APIA Leichhardt Tigers FC
APIA Leichhardt Tigers Football Club known as APIA, is a semi-professional soccer club based in the suburb of Leichhardt in Sydney, Australia. The club was formed in 1954 as APIA Leichhardt, by Italian Australians APIA, winner of the national Australian championship of 1987, is a member of the NPL NSW; the club was founded as the Associazione Poli-sportiva Italo Australiana in 1954 by members of the Italian-Australian community in Sydney's Inner West. After several years in the Canterbury District competition, the club joined the NSW Federation's state league. In the 1960s APIA became one of the foremost soccer clubs in Australia and won the Premiership of NSW of the years 1964, 1966, 1967 and 1975, the highest level of achievement in the absence of a national competition. Between 1966 and 1974 APIA won three times the State Cup of NSW named after a sponsor Ampol Cup; the 1974 final was considered "one of the most incredible finals" of the history of the club when skipper Jimmy Rooney and centreforward Peter Ollerton, who scored five goals, won 9–1 against Auburn in front of a crowd of 5210 at Wentworth Park, the highest finals result ever.
Rooney and Ollerton were in the team that represented Australia a few months in its first World Cup participation in Germany. In 1979 APIA was given access to the National Soccer League, the top tier of Australian soccer since 1977. In 1987 APIA won the national championship, six points ahead of the Preston Makedonia Soccer Club from Melbourne, with only two points awarded per win; the coach in that season was Rale Rasic. Charlie Yankos and Peter Katholos are the best known players from that side; the main cast of that year consisted of Tony Pezzano. In 1988 APIA won the National Soccer League Cup. By 1992 the APIA Leichhardt was overwhelmed by financial difficulties; the club was somewhat restructured and forthwith played on state level with the moniker "Tigers."In 2017, APIA won the National Premier Leagues NSW premiership, but lost the grand final to Manly United FC on penalties. APIA made the grand final of the 2017 Waratah Cup, but lost 3–1 to Hakoah Sydney City East FC. In 2018, APIA won the 2018 Waratah Cup.
On 21 August 2018, APIA defeated reigning A-League champions Melbourne Victory FC in the Round of 16 of the 2018 FFA Cup, becoming the seventh state-league side to beat a top-tier team in the knockout tournament. The result was billed as one of the biggest upsets in the tournament's history. Lambert Park in Leichhardt is the club's traditional home ground, it has, over the years, been used for most of the club's home games. It is still hosts all of the club's NPL matches. APIA has hosted home games at a number of other venues, including Wentworth Park, Leichhardt Oval and Henson Park. Updated 1 September 2018. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Source Note 1: During 1984 to 1986, the league was split into two conferences – APIA played in the Northern Conference and the position in the table reflects position in the conference. = Premiers or Champions = Runners-up 1R, 2R, 3R...7R = 1st Round, 2nd Round, 3rd Round...7th Round R32 = Round of 32 R16 = Round of 16 QF = Quarter-final SF = Semi-final EF = Elimination Final PF = Preliminary Final PO = Playoff Final National Premier Leagues NSWPremiers: 1964, 1966, 1967, 1975, 2017 Runners-Up: 1963, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1997, 2002–03, 2015, 2018National Premier Leagues NSW Grand FinalsChampionships: 1964, 1965, 1969, 1976, 2002–03 Runners-Up: 1963, 1966, 1967, 1975, 2017, 2018Waratah CupWinners: 1962, 1966, 1975, 2013, 2018 Runners-Up: 2012, 2017 National Soccer LeaguePremiers: 1987 National Soccer LeagueAustralia CupWinners: 1966 Runners-Up: 1964, 1965, 1967NSL CupWinners: 1982, 1988 Official website Oz Football Profile NPL NSW Fixtures & Results
Football Federation Tasmania
Football Federation Tasmania is the governing body for soccer in the Australian state of Tasmania. The federation oversees competitions across Tasmania, Tasmanian representative teams, development of the sport in the state; the federation was known as the Tasmanian Soccer Association until 1996, when it was renamed Soccer Tasmania. In line with national changes in March 2006, it became Football Federation Tasmania. FFT sanctions all competitive football matches in Tasmania, either directly in the case of its own leagues, or indirectly, as is the case with local regional junior associations. FFT trains and appoints match officials in accordance with FIFA guidelines; the FFT governs the Tasmanian State League NPL Tasmania and the two underpinning domestic leagues, the Northern Championship, the Southern Championship. FFT organises and runs several Tasmanian association football cup competitions. Responsibilities include selecting and managing representative Tasmanian football sides at senior, men's, women's and youth levels.
