Moab is a city on the southern edge of Grand County in southeastern Utah in the western United States. The population was 5,046 at the 2010 census, in 2017 the population was estimated to be 5,253, it is largest city in Grand County. Moab attracts a large number of tourists every year visitors to the nearby Arches and Canyonlands national parks; the town is a popular base for mountain bikers who ride the extensive network of trails including the Slickrock Trail, for off-roaders who come for the annual Moab Jeep Safari. The Biblical name Moab refers to an area of land located on the eastern side of the Jordan River; some historians believe the city in Utah came to use this name because of William Andrew Peirce, the first postmaster, believing that the biblical Moab and this part of Utah were both "the far country". However, others believe the name has Paiute origins, referring to the word moapa, meaning "mosquito"; some of the area's early residents attempted to change the city's name, because in the Christian Bible, Moabites are demeaned as incestuous and idolatrous.
One petition in 1890 had 59 signatures and requested a name change to "Vina". Another effort attempted to change the name to "Uvadalia". Both attempts failed. During the period between 1829 and the early 1850s, the area around what is now Moab served as the Colorado River crossing along the Old Spanish Trail. Latter-day Saint settlers attempted to establish a trading fort at the river crossing called the Elk Mountain Mission in April 1855 to trade with travellers attempting to cross the river. Forty men were called on this mission. There were repeated Indian attacks, including one on September 23, 1855, in which James Hunt, companion to Peter Stubbs, was shot and killed by a Native American. After this last attack, the fort was abandoned. A new round of settlers from Rich County, led by Randolph Hockaday Stewart, established a permanent settlement in 1878 under the direction of Brigham Young. Moab was incorporated as a town on December 20, 1902. In 1883 the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad main line was constructed across eastern Utah.
The rail line did not pass through Moab, instead passing through the towns of Thompson Springs and Cisco, 40 miles to the north. Other places to cross the Colorado were constructed, such as Lee's Ferry, Navajo Bridge and Boulder Dam; these changes shifted. Moab farmers and merchants had to adapt from trading with passing travelers to shipping their goods to distant markets. Soon Moab's origins as one of the few natural crossings of the Colorado River were forgotten; the U. S. military deemed the bridge over the Colorado River at Moab important enough to place it under guard as late as World War II. In 1943, a former Civilian Conservation Corps camp outside Moab was used to confine Japanese American internees labeled "troublemakers" by authorities in the War Relocation Authority, the government body responsible for overseeing the wartime incarceration program; the Moab Isolation Center for "noncompliant" Japanese Americans was created in response to growing resistance to WRA policies within the camps.
On January 11, 1943, the sixteen men who had initiated the two-day protests were transferred to Moab from the town jails where they were booked after the riot. Having closed just fifteen months prior, all 18 military-style structures of the CCC camp were in good condition, the site was converted to its new use with minimal renovation. 150 military police guarded the camp, director Raymond Best and head of security Francis Frederick presided over administration. On February 18, thirteen transfers from Gila River, were brought to Moab, six days ten more arrived from Manzanar. An additional fifteen Tule Lake inmates were transferred on April 2. Most of these new arrivals were removed from the general camp population because of their resistance to the WRA's attempts to determine the loyalty of incarcerated Japanese Americans, met with confusion and anger because of a lack of explanation as to how and why internees would be assessed; the Moab Isolation Center remained open until April 27, when most of its inmates were bused to the larger and more secure Leupp Isolation Center.
In 1994, the "Dalton Wells CCC Camp/Moab Relocation Center" was added to the National Register of Historic Places, although no marker exists on the site, an information plaque at the current site entrance and a photograph on display at the Dan O'Laurie Museum in Moab mention the former isolation center. Moab's economy was based on agriculture, but shifted to mining. Uranium and vanadium were discovered in the area in the 1920s. Potash and manganese came next, oil and gas were discovered. In the 1950s Moab became the so-called "Uranium Capital of the World" after geologist Charles Steen found a rich deposit of uranium ore south of the city; this discovery coincided with the advent of the era of nuclear weapons and nuclear power in the United States, Moab's boom years began. The city population grew nearly 500% over the next few years, bringing the population to near 6,000 people; the explosion in population caused much construction of schools. Charles Steen donated a great deal of money and land to create new houses and
National Register of Historic Places property types
The U. S. National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and structure. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, hotel, church or similar construction.
