Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming and Idaho. It was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U. S. and is widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features, it has many types of ecosystems. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion. Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U. S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, created the previous year.
Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites. Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent; the caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone; the park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.
The vast forests and grasslands include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park; the Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, boating and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles; the park contains the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river Roche Jaune, a translation of the Hidatsa name Mi tsi a-da-zi. American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is unclear.
The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when Native Americans began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from 11,000 years ago; these Paleo-Indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members heard of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers.
After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area near Tower Fall. After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, Colter described a place of "fire and brimstone" that most people dismissed as delirium. Over the next 40 years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers, petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock; these reports were ignored because Bridger was a known "spinner of yarns". In 1859, a U. S. Army Surveyor named Captain William F. Raynolds embarked on a two-year survey of the northern Rockies. After wintering in Wyoming, in May 1860, Raynolds and his party – which included naturalist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and guide Jim B
Northern Arizona University
Northern Arizona University is a public research university with its main campus in Flagstaff, Arizona. Governed by the Arizona Board of Regents and accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the university offers 158 baccalaureate and graduate degree programs; as of fall 2017, 31,057 students were enrolled, 22,376 at the Flagstaff campus. The average cost of tuition and fees for a full-time, Arizona resident undergraduate student for two semesters is $11,059, out-of-state undergraduates pay an estimated $24,841. NAU participates in the Western Undergraduate Exchange Program, which offers lower tuition rates for students from the Western United States. For 2017–18, WUE tuition and fees are $16,078. NAU offers Flagstaff undergraduate students the Pledge Program, which guarantees the same tuition rate for four years. According to the global university rankings published by Times Higher Education in 2018, NAU ranked among the top 500 universities in the world and in the top 10 percent worldwide for the frequency of citations of its research by other researchers.
The Center for World University Rankings places Northern Arizona in the top 2.9% of degree-granting institutions of higher education worldwide. NAU is the state leader in setting up remote campuses, where classes have delivered via a video link; the oldest branch campus, the largest, is NAU Yuma. Named the Northern Arizona Normal School, the institution opened on September 11, 1899, with 23 students, two faculty members—one, Almon Nicholas Taylor, the school president—and "two copies of Webster's International Dictionary bound in sheepskin" as teaching resources; the first graduating class, in 1901, consisted of four women who received credentials to teach in the Arizona Territory. In 1925, the Arizona State Legislature allowed the school, called the Northern Arizona State Teachers College, to grant bachelor of education degrees. In 1929, the school became Arizona State Teachers College at Flagstaff. In 1929, the Great Depression struck the nation, the ASTC found new meaning in community outreach.
Rather than collapsing, the school endured through the depression. In fact, Grady Gammage, the school president at the time, described higher education as "a'depression industry' that fared well in hard times." Despite financial difficulties, enrollment increased from 321 students to 535 students between 1930 and 1940, graduate work was introduced in 1937. ASTC provided an education during economically trying times creating jobs to help students afford their education; the self-sufficiency of the college helped conserve monetary resources, it was a major contributor to the local economy of the surrounding Flagstaff community, injecting a half million dollars in 1938. ASTC was known for ethnic tolerance. In fact, the first Hopi to receive a college degree was Ida Mae Fredericks in 1939. Students came from rural farms, mining families, the East Coast, points between. During the depression, lots of fraternities and clubs sprang up, reflecting the diversity of background and interests. Enrollment dropped at the beginning of World War II, dropping to 161 in 1945.
During this time, ASTC became a Navy V-12 program training site. However, the end of World War II brought increased enrollment as returning veterans returned to continue their education; the end of the war expanded programs beyond teaching degrees in the fields of art and science. To reflect this growth, the school changed its name to Arizona State College at Flagstaff in 1945 and, in 1958, became Arizona State College after the former Arizona State College at Tempe became Arizona State University. In 1958, the Forestry Program was introduced. With further growth over the next two decades, the Arizona Board of Regents granted Arizona State College university status as Northern Arizona University in 1966. Perched at 6,950 feet above sea level, one of the highest-elevation four-year college campuses in the country, the main campus is surrounded by the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the world and enjoys a four-season climate, with an average annual snowfall of 260 inches. Winter skiing is accessible at Arizona Snowbowl, an alpine ski resort located on the San Francisco Peaks, 7 miles northwest of Flagstaff, ranked the third best college town in the United States by the American Institute of Economic Research in 2017.
