Kyōgen is a form of traditional Japanese comic theater. It developed alongside Nō, was performed along with Nō as an intermission of sorts between Nō acts on the same stage, retains close links to Nō in the modern day, its contents are not at all similar to the formal and solemn Nō theater. Kyōgen together with Nō is part of Nōgaku theatre. Kyōgen is sometimes compared to the Italian comic form of commedia dell'arte, which developed around the same period and features stock characters, it has parallels with the Greek satyr play, a short, comical play performed between tragedies. Kyōgen is thought to derive from a form of Chinese entertainment, brought to Japan around the 8th century; this entertainment form became known as sarugaku and encompassed both serious drama and comedy. By the 14th century, these forms of sarugaku had become known as kyōgen, respectively. Kyōgen provided a major influence on the development of kabuki theater. After the earlier, more ribald forms of kabuki had been outlawed in the mid-17th century, the government permitted the establishment of the new yarō-kabuki only on the grounds that it refrain from the previous kabuki forms' lewdness and instead model itself after kyōgen.
Noh had been the official entertainment form of the Edo period, was therefore subsidized by the government. Kyōgen, performed in conjunction with Noh received the patronage of the government and the upper class during this time. Following the Meiji Restoration, this support ceased. Without government support, Noh and kyōgen went into decline, as many Japanese citizens gravitated toward the more "modern" Western art forms. In 1879, then-former US President Ulysses S. Grant and his wife, while touring Japan, expressed an interest in the traditional art of Noh, they became the first Americans to witness Noh and kyōgen plays and are said to have enjoyed the performance. Their approval is believed to have sparked a revival of interest in these forms. In modern Japan, kyōgen is performed both separately and as a part of Noh; when performed as part of a Noh performance, kyōgen can take three forms: a separate kyōgen play, performed between two Noh plays, known as honkyōgen, as a scene within a Noh play, known as aikyōgen, or as betsukyōgen.
In aikyōgen, most the main Noh actor leaves the stage and is replaced by a kyōgen actor, who explains the play, though other forms are possible – the aikyōgen happening at the start, or the kyōgen actor otherwise interacting with the Noh actors. As part of Noh, aikyōgen is not comic – the manner and costume are serious and dramatic. However, the actor is dressed in a kyōgen outfit and uses kyōgen-style language and delivery – meaning simpler, less archaic language, delivered closer to a speaking voice – and thus can be understood by the audience, hence the role in explaining the play. Thus, while the costume and delivery are kyōgen-style, the clothing will be more elegant and the delivery less playful than in separate, comic kyōgen. Before and after aikyōgen, the kyōgen actor waits at the kyogen seat at the end of the bridge, close to the stage; the traditions of kyōgen are maintained by family groups the Izumi school and Ōkura school. Kyōgen plays are invariably brief – about 10 minutes, as traditionally performed between acts of Noh – and contain only two or three roles, which are stock characters.
Notable ones include Tarō kaja, Jirō kaja, the master. Movements and dialogue in kyōgen are very exaggerated, making the action of the play easy to understand. Elements of slapstick or satire are present in most kyōgen plays; some plays are parodies of actual Shinto religious rituals. As with Noh, jo-ha-kyū is a fundamental principle, relevant for movement; as with Noh and kabuki, all kyōgen actors, including those in female roles, are men. Female roles are indicated by a particular piece of attire, a binankazura – a long white sash, wrapped around the head, with the ends hanging down the front of the body and tucked into the belt, like symbolic braids. Actors play roles regardless of age – an old man may play the role of Tarō kaja opposite a young man playing master, for instance. Outfits are kamishimo, with the master wearing nagabakama. Actors in kyōgen, unlike those in Noh do not wear masks, unless the role is that of an animal, or that of a god; the masks of kyōgen are less numerous in variety than Noh masks.
Both masks and costumes are simpler than those characteristic of Noh. Few props are used, minimal or no stage sets; as with Noh, a fan is a common accessory. The language in kyōgen depends on the period, but much of
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
Chamaecyparis obtusa is a species of cypress native to central Japan. It is a slow-growing tree; the bark is dark red-brown. The leaves are scale-like, 2–4 mm long, blunt tipped, green above, green below with a white stomatal band at the base of each scale-leaf; the cones 8 -- 12 mm diameter, with 8 -- 12 scales arranged in opposite pairs. The related Chamaecyparis pisifera can be distinguished in its having pointed tips to the leaves and smaller cones; the plant is widespread in Japan. A similar cypress found on Taiwan is treated by different botanists as either a variety of this species or as a separate species Chamaecyparis taiwanensis, it is grown for its high quality timber in Japan, where it is used as a material for building palaces, shrines, traditional noh theatres, table tennis blades and masu. The wood is lemon-scented, light pinkish-brown, with a rich, straight grain, is rot-resistant. For example, Horyuji Temple and Osaka Castle are built from hinoki wood; the hinoki grown in Kiso, used for building Ise Shrine, are called 御神木 go-shin-boku "divine tree".