Football Federation Tasmania is a member of Football Federation Australia, in turn a member of the Asian Football Confederation, the world governing body FIFA. Football Federation Tasmania is a member of Football Federation Australia, has its administrative headquarters and main playing ground at KGV Park in Glenorchy, which acts as a home ground to both Glenorchy Knights and Hobart Zebras clubs. All of Tasmania's major football teams are members of Football Federation Tasmania, the FFT organise the only FIFA sanctioned competitive leagues in the state for both Men and Women. A hierarchy of league divisions operates in both the south and the north for senior men and women, aged based divisions operate for juniors. SATIS runs a league for Independent schools, although not affiliated with FFT, does so in accordance with FFT rules and with their sanctioning. FFT is one of nine Football Federation Australia National Training Centres - which act as regional training bases for elite and emerging junior male and female footballers.
A number of young Tasmanians have been selected for national sides as a result of their participation in the NTC programs, including Luke Eyles and Paul Stevens. FFT administers the Tasmanian rollout of national soccer initiatives, including 5-a-side competitions, school visits and game development programs. FFT runs a number of popular and growing Futsal Leagues based in Hobart, Launceston and Ulverstone; the FFT ran a statewide competition known as the Tasmanian State League, featuring sides from both the north and south of the state from 1978 until 1999, when it discontinued due to financial problems. FFT, working alongside member clubs, has announced plans to re-launch the State League, to be known as the Victory League, in 2013; this league will feature eight teams. The code was referred to as British Association Football, to distinguish it from Rugby, Australian rules, which soon became known locally as'football' or'footy'; the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as a slang abbreviation of the word "association" credited to former England captain Charles Wreford-Brown.
It is not clear when the term'soccer' came into common use in Tasmania, but by the early twentieth century it was the more common term. The first recorded organised match in Tasmania took place between seamen from the Royal Navy and merchant vessels, who formed a team in 1898, challenged the soldiers from the Tasmanian Military Forces garrison at Anglesea Barracks; the match was played on the Queens Domain, sparked a renewed local interest in the sport. In 1900, Englishman Reverend Fred Taylor established a league competition between three newly formed sides, they were the Gunners and Sandy Bay. The involvement of the Tasmanian and Commonwealth Military Forces in the Second Boer War led to a suspension of football in the colony, it wasn't until 1910, when two friends JJB Honeysett and Norm Vincent, who were both keen players, decided to reintroduced competitive matches. They created the state's first league involving teams from both north and south, they established a North vs South match, played annually continuously since that time, except for brief suspensions during the First World War and the Second World War.