The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house. Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; as such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site; the National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of non-contributing properties.
Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures and sites within a historic district are thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts. Some NRHP-listed historic districts are further designated as National Historic Landmarks, termed National Historic Landmark Districts. All National Historic Landmarks are NRHP-listed. A contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments and fountains. Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register; the setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register. Sites may include discrete areas significant for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes, other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure. Sites possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion.
A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined. Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge; the criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss and supporting piers. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed abo
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service; the department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is David Bernhardt, who serves in an acting capacity, concurrently serves in the Department as Deputy Secretary; the Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are responsible for police matters and internal security.
In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice secondarily. The Department of the Interior has been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State; the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk's Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do, he noted that the General Land Office had little to do with the Treasury and highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, the Patent Office, part of the Department of State.
Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, spent just over two weeks in the Senate; the department was established on March 3, 1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylor's inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill; the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the domestic concerns the department dealt with were transferred to other departments. For example, the Department of Interior was responsible for water pollution control prior to the creation of the EPA. Other agencies became separate departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which became the Department of Agriculture; however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the department managed 507 million acres of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special Trustee; the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin; the department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the Trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury, in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit.
Some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010, which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases; the $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009; as important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell. Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance Office of International Affairs Office of Native Hawaiian Relations Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment Office of Policy Analysis National Invasive Species Council Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance and Acquisiti
National Register of Historic Places listings in Florida
There are more than 1,700 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida. They are distributed through 66 of the state's 67 counties. Of these, 42 are National Historic Landmarks; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. The following are approximate tallies of current listings in Florida on the National Register of Historic Places; these counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 20, 2018 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places website. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings and the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. Florida Underwater Archaeological Preserve List of botanical gardens in Florida List of Florida state parks List of National Historic Landmarks in Florida List of operating lighthouses in Florida List of Woman's Clubhouses in Florida on the National Register of Historic Places National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Submissions in Florida List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Florida National Historic Landmarks Program Florida's Shipwrecks - 300 Years of Maritime History National Register: Aboard the Underground Railroad NRHP profiles by county
Arches National Park
Arches National Park is a national park in eastern Utah, United States. The park is adjacent to the Colorado River, 4 miles north of Utah. More than 2,000 natural sandstone arches are located in the park, including the well-known Delicate Arch, as well as a variety of unique geological resources and formations; the park contains the highest density of natural arches in the world. The park consists of 76,679 acres of high desert located on the Colorado Plateau; the highest elevation in the park is 5,653 feet at Elephant Butte, the lowest elevation is 4,085 feet at the visitor center. The park receives an average of less than 10 inches of rain annually. Administered by the National Park Service, the area was named a national monument on April 12, 1929, was redesignated as a national park on November 12, 1971; the park received more than 1.6 million visitors in 2018. The national park lies above an underground evaporite layer or salt bed, the main cause of the formation of the arches, balanced rocks, sandstone fins, eroded monoliths in the area.
This salt bed is thousands of feet thick in places, was deposited in the Paradox Basin of the Colorado Plateau some 300 million years ago when a sea flowed into the region and evaporated. Over millions of years, the salt bed was covered with debris eroded from the Uncompahgre Uplift to the northeast. During the Early Jurassic, desert conditions prevailed in the region and the vast Navajo Sandstone was deposited. An additional sequence of stream-laid and windblown sediments, the Entrada Sandstone, was deposited on top of the Navajo. Over 5,000 feet of younger sediments were deposited and have been eroded away. Remnants of the cover exist in the area including exposures of the Cretaceous Mancos Shale; the arches of the area are developed within the Entrada formation. The weight of this cover caused the salt bed below it to liquefy and thrust up layers of rock into salt domes; the evaporites of the area formed more unusual linear regions of uplift. Faulting occurred and whole sections of rock subsided into the areas between the domes.