NAU offers 153 baccalaureate programs, 81 master's degree programs, 15 doctoral programs, along with 49 undergraduate and 30 graduate certificates. In 2006, the Arizona Board of Regents directed the university to develop innovative ways to provide access and affordability to all Arizona residents. NAU developed the Pledge Program and 2NAU partnerships with community colleges and NAU–Yavapai, a collaboration with Yavapai College in Prescott Valley, Arizona. NAU–Yuma, a quarter-century partnership with Arizona Western College, is nationally recognized as a model community college/university effort. In addition to the more than 22,000 students who study on the Flagstaff campus, NAU serves another 8,000 students online and statewide. NAU offers 99 online accredited degree programs at statewide campuses. NAU is the first public university to offer a competency-based online degree program that allows students to earn credit for experience. Personalized Learning, launched in 2013, is an competency-based degree path.
The program offers students access to a self-paced, affordable college education. The program has a flat fee for a six-month subscription, federal financial aid is available; this subscription allows students to access all
United States Department of Commerce
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, helping to set industrial standards; this organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans. The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D. C. Wilbur Ross is the current Commerce secretary; the department was created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor; the United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939.
In 1940, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Agriculture Department, the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency. In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished; the United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961 pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation; the Minority Business Development Agency was created on March 5, 1969 established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was created on October 3, 1970. The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion.
The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades. The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, Department of the Treasury; the Economic Development Administration would be eliminated. On January 13, 2012, President Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports; the new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, the Small Business Administration, which are all independent agencies.
The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U. S. exports in five years. The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. That year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan; the reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority; the Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements.
Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view. The overall plan has been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth. NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems; the plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal, released in February 2015.
Title 13 of the C
A park ranger, park warden, or forest ranger is a person entrusted with protecting and preserving parklands – national, provincial, or local parks. "Parks" may be broadly defined by some systems in this context, include protected culturally or important built environments, is not limited to the natural environment. Different countries use different names for the position. Warden is the favored term in Canada and the United Kingdom. Within the United States, the National Park Service refers to the position as a park ranger; the U. S. Forest Service refers to the position as a forest ranger. Other countries use game warden to describe this occupation; the profession includes a number of disciplines and specializations, park rangers are required to be proficient in more than one. In medieval England, rangers were officials employed to "range" through the countryside providing law and order, their duties were confined to seeing that the Forest Law was enforced in the outlands, or purlieus, of the royal forests.
Their duties corresponded in some respects with that of a mounted forester. The term ranger seems to correspond to the Medieval Latin word regardatores which appeared in 1217 in the Charter of the Forest. Regardatores was rendered as rangers in the English translations of the Charter. However, others translate regardatores as regarders. For example, the fifth clause of the Charter of the Forest is translated thus: "Our regarders shall go through the forests making the regard as it used to be made at the time of the first coronation of the aforesaid King Henry our grandfather, not otherwise." A "regard" is considered to be an inspection of the forest. The earliest letters patent found mentioning the term refer to a commission of a ranger in 1341. Documents from 1455 state that England had "all manner and singular Offices of Foresters and Rangers of our said Forests". One of the first appearances of ranger in literature is in Edmund Spenser's poem The Shepheardes Calendar from 1579: " walk not as they were wont, for fear of rangers and the great hunt."
The office of Ranger of Windsor Great Park appears to have been created in 1601. In North America rangers served in the 17th through 18th-century wars between colonists and Native American Indian tribes. Rangers were full-time soldiers employed by colonial governments to patrol between fixed frontier fortifications in reconnaissance providing early warning of raids. During offensive operations, they acted as scouts and guides, locating villages and other targets for task forces drawn from the militia or other colonial troops. During the Revolutionary War, General George Washington ordered Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Knowlton to select an elite group of men for reconnaissance missions; this unit was known as Knowlton's Rangers, was the first official Ranger unit for the United States, considered the historical parent of the modern day Army Rangers. The word was resurrected by Americans in the 19th and 20th centuries from the old idioms used for the Wardens – royally appointed – who patrolled the deer parks and hunting forests in England.
There is much debate among scholars about which area was the world's first national park, so not there is little agreement about, the first national park ranger. Some argue that Galen Clark was first when, on May 21, 1866, he became the first person formally appointed and paid to protect and administer Yosemite, thus become California's and the nation's first park ranger. Clark served as the Guardian of Yosemite for 24 years. Others point to Harry Yount who worked as a gamekeeper in Yellowstone National Park in 1880–1881. Prophetically, Yount recommended "the appointment of a small, reliable police force… assist the superintendent of the park in enforcing laws and regulations." The first permanent appointment of rangers in a national park occurred on September 23, 1898, when Charles A. Leidig and Archie O. Leonard became forest rangers at Yosemite National Park. One of the earliest uses of the term ranger was on badges with the title "Forest Reserve Ranger" which were used from 1898 to 1906 by the U.
