Aliquippa is a city in Beaver County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, located on the Ohio River in the western portions of the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 9,438 at the 2010 census. Aliquippa was founded by the merger of three towns: Aliquippa and New Sheffield. There is no known direct connection between the city. Aliquippa is best known as the location of a productive steel mill that the Jones and Laughlin Steel Company constructed there along the Ohio River beginning in 1905. Employment at the facility sustained a population of 27,023 in 1940; the mill closed during the collapse of the steel industry during the 1980s. This major economic loss alongside suburbanization caused a major population loss through the end of the 20th century; the oldest church within the current boundaries of Aliquippa is Mt. Carmel Presbyterian Church, established about 1793 in the New Sheffield region on Brodhead Road. Many of the city's businesses have left since the closing of the mill.
This has left the city economically depressed, with the crime rate rising over time. Aliquippa was formally named a city in 1987 by the Aliquippa Borough Council; the B. F. Jones Memorial Library is a historical landmark of the community; as of the 2010 census, the city had 9,438 people. The city was 57.6% White, 38.6% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.8% were two or more races. 1.3% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,734 people, 5,124 households, 3,176 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,867.7 people per square mile. There were 5,843 housing units at an average density of 1,428.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 62.59% White, 35.52% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 5,124 households, out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.7% were married couples living together, 21.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families.
Of all households 35.0% were made up of individuals, 17.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 22.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,113, the median income for a family was $34,003. Males had a median income of $27,954 versus $21,358 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,718. About 17.7% of families and 21.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.3% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. Aliquippa is landlocked by Hopewell Township. Across the Ohio River, the city runs adjacent with, from north to south, the borough of Baden, Harmony Township and the borough of Ambridge which connects to Aliquippa via Ambridge-Aliquippa Bridge.
Gust Avrakotos, Central Intelligence Agency operative Jon Baldwin, National Football League player Tommie Campbell, NFL player Daniel Chamovitz, noted biologist and author of What a Plant Knows Francis J. D'Eramo, Judge at the United States Virgin Islands Superior Court on St. Croix. Mike Ditka, Pro Football Hall of Fame player and coach Tony Dorsett, Pro Football Hall of Fame player Kenny Easterday, star of the Canadian movie Kenny Ivor Parry Evans, base commander, Walker AFB Tito Francona, Major League Baseball player James Frank, the first African-American president of the NCAA Sean Gilbert, NFL player Frank Gnup, Canadian football player and coach Nate Guenin, National Hockey League player Frank Hribar, player Ty Law, NFL player Joe Letteri, award-winning visual imaging artist Henry Mancini and Oscar-winning music composer, born in Cleveland, raised in Aliquippa Pete Maravich, Basketball Hall of Fame player Press Maravich, basketball coach Demetria Martinez and author Felicia Mason, author Doc Medich, MLB pitcher Dr John L. Miller, local doctor, Aliquippa HS team doctor, city councilman State Senator, John Carl Miller, PA State Senator 1950-1968 Paul Posluszny, NFL player Darrelle Revis, NFL player Aaron Shust, Contemporary Christian Music artist Curt Singer, NFL player Jesse Steinfeld, Surgeon General of the United States Pete Suder, MLB player Tim Shaffer, Famous 410 Sprint Car Driver Robert Wykes, classical flautist Nick Bernardi, 2020 Mayoral candidate The city's residents are served by the Aliquippa School District.
Children may choose to attend a public charter school: Beaver Area Academic Charter School, Lincoln Park Performing Arts Charter School, or the Pennsylvania Cyber Charter School, a statewide public charter school based in Midland. Bethel Christian School Hope Christian Academy Sylvania Hills Christian List of cities and towns along the Ohio River Feature in Sports Illustrated in January 2011, http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1181210/index.htm City of Aliquippa website
Darlington is a borough in Beaver County, United States. The population was 254 at the 2010 census, it is part of PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Darlington was incorporated on 28 March 1820, as Greersburg, it adopted its current name on 6 April 1830. Darlington is named for a merchant from Pittsburgh. Darlington is located at 40°48′36″N 80°25′24″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 299 people, 122 households, 79 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,217.7 people per square mile. There were 130 housing units at an average density of 1,399.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97.99% White, 0.67% Asian, 0.67% from other races, 0.67% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.67% of the population. There were 122 households, out of which 28.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families.