It is a popular ornamental tree in parks and gardens, both in Japan and elsewhere in temperate climates, including western Europe and parts of North America. A large number of cultivars have been selected for garden planting, including dwarf forms, forms with yellow leaves, forms with congested foliage, it is often grown as bonsai. Hinoki wood is used as a traditional Japanese stick incense for its earthy aroma. Hinoki pollen is a major cause of hay fever in Japan. Over 200 cultivars have been selected, varying in size from trees as large as the wild species, down to slow-growing dwarf plants under 30 cm high. A few of the best known are listed below; those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.'Crippsii’agm makes a broad conic golden-green crown with a vigorous leading shoot, growing to 15–20 m or more tall ‘Fernspray Gold’agm - 3.5 m, arching sprays of green/yellow branches ’Kamarachiba’agm - spreading shrub, 45 cm tall by 100 cm wide, sprays of yellow-green'Kosteri'agm - sprawling dwarf to 2 m tall by 3 m wide, with brilliant green foliage'Lycopodioides' reaches up to 19 m tall, with somewhat fasciated foliage.'Minima' - under 10 cm after 20 years with mid-green foliage ‘Nana’agm - dark green, rounded dwarf shrub to 1 m'Nana Aurea'agm - 2 m, golden tips to the fans and a bronze tone in winter'Nana Gracilis'agm - crowded fans of tiny branches producing richly textured effects.
The biflavones sciadopitysin, isoginkgetin, podocarpusflavone B, 7,7"-O-dimethylamentoflavone, podocarpusflavone A, 7-O-methylamentoflavone and hinokiflavone have been confirmed in the leaves of the plant. Media related to Chamaecyparis obtusa at Wikimedia Commons
Noh, derived from the Sino-Japanese word for "skill" or "talent", is a major form of classical Japanese musical drama, performed since the 14th century. Developed by Kan'ami and his son Zeami, it is the oldest major theatre art, still performed today. Traditionally, a Noh program includes five Noh plays with comedic kyōgen plays in between. An okina play may be presented in the beginning at New Year and other special occasions. Nō together with Kyōgen is part of Nōgaku theatre. Noh is based on tales from traditional literature with a supernatural being transformed into human form as a hero narrating a story. Noh integrates masks and various props in a dance-based performance, requiring trained actors and musicians. Emotions are conveyed by stylized conventional gestures while the iconic masks represent the roles such as ghosts, women and the elderly. Written in ancient Japanese language, the text "vividly describes the ordinary people of the twelfth to sixteenth centuries". Having a strong emphasis on tradition rather than innovation, Noh is codified and regulated by the iemoto system.
The word Noh is a borrowing from Middle Chinese nong 能, means "skill", "craft", or "talent" in the field of performing arts in this context. The word Noh may be used alone or with gaku to form the word nōgaku. Noh is a classical tradition, valued by many today; when used alone, Noh refers to the historical genre of theatre originated from sarugaku in the mid 14th century and continues to be performed today. Noh and kyōgen "originated in the 8th century. At the time, the term sangaku referred to various types of performance featuring acrobats and dance as well as comic sketches, its subsequent adaptation to Japanese society led to its assimilation of other traditional art forms."Various performing art elements in sangaku as well as elements of dengaku, shirabyōshi, gagaku evolved into Noh and kyōgen. Studies on genealogy of the Noh actors in 14th century indicate they were members of families specialized in performing arts. Sociological research by Yukio Hattori reveals that the Konparu School, arguably the oldest school of Noh, is a descendant of Mimashi, the performer who introduced gigaku, now-extinct masked drama-dance performance, into Japan from Kudara Kingdom in 612.
Another theory by Shinhachirō Matsumoto suggests Noh originated from outcastes struggling to claim higher social status by catering to those in power, namely the new ruling samurai class of the time. The transferral of the shogunate from Kamakura to Kyoto at the beginning of Muromachi period marked the increasing power of the samurai class and strengthened the relationship between the shogunate and the court; as Noh became the shōgun's favorite art form, Noh was able to become a courtly art form through this newly formed relationship. In 14th century, with strong support and patronage from shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was able to establish Noh as the most prominent theatre art form of the time. Kan'ami Kiyotsugu and his son Zeami Motokiyo brought Noh to what is its present-day form during the Muromachi period. Kan'ami was a renowned actor with great versatility fulfilling roles from graceful women and 12-year-old boys to strong adult males; when Kan'ami first presented his work to 17-year-old Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, Zeami was a child actor in his play, around age 12.
Yoshimitsu fell in love with Zeami and his position of favor at court caused Noh to be performed for Yoshimitsu thereafter. During the Edo period Noh continued to be aristocratic art form supported by the shōgun, the feudal lords, as well as wealthy and sophisticated commoners. While kabuki and joruri popular to the middle class focused on new and experimental entertainment, Noh strived to preserve its established high standards and historic authenticity and remained unchanged throughout the era. To capture the essence of performances given by great masters, every detail in movements and positions was reproduced by others resulting in an slow, ceremonial tempo over time; the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868 and the formation of a new modernized government resulted in the end of financial support by the government, the entire field of Noh experienced major financial crisis. Shortly after the Meiji Restoration both the number of Noh performers and Noh stages diminished; the support from the imperial government was regained due to Noh's appeal to foreign diplomats.