The newly formed South Hobart Soccer Club took on Westralia at the "Association Ground", Washington Street, South Hobart in the first match of the new league, winning 4–1. A rise in the number of migrants arriving in Tasmania following the First World War saw the popularity of the sport grow, the Tasmanian football championship resumed in 1919; that season saw South Hobart Soccer Club begin a remarkable run in which they won the state championship a record five years in a row. Although four-in-a-row has since been done twice, by Caledonians, White Eagles, South Hobart's record has never been broken. Football remained healthy in Tasmania for the next twenty years, although it continued to play second-fiddle to Australian rules football in terms of overall popularity. South Hobart and Sandy Bay enjoyed much success, winning seven titles each in the i
Manly United FC
Manly United Football Club is an Australian football club based in the northern beaches area of Sydney. The club competes in the National Premier Leagues NSW and their home ground is Cromer Park, in the suburb of Dee Why 15 minutes away from Manly, its main grandstand is named after former Socceroo captain Lucas Neill, who played for the club as a junior. Manly United formed from the merger of Manly-North Shore United and Warringah Freshwater as Manly Warringah Dolphins at the close of the 1991 NSW Division 1 season for the start of the upcoming NSW Super League season. A Dutch club called Neerlandia competed in the 1959 Sydney Federation Division Two, won the premiership and gained entry into the Sydney Federation Division One for 1960; the club changed its named to Manly Warringah from 1960 until it merged with North Shore United in 1991. North Shore United itself was a merger of North Sydney-Artarmon; this merger took place for the 1989 season. The Manly-North Shore United merger dissolved after the 1991 NSW Division One season, with Manly merging with Warringah Freshwater.
North Shore United would continue to send representative teams to tournaments as Ku-Ring-Gai Districts. Warringah Narrabeen was a club that had competed throughout the 1980s in Division Two winning the title in 1983. About 1986 Hilton Silva, a Brazilian who turned socceroo, played for the side towards the end of his career; the merger of Manly-North Shore United and Warringah Freshwater created the Manly Warringah Dolphins at the close of the 1991 NSW Division 1 season for the start of the upcoming NSW Super League season. The club changed its name to Manly United in 2004 following the promotion into the NSW Premier League and takeover of the club by the Manly Warringah Football Association, they have competed there since 2004–05 when they were elevated after winning the Super League Division. Manly United is considered an important side in the NSWPL, as it is based on a geographical area, rather than founded by a single ethnic group like some other ex-NSL clubs; the original Logo of the renamed Manly United Football Club in 2004 was a collective of an Osprey sea bird, a Football & a Dolphin joined as one, these three icons represent the local MWFA Association, a Football & Manly Warringah Dolphins.
The Club again changed its logo in 2016 to reflect the evolution of Manly United Football Club and its ownership and association with Manly Warringah Football Association. The club is the representative arm of the Manly Warringah Football Association, the second largest community Football Association in Australia with more than 18,000 players. 1992–1996: Super League 1997–1999: Division One 2000: Super League 2001–2004: Winter Super League 2004–2012: NSW Premier League 2013–present: National Premier Leagues NSW Between 2006 and 2012 ex-Manly junior Lucas Neill helped provide opportunities for up and coming footballers from his junior club. Each year the scholarship was awarded to a different young player from Manly to trial in Europe. Due to a number of factors including difficulty getting clubs in Europe to provide the opportunity for the players, the scheme was discontinued as Lucas and his advisors looked for a different way to reward the junior players from his junior club. In 2014 the scholarship was re-branded the Lucas Neill Medal and was extended to include ALL junior members of the club, it was determined that there should be two medals awarded each year, in recognition of the advancements in ladies football.
