Boyce is a town in Clarke County, United States. The population was 589 at the 2010 census, up from 426 at the 2000 census. Boyce is located in western Clarke County at 39°5′35″N 78°3′33″W, along U. S. Route 340, it is 6 miles southwest of the county seat and 16 miles northeast of Front Royal. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.35 square miles, all of it land. The town is situated at the crossing of the Norfolk & Western Railway and the Winchester and Berry's Ferry Turnpike about 2 miles northwest of Millwood, of which it is the shipping point, it is built upon a ridge, which drains on the east into Page Brook and to the west into Roseville Run. It is well underlaid with water; as of the census of 2000, there were 426 people, 159 households, 114 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,179.9 people per square mile. There were 168 housing units at an average density of 465.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 86.38% White, 11.74% African American, 1.17% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.47% from two or more races.
There were 159 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.19. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,333, the median income for a family was $52,000. Males had a median income of $35,179 versus $21,354 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,041. About 6.5% of families and 8.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
The town of Boyce was incorporated by the Circuit Court for the County of Clarke on the 28th day of November, 1910, with a recorded population of 312. The first election for mayor and four councilmen was held on the 20 December 1910, at which W. M. Gaunt was elected Mayor and George W. Garvin, M. O. Simpson, J. T. Sprint and Geo. B. Harrison were elected Councilmen. B. Harrison, Recorder; the Norfolk & Western Railway passes through the center of the business portion of the town, which at the time of the building of the railroad in 1881 was dense woods. The Norfolk & Western Railway erected a large station in the town in 1912; the Shenandoah Valley Railroad was constructed in Clarke County in 1879. It started in Hagerstown and went south to Roanoke, Virginia; the railroad opened from Hagerstown to Berryville on October 1, 1879. The town of Boyce, located 6 miles southwest of Berryville, began in 1881 with the arrival of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad. Located at the railroad crossing with the Millwood Turnpike, Boyce remains much as it was in the early 20th century.
The town was named after Colonel Upton L. Boyce, who lived at the nearby Tuleyries estate and, influential in persuading the railroad to pass through Clarke County. Previous to the current railroad station, there was a much smaller one located on the same side of the tracks but right along the Millwood Turnpike; the railroad was upgrading some of their railroad stations during the early 1910s and were going to replace the original station in Boyce. The new building was to be a small wooden one, sit along the west side of the tracks at its intersection with the Millwood Turnpike. According to local tradition and some historical accounts, the citizens of Boyce wanted a larger, more ornate building and wanted it to be located on the east side of the tracks, they raised money on their own and gave it to the Norfolk and Western to upgrade to a larger station. A December 11, 1912, article in The Clarke Courier entitled "New Depot for Boyce" states: "The public spirit of the citizens of Boyce has again scored a victory.
Some time ago the N & W Railway Company announced that it would erect a new passenger station at Boyce. "The plans submitted by the railway company did not suit the Boyce people, they at once started a movement to secure a better piece of ground in order that a more pretentious station might be erected. "The old buildings have been removed from the Page-Manning lot, work on a new and commodious passenger station, of concrete construction, will be started at once. "This is the spirit. "The Boyce people are quick to go down in their pockets and contribute to any and every cause which will advance their town...." The train station was completed in late 1913. A November 26, 1913, article in The Clarke Courier states: "The new N & W station, with fine concrete platforms, promenade, long train shed, electric-lighted throughout, with all modern conveniences for the comfort of patrons, is a great addition to the town." In a December 23, 1914, article in The Clarke Courier, entitled "The Hustling Town of Boyce," the railroad station is described: "...water is now piped to the ma
American Postal Workers Union
The American Postal Workers Union is a labor union in the United States. It represents over 200,000 employees and retirees of the United States Postal Service who belong to the Clerk, Motor Vehicle, Support Services divisions, it represents 2,000 private-sector mail workers. The American Postal Workers Union is working to stop the closing of Post Offices. Due to current economic factors, the USPS is looking to close several local branches and mail processing centers around the nation. Postal workers in the United States first won collective bargaining rights after the U. S. postal strike of 1970. Two organizations of postal clerks emerged in the 1890s, it was too conservative for the AFL, which in 1906 sponsored the National Federation of Post Office Clerks, which soon surpassed the UNAPOC. NFPOC grew from 16,000 members in 1922, to 36,000 in 1932, nearly 50,000 by 1940, it did not engage in strikes, but spent much of its efforts in opposing hostile Congressional legislation. Additional rivals were formed in the 1930s, but the first serious rival was the National Postal Clerks Union that began in 1958.
Merger discussions dragged on for years, until the NFPOC, UNAPOC and others merged in 1961 as the United Federation of Postal Clerks. In 1971 five unions combined into the American Postal Workers Union, they were the United Federation of Postal Clerks, the National Postal Union, the National Association of Post Office and General Service Maintenance Employees, the National Federation of Post Office Motor Vehicle Employees, the National Association of Special Delivery Messengers, with a combined membership of 280,000. On August 20, 2007, the independent National Postal Professional Nurses merged with the APWU; as a result of this merger, the members of the NPPN were granted membership in the Support Services Division of the APWU. The NPPN-APWU represents over 90 occupational health nurses; this 2007 merger was the first merger of any postal unions in the United States since the U. S. postal strike of 1970. On Thursday, July 30, 2009, the Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee voted 12-1 in favor of S. 1507, which would provide financial relief to the Postal Service.
An amendment, offered by Sen. Tom Coburn, requiring the arbitrator to take into consideration the financial health of the Postal Service when deciding Postal Union contracts, was added prior to its passage. Sen. Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, Sen. Tom Carper, chairman of the subcommittee on Federal Financial Management, Government information, Federal Services and International Security, supported the amendment, voted with committee Republicans for its adoption; the American Postal Workers Union, National Postal Mail Handlers Union, the NALC and the NRLCA have all voiced opposition to S. 1507 with its inclusion of the arbitrator amendment. This Association was organized as a fraternal benefit society for railway clerks by five men in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1898; the original name of the association was the National Association of Railway Postal Clerks. The name of the society was changed to Railway Mail Association in 1904, the National Postal Transport Association in 1949.
In 1961 it became the United Federation of Postal Clerks Benefit Association. It adopted its present name in 1972. Membership is open to all members of the American Postal Workers Union who are employed as postal workers. In 1979, there were 23,000 members in 604 local branches. Branch meetings are held concurrently with meetings of the American Postal Workers Union. In addition to insurance benefits, the APW-ABA sponsors blood banks, Boys Scouts troops, conducts drives for community and medical research funds, visits sick and disabled members; the highest authority is the National Convention. Headquarters are in New Hampshire. There is a brief initiation ritual, in which the candidate pledges to support the US constitution, the laws of the society, become acquainted with the history of the society and defend its principles; the candidate pledges "to be considerate to the widow and the orphan. There are no religious elements in the ritual, though the regular order of business includes provisions for an invocation.
In 1979, the American Postal Workers Accident Benefit Association was a member of the National Fraternal Congress of America, however it does not appear on the current list of members of the Congress, now known as the American Fraternal Alliance. United States Postal Service National Association of Letter Carriers National Postal Mail Handlers Union National Rural Letter Carriers' Association Official website Seattle APWU News, from the Labor Press Project "Post-Office Clerks of the United States, United National Association of". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Railway Mail Service
The United States Postal Service's Railway Mail Service was a significant mail transportation service in the US from the mid-19th century until the mid-20th century. The RMS, or its successor the Postal Transportation Service, carried the vast majority of letters and packages mailed in the United States from the 1890s until the 1960s. George B. Armstrong, manager of the Chicago Post Office, is credited with being the founder of the concept of en route mail sorting aboard trains which became the Railway Mail Service. Mail had been carried in locked pouches aboard trains prior to Armstrong's involvement with the system, but there had been no organized system of sorting mail en route, to have mail prepared for delivery when the mail pouches reached their destination city. In response to Armstrong's request to experiment with the concept, the first railway post office began operating on the Chicago and North Western Railway between Chicago and Clinton, Iowa, on August 28, 1864; the concept was successful, was expanded to other railroads operating from Chicago, including the Chicago and Quincy, Chicago and Rock Island and the Erie.