S. Department of the Interior; these badges were issued to rangers working in the national parks as well as those in the national forests, since both were known as Forest Rangers at that time. The term ranger was applied to a reorganization of the Fire Warden force in the Adirondack Park after 1899 when fires burned 80,000 acres in the park; the name was taken from Rogers' Rangers, a small force famous for their woodcraft that fought in the area during the French and Indian War in 1755. The duties of the modern park ranger are as varied and diverse as the parks where they serve and in recent years have become more specialized. Regardless of the regular duties of any one discipline, the goal of all rangers remains to protect the park resources for future generations and to protect park visitors; this goal is accomplished by the professionalism and sometimes overlapping of the different divisions. For example, an interpretive ranger may perform a law enforcement role by explaining special park regulations to visitors and encouraging them to be proper stewards of natural and cultural history.
Law enforcement rangers and other park employees may contribute to the mission of the interpretive ranger by providing information to park visitors about park resources and facilities. The spirit of teamwork in accomplishing the mission of protecting the parks and people is underscored by the fact that in many cases, for the U. S. National Park Rangers in particular, all park rangers share a common uniform regardless of work assignment. Law enforcement: Law enforcement ran
Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals associated with land use rights. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, poaching was performed by impoverished peasants for subsistence purposes and a supplement for meager diets. Poaching was as well set against the hunting privileges of territorial rulers. By contrast, stealing domestic animals classifies as theft, not as poaching. Since the 1980s, the term "poaching" has referred to the illegal harvesting of wild plant species. In agricultural terms, the term'poaching' is applied to the loss of soils or grass by the damaging action of feet of livestock which can affect availability of productive land, water pollution through increased runoff and welfare issues for cattle. Austria and Germany refer to poaching not as intrusion in third party hunting rights. While Germanic law allowed any free man including peasants to hunt on the commons, Roman law restricted hunting to the rulers. In Medieval Europe feudal territory rulers from the king downward tried to enforce exclusive rights of the nobility to hunt and fish on the lands they ruled.
Poaching was deemed a serious crime punishable by imprisonment, but the enforcement was comparably weak until the 16th century. Peasants were still able to continue small game hunting, but the right of the nobility to hunt was restricted in the 16th century and transferred to land ownership; the development of modern hunting rights is connected to the comparably modern idea of exclusive private property of land. In the 17th and 18th centuries the restrictions on hunting and shooting rights on private property were being enforced by gamekeepers and foresters, they denied shared usages of forests, e.g. resin collection and wood pasture and the peasant's right to hunt and fish. However, comparably easy access to rifles allowed peasants and servants to poach by end of the 18th century; the low quality of guns made it necessary to approach to the game as close as 30 m. For example, poachers in the Salzburg region were men around 30 years of age, not yet married and alone on their illegal trade. Hunting was used in the 18th century as a theatrical demonstration of aristocratic rule of the land and had a strong impact on land use patterns as well.
Poaching in so far interfered not only with property rights but clashed symbolically with the power of the nobility. During the years between 1830 and 1848 poaching and poaching related deaths increased in Bavaria; the revolution of 1848 was interpreted as a general allowance for poaching in Bavaria. The reform of hunting law in 1849 reduced legal hunting to rich land owners and the bourgeoisie able to pay the hunting fees and led to disappointment and ongoing praise of poachers among the people; some of the frontier region, where smuggling was important, showed strong resistance. In 1849, the Bavarian military forces were asked to occupy a number of municipalities on the frontier to Austria. Both, in Wallgau and in Lackenhäuser, each household had to feed and accommodate one soldier for a month as part of a military mission to quell the uproar; the people of Lackenhäuser had had several skirmishes about poached deer with Austrian foresters and military, were known as well armed pertly poachers.
Poaching, like smuggling, has a long counter-cultural history. The verb poach is derived from the Middle English word pocchen meaning bagged, enclosed in a bag. Poaching was dispassionately reported for England in "Pleas of the Forest", transgressions of the rigid Anglo-Norman Forest Law. William the Conqueror, a great lover of hunting and enforced a system of forest law; this operated outside the common law, served to protect game animals and their forest habitat from hunting by the common people of England and reserved hunting rights for the new French-speaking Anglo-Norman aristocracy. Henceforth hunting of game in royal forests by commoners or in other words poaching, was invariably punishable by death by hanging. In 1087, a poem called "The Rime of King William" contained in the Peterborough Chronicle, expressed English indignation at the severe new laws. Poaching was romanticised in literature from the time of the ballads of Robin Hood, as an aspect of the "greenwood" of Merry England; the widespread acceptance of this common criminal activity is encapsulated in the observation Non est inquirendum, unde venit venison, made by Guillaume Budé in his Traitte de la vénerie.