The medal is made from Sterling silver and is laser engraved on the front with a photograph of Lucas when he first became captain of Australia in 2007. As of March 2018Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 16 June 2018. Alice Wilson Ally Green Anjelyka Brown Chloe O'Brien Claire Coelho Claudia Cholakian Emily Minett Gemma Van Weeren Grace Arnold Isabella Walker Jane Vanzino Jessica Sekulich Kobie Ferguson Kristie Crawford Lauren Woodcock Madeleine Neville Myu Ban Natalie Roubickova Natasha Prior Nicole Simonsen Nikola Orgill Remy Siemsen Ruby Jackson Sophie Harding Sunny Franco Tiarna Karambasis National Premier Leagues NSWPremiers: 1995 Runners-Up: 1992 Men's Club Champions: 2016National Premier Leagues NSW Grand FinalsChampions: 1995, 2017, Runners-Up:National Premier Leagues NSW 2Premiers: 2004 Runners-Up: 2002National Premier Leagues NSW 2 Grand FinalsChampions: 2001 Runners-Up: 1994, 2004Waratah Cup:Champions: 2011 Runners-up: 2007, 2009, 2014, 2016 Official site
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
The A-League is a professional men's soccer league run by Football Federation Australia. At the top of the Australian league system, it is the country's primary competition for the sport; the A-League was established in 2004 as a successor to the National Soccer League and competition commenced in August 2005. The league is contested by ten teams, it is known as the Hyundai A-League through a sponsorship arrangement with the Hyundai Motor Company. Seasons run from October to May and include a 27-round regular season followed by a Finals Series playoff involving the highest-placed teams, culminating in a grand final match; the winner of the regular season tournament is dubbed the'premier' while the winner of the grand final is the season's'champion'. This differs from the other major football codes in Australia, where'premier' refers to the winner of the grand final and the winner of the regular season is the'minor premier'. Successful A-League clubs gain qualification into the continental competition, the Asian Football Confederation Champions League known as "AFC Champions League".
Similar to the United States and Canada's Major League Soccer, as well as other professional sports leagues in Australia, Australia's A-League does not practice promotion and relegation. Since the league's inaugural season, a total of six clubs have been crowned A-League Premiers and five clubs have been crowned A-League Champions; the current premier is Perth Glory. The current champions are Melbourne Victory, who won the 2018 A-League Grand Final, equaling the record of four domestic titles held by Marconi Stallions, South Melbourne, Sydney City; the A-League does not recognize the history of its predecessor, the National Soccer League, the nations premier football competition from 1977 to 2004. A national round-robin tournament existed in various forms prior to the formation of the A-League, with the most notable being the National Soccer League; the formation of the NSL came after Australia's qualification for the 1974 FIFA World Cup, which led to discussion of a national league, with 14 teams chosen to participate in the inaugural season of the NSL in 1977.
Under the guidance of the then-governing body, the Australian Soccer Federation, the NSL flourished through the 1980s and early 1990s but fell into decline with the increasing departure of Australian players to overseas leagues, a disastrous television deal with the Seven Network and the resulting lack of sponsorship. Few clubs continued to grow with Sydney Olympic, Perth Glory, the newly established Adelaide United the exception in a dying league. In April 2003, the Australian Federal Government initiated the Independent Soccer Review Committee to investigate the governance and management of the sport in Australia, including that of the NSL. In December 2003, the Crawford Report found that the NSL was financially unviable, in response the chairman of the sports new governing body, Frank Lowy of Football Federation Australia, announced that a task force would be formed to create a new national competition as a successor to the NSL which dissolved at the conclusion of the 2003–04 season after 27 years of operation.
The A-League was announced in April 2004, as a successor to the NSL. Eight teams would be part of the new national competition, with one team from each city of Sydney, Brisbane, Perth, plus a New Zealand team and one from a remaining expressions of interest from either Melbourne or Sydney; the competition start date was set for August 2005. By June 2004, 20 submissions had been received and a month 12 consortiums sent in their final bids for the eight spots. Three bids were received from Melbourne, two each from Sydney and Brisbane, one from each of the remaining preferred cities and a bid from the New South Wales Central Coast city of Gosford. Over the next three months, each bid was reviewed and on 1 November 2004, the eight successful bidders and the major sponsor were revealed, for what would be known as the Hyundai A-League, with the Hyundai Motor Company unveiled as the official naming rights sponsor for the league; the eight founding teams for the league were Adelaide United, Central Coast Mariners, Melbourne Victory, Newcastle Jets, New Zealand Knights, Perth Glory, Queensland Roar and Sydney FC, with three former NSL clubs taking part, those being Adelaide United, Newcastle Jets and Perth Glory, as well as Queensland Roar and New Zealand Knights who were formed from NSL clubs Brisbane Lions and New Zealand Football Kingz.