By 1869 when the Railway Mail Service was inaugurated, the system had expanded to all of the major railroads of the United States, the country was divided into six operating divisions. A superintendent was over each division, all under the direction of George B. Armstrong, summoned from Chicago to Washington, D. C. to become general superintendent of the postal railway service. Armstrong served only two years as general superintendent before resigning because of failing health, he died in Chicago on May 1871, two days after his resignation. Armstrong's successor in Chicago, George Bangs, was appointed as the second general superintendent of the postal railway service. Bangs encouraged the use of fast mail trains, trains made up of mail cars, traveling on expedited schedules designed to accommodate the needs of the Post Office rather than the needs of the traveling public. In 1890, 5,800 postal railway clerks provided service over 154,800 miles of railroad. By 1907, over 14,000 clerks were providing service over 203,000 miles of railroad.
When the post office began handling parcel post in 1913, terminal Railway Post Office operations were established in major cities by the RMS to handle the large increase in mail volume. The Railway Mail Service reached its peak in the 1920s began a gradual decline with the discontinuance of RPO service on branchlines and secondary routes. After 1942, Highway Post Office service was utilized to continue en route sorting after discontinuance of some railway post office operations; as highway mail transportation became more prevalent, the Railway Mail Service was redesignated as the Postal Transportation Service. Abandonment of routes accelerated in the late 1950s and early 1960s, many of the remaining lines were discontinued in 1967. On June 30, 1974, the Cleveland and Cincinnati highway post office, the last HPO route, was discontinued; the last railway post office operated between New York and Washington, D. C. on June 30, 1977. A large bust and monument to Armstrong is displayed in the north side of Chicago's Loop Station Post Office.
A restored RPO car is displayed as part of the Pioneer Zephyr at the Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry. The restored 1927 AT&SF Railway #74 RPO car is displayed at the Pacific Southwest Railway Museum in Campo, CA. First Division: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Massachusetts. Headquarters: Boston, Massachusetts. Second Division: New York, New Jersey. Headquarters: New York City. Third Division: District of Columbia, West Virginia, North Carolina. Headquarters: Washington, D. C. Fourth Division: Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. Headquarters: Atlanta. Fifth Division: Kentucky, Ohio. Headquarters: Cincinnati. Sixth Division: Illinois, Iowa. Headquarters: Chicago. Seventh Division: Missouri, Kansas. Headquarters: St. Louis, Missouri. Eighth Division: California, Utah, Arizona. Headquarters: San Francisco. Ninth Division: Michigan lines of New York Central Railroad between New York City and Chicago. Headquarters: Cleveland. Tenth Division: North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Michigan peninsula.
Headquarters: St. Paul, Minnesota. Eleventh Division: New Mexico, Oklahoma. Headquarters: Fort Worth. Twelfth Division: Arkansas, Mississippi. Headquarters: New Orleans. Thirteenth Division: Montana, Oregon, Washington. Headquarters: Seattle. Fourteenth Division: Colorado, Nebraska. Headquarters: Omaha. Fifteenth Division: Pennsylvania, Delaware lines of Pennsylvania Railroad west of Pittsburgh. Headquarters: Pittsburgh. Owney, railway service mascot Railway Mail Service Library Washington Park and Zoo Railway Mobile Post Office Society History of the United States Postal Service 1775-1993: Railway Mail Service National Postal Museum - Railway Post Office Bergman, Edwin B. 29 Years to Oblivion, The Last Years of Railway Mail Service in the United States, Mobile Post Office Society, Nebraska. Wilking, Clarence; the Railway Mail Service, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Available as an MS Word file at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/articles/THE_RMS. DOC U. S. Post Office Department. MEN AND MAIL IN TRANSIT, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia.
Portion available as a video clip at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/videos/m&mit01. MPG National Postal Transport Association. MAIL IN MOTION, Railway Mail Service Library, Virginia. Portion available as a video clip at http://www.railwaymailservicelibrary.org/videos/MI
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Portsmouth is a city in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 21,233, in 2017 the estimated population was 21,796. A historic seaport and popular summer tourist destination on the Piscataqua River bordering the state of Maine, Portsmouth was the home of the Strategic Air Command's Pease Air Force Base, since converted to Portsmouth International Airport at Pease. American Indians of the Abenaki and other Algonquian languages-speaking nations, their predecessors, inhabited the territory of coastal New Hampshire for thousands of years before European contact; the first known European to explore and write about the area was Martin Pring in 1603. The Piscataqua River forms a good natural harbor; the west bank of the harbor was settled by English colonists in 1630 and named Strawbery Banke, after the many wild strawberries growing there. The village was fortified by Fort Mary. Strategically located for trade between upstream industries and mercantile interests abroad, the port prospered.