The companies that remained active throughout the Meiji era significantly broadened Noh's reach by catering to the general public, performing at theatres in major cities such as Tokyo and Osaka. In 1957 the Japanese Government designated nōgaku as an Important Intangible Cultural Property, which affords a degree of legal protection to the tradition as well as its most accomplished practitioners; the National Noh Theatre founded by the government in 1983 stages regular performances and organizes courses to train actors in the leading roles of nōgaku. Noh was inscribed in 2008 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Human
Sendagaya is an area within Shibuya ward, one of the 23 special wards of Tokyo. Sendagaya is nestled in an urban green area in Shibuya ward between Shinjuku ward and Shinjuku Gyo-en to the north; the National Stadium known as Olympic Stadium, Tokyo is located to the east. Meiji Shrine and Yoyogi Station are found to the west. Jingumae and Harajuku are directly south. Many important cultural and sporting venues are located around Sendagaya. Sendagaya is a mix of old and futuristic designs. From Sendagaya Station, the main station in Sendagaya, bustling Shinjuku is a tranquil 10-minute walk away along the Imperial Gardens' western wall. Sendagaya Entrance to the gardens is 2 minutes away from Sendagaya Station. Sendagaya 3-chōme, is home to dozens of clothing and accessory design workshops, studios and fashion related agencies, including the mega-brand Bape; the narrow streets are filled daily with the hustle and bustle of courier companies picking up next season's designs and delivering the finished product.
Sendagaya includes several theaters and organizations related to the arts, such as the National Noh Theatre, designed by Hiroshi Oe and completed in 1983. The Kinokuniya Southern Theater, the classical music Tsuda Hall, the Japan Federation of Composers, the Japan Theatre Arts Association, the Japan Association of Music Enterprises, the Tokyo Nikikai Opera Foundation, a troupe of opera singers dedicated to promoting and developing the western music movement, the Japanese Centre of the International Theatre Institute are located in Sendagaya. A few minutes walk from the station, is the Hato no Mori Hachiman Shrine, an oasis of calm with its 300-year-old pine trees; this small shrine is a place of historical importance in Shibuya. Within the shrine, there is a stage for Japanese performing arts and a fujizuka, a replica of Mount Fuji made from stones carried from Mt. Fuji. Fujitsuka were common in Japan during the Edo period and were constructed to allow people to make a symbolic pilgrimage to the sacred Mt. Fuji when travel between domains was not permitted for commoners under most circumstances.
This fujitsuka is one of the few. A number of sports' complex are found nearby Sendgaya Station including the Olympic Stadium, Tokyo built for the 1958 Asian Games and subsequently used for the 1964 Summer Olympics. Near the stadium, are other important venues, such as Meiji Jingu Skate and Curling Rink and Futsal Courts, the Meiji Jingu Stadium used by the Yakult Swallows baseball team, Jingu Secondary Stadium, Chichibunomiya Rugby Stadium, the Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. Modern Japanese architecture is on display directly in front of Sendagaya Station at the metro gymnasium, which houses an Olympic size swimming pool, as well as a shorter 25m pool; the futuristic designed main arena, half built below ground, which seems to hover over the surrounding area, is used for a number of national and international sporting events, including the WTA Toray Pan Pacific Tennis Championships. The Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, built in 1991, was designed by Japanese architect and Pritzker Prize winner Fumihiko Maki.
Embassy of the Congo, Democratic Republic of Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco Tokyo Design Academy Nippon Design College Tsuda School of Business NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building Takashimya Times Square, located at the southern exit of Shinjuku Station Kinokuniya Book Store Japanese Communist Party Central Committee Headquarters Gap Japan Head Office Japan Shogi Association's headquarters JR Sendagaya Station on the Chūō-Sōbu Line is the neighborhood's main station. Yoyogi Station and Shinanomachi Station are the JR Chūō-Sobu Line stations on either side of Sendagaya; the southern half of Shinjuku Station, the world's busiest station, is located in Sendagaya. Kokuritsu-Kyōgijō Station, on the Toei Ōedo Line, sits in front of Sendagaya Station. Kitasandō Station, nearby on Meiji Dōri, on the new Fukutoshin Line, is run by the Tokyo Metro. A little further on foot are the stations of Gaienmae in Minato-ku on the Ginza Line, Omotesandō on the Ginza Line, Chiyoda Line and Hanzōmon Line and Meiji Jingu on the.
JR Harajuku on the Yamanote Line can be found nearby. The Royal Platform, used by the Japanese Imperial Family during special occasions, is located along the Yamanote Line in Sendagaya 3-chome; the Shuto Expressway passes above Sendagaya running beside the Sobu Line tracks. On/Off ramps for the expressway are in the neighbouring Shinanomachi area. Two major urban routes – Meiji Avenue (明治通り and Gaien Nishi Avenue – run through Sendagaya. Metropolis Travel, Sendagaya Shibuya City Hall
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment