National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Rose Atoll, sometimes called Rose Island or Motu O Manu by people of the nearby Manua Islands, is an oceanic atoll within the U. S. territory of American Samoa. It is a wildlife refuge. It is the southernmost point belonging to the United States, the land area is 0.214 km2. The total area of the atoll, including lagoon and reef flat amounts to 5 km2, just west of the northernmost point is a channel into the lagoon, about 40 m wide. There are two islets on the rim of the reef, larger Rose Island in the east. The first documented sighting by a Westerner was by Louis de Freycinet in 1819 and he named it after his wife Rose. While the second woman to circumnavigate the globe, Rose de Freycinet was the first to tell her tale, in his official report Louis de Freycinet records that I named Rose Island, from the name of someone who is extremely dear to me. Soon afterwards, in 1824, it was seen by the expedition under Otto von Kotzebue, who named it Kordinkov after his First Lieutenant. The Rose Atoll Marine National Monument that lies on the two outstanding islands of the Atoll is managed cooperatively between the U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service and the government of American Samoa. Rose Atoll contains the largest populations of giant clams, nesting seabirds, the fish population is different from the rest of the region due to a high concentration of carnivorous fish and low concentration of herbivorous fish. Almost 270 different species of fish have been recorded in the last 15 years, mahi-mahi, billfish and sharks reside outside the lagoon. In deeper waters and stalked crinoid have been spotted by scuba expeditions, sea mammals such as the endangered humpback whale and the Stenella genus of dolphin use the waters. The atoll is a nesting habitat for the threatened green turtle. The turtles migrate between American Samoa and other Pacific Island nations and their nesting season is between the months of August and February. Approximately 97% of American Samoas seabird population resides on Rose Atoll, each of the 12 bird species is federally protected. Red-footed boobies and greater and lesser frigate birds nest in the buka trees, black noddies and white terns nest in the middle and lower branches.
The root system is used by reef herons and red-tailed tropic birds, other birds can be found in the Pisonia forest, the only one left in Samoa. Rose Island Concrete Monument American Samoa, its districts and unorganized islands, United States Census Bureau A Summary of Information on Rose Atoll
The Samoan people are a Polynesian ethnic group of the Samoan Islands, sharing genetics, language and culture. Samoans living in Samoa in 2006 were estimated at 188,000, the majority of ethnic Samoans now reside in other countries, primarily in the United States, New Zealand and Australia. This approximation is based on the Lapita pottery that has dated to that time. Furthermore, the Samoans have developed a language and social practice most divergent from the ethnic groups associated with the Lapita pottery. Early contact with Europeans was established in the 18th century, christianity was formally introduced with the arrival of L. M. S. During the early 20th century the Samoan Islands were partitioned by Germany, Great Britain and Aunuu islands were claimed by the USA and joined by the Kingdom of Manua to become the current Territory of American Samoa. The western islands became German Samoa, in 1914, New Zealand forces captured the islands from Germany, thus becoming Western Samoa. Western Samoa regained its independence on January 1,1962, in 1997 it formally changed its name to Samoa.
Traditional Samoan tattoo, malu, demonstrate the strong ties many Samoans feel for their culture, Samoans have practiced the art of tattooing men and women for over 2,000 years. To this day, a mans tattoo extensively covers from mid-back, down the sides and flanks, a womans tattoo is not as extensive or heavy. The geometric patterns are based on ancient designs that often denote rank, the vaa, for example, stretches across a mans mid-back. Samoan oral tradition generally recognizes that two Fijian women and Tilafaiga, introduced the practice of tattooing, before the arrival of Christian missionaries, starting in 1830, all Samoan males got a traditional tattoo. Though the early missionaries did not succeed in outlawing the practice, in Samoas cultural past most males were tattooed between the ages of 14–18, when it was determined they had stopped growing, so the designs would not stretch and suffer in beauty. Today, there has been a revival of traditional tattooing in the past generation, not only in Samoa but throughout Polynesia.