Fishing and shipbuilding were principal businesses of the region. Enslaved Africans were imported as laborers as early as 1645 and were integral to building the city's prosperity. Portsmouth was part of the Triangle Trade. At the town's incorporation in 1653, it was named Portsmouth in honor of the colony's founder, John Mason, he had been captain of the port of Portsmouth, England, in the county of Hampshire, for which New Hampshire is named. When Queen Anne's War ended in 1712, Governor Joseph Dudley selected the town to host negotiations for the 1713 Treaty of Portsmouth, which temporarily ended hostilities between the Abenaki Indians and English settlements of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and New Hampshire. In 1774, in the lead-up to the Revolution, Paul Revere rode to Portsmouth warning that the British were coming, with warships to subdue the port. Although Fort William and Mary protected the harbor, the rebel government moved the capital inland to Exeter, safe from the Royal Navy.
The Navy bombarded Falmouth on October 18, 1775. African Americans helped defend New England during the war. In 1779, 19 slaves from Portsmouth wrote a petition to the state legislature and asked that it abolish slavery, in recognition of their war contributions and in keeping with the principles of the Revolution, their petition was not answered, but New Hampshire ended slavery. Thomas Jefferson's 1807 embargo against trade with Britain withered New England's trade with Canada, several local fortunes were lost. Others were gained by men who were privateers during the War of 1812. In 1849, Portsmouth was incorporated as a city. Once one of the nation's busiest ports and shipbuilding cities, Portsmouth expressed its wealth in fine architecture, it has significant examples of Colonial and Federal style houses, some of which are now museums. Portsmouth's heart has stately brick Federalist stores and townhouses, built all-of-a-piece after devastating early 19th-century fires; the worst was in 1813. A fire district was created that required all new buildings within its boundaries to be built of brick with slate roofs.
The city was noted for the production of boldly wood-veneered Federalist furniture by the master cabinet maker Langley Boardman. The Industrial Revolution spurred economic growth in New Hampshire mill towns such as Dover, Laconia, Manchester and Rochester, where rivers provided water power for the mills, it shifted growth to the new mill towns. The port of Portsmouth declined, but the city survived Victorian-era doldrums, a time described in the works of Thomas Bailey Aldrich in his 1869 novel The Story of a Bad Boy. In the 20th century, the city founded a Historic District Commission, which has worked to protect much of the city's irreplaceable architectural legacy. In 2008, the National Trust for Historic Preservation named Portsmouth one of the "Dozen Distinctive Destinations"; the compact and walkable downtown on the waterfront draws tourists and artists, who each summer throng the cafes and shops around Market Square. Portsmouth annually celebrates the revitalization of its downtown with Market Square Day, a celebration dating back to 1977, produced by the non-profit Pro Portsmouth, Inc.
Portsmouth shipbuilding history has had a long symbiotic relationship with Kittery, across the Piscataqua River. In 1781–1782, the naval hero John Paul Jones lived in Portsmouth while he supervised construction of his ship Ranger, built on nearby Badger's Island in Kittery. During that time, he boarded at the Captain Gregory Purcell house, which now bears Jones' name, as it is the only surviving property in the United States associated with him. Built by the master housewright Hopestill Cheswell, an African American, it has been designated as a National Historic Landmark, it now serves as the Portsmouth Historical Society Museum. The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, established in 1800 as the first federal navy yard, is on Seavey's Island in Kittery, Maine; the base is famous for being the site of the 1905 signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth which ended the Russo-Japanese War. Though US President Theodore Roosevelt orchestrated the peace conference that brought Russian and Japanese diplomats to Portsmouth and the Shipyard, he never came to Portsmouth, relying on the Navy and people of New Hampshire as the hosts.
Roosevelt won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for his diplomacy in bringing about an end to the War. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 16.8 square miles, of