Ottoman service, he led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in Albania. Skanderbeg always signed himself as Lord of Albania, and claimed no other titles, a member of the noble Kastrioti family, he was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman court, where he was educated and entered the service of the Ottoman sultan for the next twenty years. He rose through the ranks, culminating in the appointment as sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Dibra in 1440, in 1443, he deserted the Ottomans during the Battle of Niš and became the ruler of Krujë, and Modrič. In 1444, he was appointed the commander of the short-lived League of Lezhë that consolidated nobility throughout what is today Albania. Skanderbegs rebellion was not a general uprising of Albanians, because he did not gain support in the Ottoman-controlled south or Venetian-controlled north and his followers included, apart from Albanians, Slavs and Greeks. For 25 years, from 1443 to 1468, Skanderbegs 10,000 man army marched through Ottoman territory winning against consistently larger and better supplied Ottoman forces, for which he was admired.
In 1451, he recognized de jure the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Naples through the Treaty of Gaeta, to ensure a protective alliance, in 1460–61, he participated in Italys civil wars in support of Ferdinand I of Naples. In 1463, he became the commander of the crusading forces of Pope Pius II. Together with Venetians he fought against the Ottomans during the Ottoman–Venetian War until his death in January 1468, Skanderbegs military skills presented a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion, and he was considered by many in western Europe to be a model of Christian resistance against the Ottoman Muslims. In 1450 his full name was written in Old Slavic Cyrillic as Đurađ Kastriot, in 1463, his name was written in Latin as Zorzi Castrioti. His given name was spellt Đurađ and Đorđe in Slavic within some correspondences of the based in Albania. The original, Latin form of the surname, Castrioti, is rendered in modern Albanian historiography as Kastrioti, Gjergj is the modern Albanian equivalent of the name George.
Charles du Fresne, writing in Latin, used Georgius Castriotus Scanderbegus in his work, C. C. Moore in his biographical work on Skanderbeg used Castriot. The surname is derived from the Latin castrum via the Greek word κάστρο, according to Fan Noli, the surname is a toponym, of Kastriot in modern northeastern Albania. In the 1450 letter in Slavic and Cyrillic sent to Ragusa by Skanderbeg, he was signed as Скедерь бегь, there have been many theories on the place where Skanderbeg was born. Fan Nolis placement of the year of birth in 1405 is now largely agreed upon, after earlier disagreements, Skanderbegs father Gjon Kastrioti was the lord of a province that included Mat, Mirditë and Dibër in north-central Albania. His mother was Voisava, from the Polog valley, most probably a princess of the Brankovic dynasty. There was a total of nine children, of whom Gjergj was the youngest son, his brothers were Stanisha and Kostandin
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture. Some wall paintings are painted on canvases, which are attached to the wall. Whether these works can be accurately called murals is a subject of controversy in the art world. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France, many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster. The huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco, in Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting. In modern times, the became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement.
There are many different styles and techniques, the best-known is probably fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, and often in parts. The colors lighten as they dry, the marouflage method has been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways, using oil or water-based media, the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-lœil. Initiated by the works of artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-loeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private. The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a layer of wet, fresh. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster, after a number of hours. After this the painting stays for a time up to centuries in fresh. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster, the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. By the end of the century this had largely displaced the buon fresco method.
This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work, in Greco-Roman times, mostly encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used
History of Albania
The History of Albania emerges from the pre-history of the Balkan states from the 4th century BC, with early records of Illyria in Greco-Roman historiography. The modern territory of Albania had no counterpart in the political divisions of classical antiquity. Rather, its boundaries correspond to parts of the ancient Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia. The territory remained under Roman and Byzantine control until the Slavic migrations of the 7th century and it was integrated into the Bulgarian Empire in the 9th century. The territorial nucleus of the Albanian state was formed in the Middle Ages as the Principality of Arbër, the area was part of the Serbian Empire, but passed to the Ottoman Empire in the 15th century. The formation of an Albanian national consciousness dates to the 19th century and is part of the phenomenon of the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire. A short-lived monarchical state known as the Principality of Albania was succeeded by an even shorter-lived first Albanian Republic, another monarchy, the Kingdom of Albania, replaced the republic.
The country endured an occupation by Italy just prior to World War II, after the collapse of the Axis powers, Albania became a communist state, the Socialist Peoples Republic of Albania, which for most of its duration was dominated by Enver Hoxha. Hoxhas political heir Ramiz Alia oversaw the disintegration of the Hoxhaist state during the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in the 1980s. The communist regime collapsed in 1990, and the former communist Party of Labour of Albania was routed in elections in March 1992, amid economic collapse and social unrest. The unstable economic situation led to an Albanian diaspora, mostly to Italy, Switzerland, the crisis peaked in the Albanian Turmoil of 1997. An amelioration of the economic and political conditions in the years of the 21st century enabled Albania to become a full member of NATO in 2009. The country is applying to join the European Union, the first traces of human presence in Albania, dating to the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic eras, were found in the village of Xarrë, near Sarandë and Mount Dajt near Tiranë.
The Paleolithic finds of Albania show great similarities with objects of the same era found at Crvena Stijena in Montenegro, several Bronze Age artefacts from tumulus burials have been unearthed in central and southern Albania that show close connection with sites in south-western Macedonia and Lefkada, Greece. Archaeologists have come to the conclusion that these regions were inhabited from the middle of the third millennium BC by Indo-European people who spoke a Proto-Greek language, a part of this population moved to Mycenae around 1600 BC and founded the Mycenaean civilisation there. Another population group, the Illirii, probably the southernmost Illyrian tribe of that time lived on the border of Albania and Montenegro. The latter derived from early an Indo-European presence in the western Balkan Peninsula, the movement of the Illyrian tribes can be assumed to coincide with the beginning Iron Age in the Balkans during the early 1st millennium BC. Archaeologists associate the Illyrians with the Hallstatt culture, an Iron Age people noted for production of iron, bronze swords with winged-shaped handles, the Illyrians were a group of tribes who inhabited the Western Balkans during classical antiquity