However, the English nobility and land owners were in the long term successful in enforcing the modern concept of property, expressed e.g. in the enclosures of common land and in the Highland Clearances, which were both forced displacement of people from traditional land tenancies and erstwhile common land. The 19th century saw the rise of acts of legislation, such as the Night Poaching Act 1828 and Game Act 1831 in the United Kingdom, various laws elsewhere. In North America, the blatant defiance of the laws by poachers escalated to armed conflicts with law authorities, including the Oyster Wars of the Chesapeake Bay, the joint US-British Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations of 1891 over the hunting of seals. Violations of hunting laws and regulations concerning wildlife management, local or international wildlife conservation schemes constitute wildlife crimes that are punishable; the following violations
Stephen Tyng Mather was an American industrialist and conservationist who as president and owner of Thorkildsen-Mather Borax Company became a millionaire. With his friend and journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather led a publicity campaign to promote the creation of a unified federal agency to oversee National Parks administration, established in 1916. In 1917, Mather was appointed as the first director of the National Park Service, the new agency created within the Department of the Interior, he served until 1929, during which time Mather created a professional civil service organization, increased the numbers of parks and national monuments, established systematic criteria for adding new properties to the federal system. Stephen Tyng Mather was born July 4, 1867, in San Francisco, named for the prominent Episcopal minister Stephen Tyng of New York, admired by his parents, Joseph W. Mather and Bertha Jemima Walker. Mather was educated at the private Boys' High School in San Francisco, graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1887.
His family moved to New York, where Mather worked as a reporter for the New York Sun until 1893. During that time he met and befriended Robert Sterling Yard, another reporter, who would become a close friend. In 1893 Mather married Jane Thacker Floy of Elizabeth, New Jersey, with Yard serving as his best man, they had Bertha Floy Mather. In 1906, Mather became the sole owner of the Mather family homestead in Connecticut, built by his great-grandfather about 1778, he and his family used it during the summers and he regarded it as his true home. Mather started working for the Pacific Coast Borax Company at its headquarters in New York, where his father was administrator. Borax is a component of a variety of detergents and compounds, mined exclusively in California. Borax is a commodity, as such, one brand is as good as another. For a company to be successful, it had to mine the product more cheaply, process it more efficiently, or market it more aggressively. In 1894 the younger Mather moved with his wife to Chicago, where he established a distribution center for the company.
In this role, he proved vital in advertising and sales promotion for the company. In particular he is credited with the idea of adding the label "20 Mule Team Borax" to the company's product, which subsequently became a household name throughout the country. In 1898, Mather helped Thomas Thorkildsen, in starting another borax company. After suffering a severe episode of bipolar disorder in 1903 and having his salary withheld during extended sick leave, Mather resigned from Pacific Coast and joined Thorkildsen full-time in 1904, they named their firm the Thorkildsen-Mather Borax Company. Their company became prosperous, they were millionaires by 1914; this gave Mather the financial independence to pursue personal projects, while in his mid-forties, he retired from the company to pursue those. Mather was active in many civic groups, including the Chicago City Club and Municipal Voter's League. Travel with his wife to Europe in 1904 renewed Mather's longtime interest in nature. Seeing the parks of Europe and their public accessibility, Mather was inspired to work to preserve more parkland in the US, to encourage new transportation methods to reach them, to protect scenic resources and natural areas for the public good.
He became a dedicated conservationist, a friend and admirer of the influential John Muir. In 1904, Mather joined the Sierra Club, climbed Mount Rainier with some of its members the following year, he was active in the group and made numerous allies who helped support the creation of the National Park Service. In 1916 the Sierra Club made him an honorary vice-president. In 1915, Mather became a member of the Boone and Crockett Club, a conservation organization founded by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell in 1887. There is the traditional story of how Mather came to Washington to run the National parks, which Horace Albright said was wrong, though he had a part in keeping the story alive. Here's the traditional, if incorrect, story: In 1914, Mather observed the deteriorating conditions in several National Parks, wrote a letter of protest to Washington. Soon he received a reply from Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, a former classmate of Mather's from the University of California.
Lane responded, "Dear Steve, If you don't like the way the parks are being run, come on down to Washington and run them yourself." But in years, Mather's assistant Horace Albright was to state: In reality, they didn't know each other. Mather had graduated from the University of California with a Bachelor of Letters degree in 1887. Although registered in the class of 1889, Lane never did graduate. Adolph Miller, who knew both men quite well, graduated in Mather's class and affirmed that the two were not acquainted until 1914. Mather did go to Washington as assistant secretary of the Interior, lobbied for the establishment of a bureau to operate the national parks. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the bill authorizing the National Park Service. At the time, the government owned 14 parks and 19 national monuments, many administered by Army officers or political appointees, as battlefields were among the first parks designated, he used his personal funds to hire Robert Sterling Yard to work with him on publicizing the great resources of the parks.