Each club was given a five-year exclusivity deal in its own market as part of the league's "one-city, one-team" policy. This was intended to allow clubs to grow and develop an identity in their respective region without local competition. On 26 August 2005, 16 months after the demise of the NSL, the inaugural season of the A-League began; the first season would see Adelaide United win the premier's plate by seven points over Sydney FC with Central Coast and Newcastle filling the final two spots in the final series. In the final series, it was Sydney that took out the title after they defeated Central Coast by a Steve Corica goal to claim the first title on 5 March 2006. On 20 March 2007, it was announced that Wellington Phoenix would replace New Zealand Knights from the start of the 2007–08 season. Both Gold Coast United and North Queensland Fury joined the league in the 2009–10 season. On 12 June 2009, Melbourne Heart was awarded a licence to join the 2010–11 season. On 1 March 2011 North Queensland Fury's A-League licence was revoked for financial reasons.
On 29 February 2012, Gold Coast United had its licence revoked. On 4 April 2012 it was announced that a new We
The PlayStation 4 is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, on February 22, 2014, in Japan, it Switch. Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices, the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely; the console's controller was redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, an integrated touchpad among other changes.
The console supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia. The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors. Heightened demand helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3; as of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide. On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games; the company released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.
According to lead architect Mark Cerny, development of Sony's fourth video game console began as early as 2008. Less than two years earlier, the PlayStation 3 had launched after months of delays due to issues with production; the delay placed Sony a year behind Microsoft's Xbox 360, approaching unit sales of 10 million by the time the PS3 launched. PlayStation Europe CEO Jim Ryan said Sony wanted to avoid repeating the same mistake with PS3's successor. In designing the system, Sony worked with software developer Bungie, who offered their input on the controller and how to make it better for shooting games. In 2012, Sony began shipping development kits to game developers, consisting of a modified PC running the AMD Accelerated Processing Unit chipset; these development kits were known as "Orbis". In early 2013, Sony announced that an event known as PlayStation Meeting 2013 would be held in New York City, U. S. on February 20, 2013, to cover the "future of PlayStation". Sony announced the PlayStation 4 at the event.
It revealed details about the console's hardware and discussed some of the new features it will introduce. Sony showed off real-time footage of games in development, as well as some technical demonstrations; the design of the console was unveiled in June at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2013, the initial recommended retail prices of $399, €399, £349 given. The company revealed release dates for North America, Central America, South America and Australia, as well as final pieces of information, at a Gamescom press event in Cologne, Germany, on August 20, 2013; the console was released on November 15, 2013, in the United States and Canada, followed by further releases on November 29, 2013. By the end of 2013, the PS4 was launched in more European and South American countries The PS4 released in Japan at ¥39,980 on February 22, 2014. Sony finalized a deal with the Chinese government in May 2014 to sell its products in mainland China, the PS4 will be the first product to be released. Kazuo Hirai, chief executive officer of Sony, said in May: "The Chinese market, just given the size of it, is potentially a large market for video game products...
I think that we will be able to replicate the kind of success we have had with PS4 in other parts of the world in China."In September 2015, Sony reduced the price of the PS4 in Japan to ¥34,980, with similar price drops in other Southeast Asian markets. The first official sub £300 PS4 bundle was the £299.99 "Uncharted Nathan Drake Collection 500GB", released in the UK on October 9, 2015. On October 9, 2015, the first official price cut of the PS4 in North America was announced: a reduction of $50 to $349.99 and by $20 to $429.99. An official price cut in Europe followed in late October 2015, reduced to €349.99/£299.99. On June 10, 2016, Sony confirmed that a hardware revision of the PlayStation 4, rumored to be codenamed "Neo", was under development; the new revision is a higher-end model, meant to support gameplay in 4K. The new model will be sold alongside the existing model, all existing software will be compatible between the two models. Layden stated that Sony has no plans to "bifurcate the market", only that gamers playing on the Neo will "have the same experience, but one will be delivered at a higher resol
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s