In some places, they turned on edge. The result of one such 2,500-foot displacement, the Moab Fault, is seen from the visitor center; as this subsurface movement of salt shaped the landscape, erosion removed the younger rock layers from the surface. Except for isolated remnants, the major formations visible in the park today are the salmon-colored Entrada Sandstone, in which most of the arches form, the buff-colored Navajo Sandstone; these are visible in layer-cake fashion throughout most of the park. Over time, water seeped into the surface cracks and folds of these layers. Ice formed in the fissures and putting pressure on surrounding rock, breaking off bits and pieces. Winds cleaned out the loose particles. A series of free-standing fins remained. Wind and water attacked these fins until, in some, the cementing material gave way and chunks of rock tumbled out. Many damaged fins collapsed. Others, with the right degree of hardness and balance, survived despite their missing sections; these became the famous arches.
Although the park's terrain may appear rugged and durable, it is fragile. More than 1 million visitors each year threaten the fragile high-desert ecosystem; the problem lies within the soil's crust, composed of cyanobacteria, algae and lichens that grow in the dusty parts of the park. Factors that make Arches National Park sensitive to visitor damage include being a semiarid region, the scarce, unpredictable rainfall, lack of deep freezing, lack of plant litter, which results in soils that have both a low resistance to, slow recovery from, compressional forces such as foot traffic. Methods of indicating effects on the soil are cytophobic soil crust index, measuring of water infiltration, t-tests that are used to compare the values from the undisturbed and disturbed areas. Humans have occupied the region since the last ice age 10,000 years ago. Fremont people and Ancient Pueblo People lived in the area until about 700 years ago. Spanish missionaries encountered Ute and Paiute tribes in the area when they first came through in 1775, but the first European-Americans to attempt settlement in the area were the Mormon Elk Mountain Mission in 1855, who soon abandoned the area.
Ranchers and prospectors settled Moab in the neighboring Riverine Valley in the 1880s. Word of the beauty of the surrounding rock formations spread beyond the settlement as a possible tourist destination; the Arches area was first brought to the attention of the National Park Service by Frank A. Wadleigh, passenger traffic manager of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. Wadleigh, accompanied by railroad photographer George L. Beam, visited the area in September 1923 at the invitation of Alexander Ringhoffer, a Hungarian-born prospector living in Salt Valley. Ringhoffer had written to the railroad in an effort to interest them in the tourist potential of a scenic area he had discovered the previous year with his two sons and a son-in-law, which he called the "Devil's Garden". Wadleigh was impressed by what Ringhoffer showed him, suggested to Park Service director Stephen T. Mather that the area be made a national monument; the following year, additional support for the monument idea came from Laurence Gould, a University of Michigan graduate student studying the geology of the nearby La Sal Mountains, shown the scenic area by local physician Dr. J. W. "Doc" Williams.
A succession of government investigators examined the area, in part due to confusion
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis
National Register of Historic Places listings in Alaska
This is a list of properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Alaska. There are 400 listed sites in Alaska; each of the state's 28 boroughs and census areas has at least two listings on the National Register, except for the Kusilvak Census Area, which has none. This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019; the following are approximate tallies of current listings in Alaska on the National Register of Historic Places. These counts are based on entries in the National Register Information Database as of April 24, 2008 and new weekly listings posted since on the National Register of Historic Places web site. There are frequent additions to the listings and occasional delistings, the counts here are not official; the counts in this table exclude boundary increase and decrease listings which modify the area covered by an existing property or district and which carry a separate National Register reference number. List of National Historic Landmarks in Alaska Aviation history in Alaska — National Register of Historic Places travel itinerary