Mather was effective in building support for the parks with a variety of politicians and wealthy corporate leaders. He led efforts to publicize the National Parks and develop wider appreciation for their scenic beauty among the population, he appointed Yard as head of the National Park Education Committee to coordinate the
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger. The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields determined by the type of terrain the search is conducted over; these include mountain rescue. International Search and Rescue Advisory Group is a UN organization that promotes the exchange of information between national urban search and rescue organizations; the duty to render assistance is covered by Article 98 of the UNCLOS. There are many different definitions of search and rescue, depending on the agency involved and country in question. Canadian Forces: "Search and Rescue comprises the search for, provision of aid to, ships or other craft which are, or are feared to be, in distress or imminent danger." United States Coast Guard: "The use of available resources to assist persons or property in potential or actual distress." United States Defense Department: A search is "an operation coordinated by a Rescue Coordination Center or rescue sub-center, using available personnel and facilities to locate persons in distress" and rescue is "an operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs, deliver them to a place of safety".
One of the world's earliest well-documented SAR efforts ensued following the 1656 wreck of the Dutch merchant ship Vergulde Draeck off the west coast of Australia. Survivors sought help, in response three separate SAR missions were conducted, without success. On 29 November 1945, a Sikorsky R-5 performed the first civilian helicopter rescue operation in history, with Sikorsky's chief pilot Dmitry "Jimmy" Viner in the cockpit, using an experimental hoist developed jointly by Sikorsky and Breeze. All 5 crew members of an oil barge, which had run aground on Penfield Reef, were saved before the barge sank. In 1983, Korean Air Lines Flight 007 with 269 occupants was shot down by a Soviet aircraft near Sakhalin; the Soviets sent SAR helicopters and boats to Soviet waters, while a search and rescue operation was initiated by U. S. South Korean, Japanese ships and aircraft in international waters, but no survivors were found. In July 2009, Air France Flight 447 was lost in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean.
An international SAR effort was launched, to no avail. A third effort nearly two years discovered the crash site and recovered the flight recorders. In early 2014, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 crashed under mysterious circumstances. Many nations contributed to the initial SAR effort, fruitless. In June 2014, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau commissioned the MV Fugro Equator to lead a three-month survey of the ocean bed, for which it had budgeted $60mn; the search for Flight 370 has become the largest SAR so far with the largest budget. Ground search and rescue is the search for persons who are lost or in distress on land or inland waterways. People may go missing for a variety of reasons; some may disappear voluntarily, due to issues like domestic abuse. Others disappear for involuntary reasons such as mental illness, getting lost, an accident, death in a location where they cannot be found or, less due to abduction. Ground search and rescue missions that occur in urban areas should not be confused with "urban search and rescue", which in many jurisdictions refers to the location and extraction of people from collapsed buildings or other entrapments.
In most countries, the police are the primary agency for carrying out searches for a missing person on land. Some places have voluntary search and rescue teams that can be called out to assist these searches. Mountain rescue relates to search and rescue operations in rugged and mountainous terrain. Cave rescue is a specialized form of rescue for rescuing injured, trapped or lost cave explorers. Urban search and rescue referred to as Heavy Urban Search and Rescue, is the location and rescue of persons from collapsed buildings or other urban and industrial entrapments. Due to the specialized nature of the work, most teams are multi-disciplinary and include personnel from police and emergency medical services. Unlike traditional ground search and rescue workers, most US&R responders have basic training in structural collapse and the dangers associated with live electrical wires, broken natural gas lines and other hazards. While earthquakes have traditionally been the cause of US&R operations, terrorist attacks and extreme weather such as tornadoes and hurricanes have resulted in the deployment of these resources.
Combat search and rescue is search and rescue operations that are carried out during war that are within or near combat zones. Maritime search and rescue is carried out at sea to save sailors and passengers in distress, or the survivors of downed aircraft; the type of agency which carries out maritime search and rescue varies by country. When a distressed or missing vessel is located, these organizations deploy lifeboats to return them to land. In some cases, the agencies may carry out an air-sea rescue; this refers to the combined use of aircraft and surface vessels. NationalThe Australian search and rescue service is provided by AusSAR, part of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority. AusSAR operates a 24-hour Rescue Coordination Centre in Canbe