Tatau, the Samoan word for tattoo has a number of meanings including correct or rightness and it signifies the correct quadrangular figures in reference to the fact that Samoan tattoo designs do not include circular lines, although other Polynesian tattoo motifs do. Early Englishmen mispronounced the word tatau and borrowed it into popular usage as tattoo, traditional tattooing is a painful process. The Samoan tattoo master dips his cutting tools into black ink made from the soot of burnt candlenut shells, the cutting tool consists of a short piece of bamboo or light wood with a piece of tortoiseshell bound at right angles at one end. A little bone comb is bound to the broad end of the tortoiseshell
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Rose Island Concrete Monument
The Rose Island Concrete Monument is a historic commemorative marker on Rose Island, part of Rose Atoll, a remote island located in the far eastern reaches of the territorial waters of American Samoa. The marker is a structure in the shape of a truncated pyramid with a rectangular cross-section. It is 1.53 metres wide,1.59 metres high, on the west side of the marker is raised lettering stating ROSE ISLAND / AMERICAN SAMOA / TRESPASSING PROHIBITED / WARREN J. TERHUNE / JAN101920 GOVERNOR. A brass plaque on the side of the monument conveys a similar message. The monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013, National Register of Historic Places listings in American Samoa
Pago Pago Harbor
Pago Pago Harbor is a large natural inlet in the central south coast of the island of Tutuila in American Samoa. The capital, Pago Pago is located on the reaches of the harbor. A significant amount of debris and oil were dumped into Pago Pago Harbor during the 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami, debris including cars, household items, and boats were thrown into the harbor by the force of the wave. An oil spill approximately 40 feet wide occurred at the mouth of Pago Pago Harbor as a result of the tsunami, barrels containing fuel were thrown into the harbor by the tsunami and washed up on shore. It is suggested that one must avoid eating any fish or invertebrate caught in Pago Pago Harbor because they are contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants
Courthouse of American Samoa
The Courthouse of American Samoa, formerly Administration Building, Navy No. 21, is a building near Pago Pago Harbor in Fagatogo. It is a wood frame building mounted on concrete piers. A concrete vault is located at the back of the building, the court house was reported by the local commander to have been completed about 1904. The building is one of the oldest standing in American Samoa, having survived typhoons, the building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. National Register of Historic Places listings in American Samoa
Pago Pago is the territorial capital of American Samoa. It is on the island of American Samoa, Tutuila. The territory is served by Pago Pago International Airport at Tafuna, entertainment and tuna canning are its main industries. The area commonly referred to as Pago Pago consists of a string of villages, each with its own village council, one of the villages is itself named Pago Pago, and in 2010 had a population of 3,656. Pago Pago may refer to the village, to the bay area or to American Samoa as a whole, the constituent villages are, in order, Fagatogo, Pago Pago and Atuu. Fagatogo is the referred to as Town and was the seat of government until a new Executive Office Building was opened in Utulei. In Fagatoto is the Fono, the Police Department, the Port of Pago Pago, many shops, from 1878 to 1951, the area was the site of a coaling and repair station for the U. S. Navy, known as United States Naval Station Tutuila. In January 1942 Pago Pago Harbor was shelled by a Japanese submarine, on September 29,2009, an earthquake struck in the South Pacific, near Samoa and American Samoa, sending a tsunami into Pago Pago and surrounding areas.
The tsunami caused moderate to severe damage to villages and vehicles, the town is located between steep mountainsides and the harbor. The main downtown area is Fagatogo on the shore of Pago Pago Harbor, the location of the Fono, the port, the bus station. The banks are in Utulei and Fagotogo, as are the Sadie Thompson Inn, the tuna canneries, which provide employment for a third of the population of Tutuila, are in Atuu on the north shore of the harbor. The village of Pago Pago is at the head of the harbor. A climb to the summit of Mt. Alava in the National Park of American Samoa provides a view of the harbor. Pago Pago has a tropical rainforest climate, all official climate records for American Samoa are kept at Pago Pago. The hottest temperature recorded was 99 °F on February 22,1958. Conversely, the lowest temperature on record was 59 °F on October 10,1964, the Feleti Barstow Public Library is located in Pago Pago. In 1991, severe tropical cyclone Val hit Pago Pago, destroying the library that existed there, the current Barstow library, constructed in 1998, opened on April 17,2000.
The tramway was repaired, but closed not long after, another noted view is that from the top of the pass above Aua Village on the road to Afono
Colonialism is the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance and exploitation of that colony. The term is used to describe a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples. The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the century when several European powers established colonies in Asia, Africa. At first the countries followed a policy of mercantilism, designed to strengthen the economy at the expense of rivals. By the mid-19th century, the powerful British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade, collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including something characteristic of a colony, in the book, Osterhammel asks, How can colonialism be defined independently from colony.
He settles on a definition, Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the people are made. Rejecting cultural compromises with the population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority. Historians often distinguish between two overlapping forms of colonialism, Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on access to resources for export, typically to the metropole. Surrogate colonialism involves a settlement project supported by a colonial power, internal colonialism is a notion of uneven structural power between areas of a state. The source of exploitation comes from within the state, as colonialism often played out in pre-populated areas, sociocultural evolution included the formation of various ethnically hybrid populations. In fact, everywhere where colonial powers established a consistent and continued presence, notable examples in Asia include the Anglo-Burmese, Anglo-Indian, Eurasian Singaporean, Filipino mestizo and Macanese peoples.
In the Dutch East Indies the vast majority of Dutch settlers were in fact Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans, the Other, or othering is the process of creating a separate entity to persons or groups who are labelled as different or non-normal due to the repetition of characteristics. Othering is the creation from those who discriminate, to distinguish, several scholars in recent decades developed the notion of the other as an epistemological concept in social theory. For example, postcolonial scholars, believed that colonizing powers explained an ‘other’ who were there to dominate, political geographers explain how colonial/ imperial powers othered places they wanted to dominate to legalize their exploitation of the land. During the rise of colonialism and after, post colonialism, the Western powers perspectives of the East as the other and this viewpoint and separation of culture had divided the Eastern and Western culture creating a dominant/ subordinate dynamic, both being the other towards themselves.
The word metropole comes from the Greek metropolis —mother city, the word colony comes from the Latin colonia—a place for agriculture