32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.14. In the borough the population was spread out, with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 21.1% from 45 to 64, 18.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.5 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $30,125, the median income for a family was $38,750. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $22,000 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $15,938. About 3.9% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under the age of eighteen and 9.7% of those sixty five or over. Greersburg Academy Daniel Leasure William Swan Plumer
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Darlington Township, Beaver County, Pennsylvania
Darlington Township is a township in Beaver County, United States. The population was 1,962 at the 2010 census. Darlington and South Beaver townships are connected by the Watts Mill Bridge over Little Beaver Creek; the bridge is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 22.0 square miles, of which 22.0 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles, or 0.33%, is water. Portions of the Pennsylvania State Game Lands Number 285 are located in the township. Darlington Township has nine borders, including Little Beaver Township and Enon Valley to the north, Big Beaver and New Galilee to the east, a small border with Chippewa Township to the southeast, South Beaver Township to the south, the Columbiana County, Ohio townships of Middleton and Unity to the west; the borough of Darlington is situated within Darlingtown Township near the southeastern corner. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,974 people, 782 households, 570 families residing in the township.
The population density was 89.6 people per square mile. There were 847 housing units at an average density of 38.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 99.44% White, 0.10% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.15% of the population. There were 782 households, out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.0% were non-families. 24.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.95. In the township the population was spread out, with 23.0% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $38,011, the median income for a family was $43,875. Males had a median income of $31,815 versus $21,336 for females; the per capita income for the township was $18,173. About 8.1% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Darlington Township official website
Bridgewater Historic District (Bridgewater, Pennsylvania)
The Bridgewater Historic District is a historic district in Bridgewater, United States. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 28, 1996, it includes buildings built between 1818 and 1933, although the most significant buildings in the district are those that were built before the Civil War in the 1860s. Located at the confluence of the Ohio and Beaver Rivers, Bridgewater was a transportation center as the terminus of the Bridgewater Canal during the pre-Civil War era; this prosperity is reflected in many of the district's buildings: the adjacent communities of Beaver and Rochester were less significant during that time, accordingly have a much smaller number of period buildings. The district includes the Bridgewater-Rochester Bridge, a canal lock for the Bridgewater Canal, 97 buildings. Among its contributing properties are three churches, the Keystone Bakery, the William B. Dunlap Mansion, separately listed on the Register; because the bridge spans the Beaver River to Rochester, a small portion of the district is located in Rochester.
Another building in the district is the house of Joseph Hemphill, a local landowner who platted much of Bridgewater in 1818. Built in 1818, it is Bridgewater's oldest extant house. During Bridgewater's heyday, Bridge Street was a vibrant downtown street, its buildings housed a wide variety of businesses, ranging from offices to stores to metalworking shops. Among the leading businesses of Bridge Street, the Keystone Bakery, was once the largest bakery in Western Pennsylvania outside of Pittsburgh and Allegheny. Now located on Market Street, Keystone left Bridge Street in 1884 because of its rapid expansion; the Bridgewater United Methodist Church was organized in 1839 and built its first building in the same year. Its current building, a Gothic Revival structure located on Market Street, was erected in 1907. First Presbyterian Church worships in a Romanesque Revival church at the western end of Bridge Street; the congregation was founded as the result of an 1845 split in the Presbyterian church in Rochester.
Built in 1845 and remodelled several times since, the church remains in use to the present day
A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. A total of 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems. 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 125 in Canada, others in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Belgium, the Caribbean, Mauritius and Fiji. At first, Carnegie libraries were exclusively in places where he had a personal connection - namely his birthplace in Scotland and the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, his adopted home-town. Yet, beginning in the middle of 1899, Carnegie increased funding to libraries outside these areas. In years few towns that requested a grant and agreed to his terms were refused. By the time the last grant was made in 1919, there were 3,500 libraries in the United States, nearly half of them built with construction grants paid by Carnegie; the first of Carnegie's public libraries, Dunfermline Carnegie Library was in his birthplace, Scotland.
It was first commissioned or granted by Carnegie in 1880 to James Campbell Walker and would open in 1883. The locally quarried sandstone building displays a stylized sun with the carved motto "Let there be light" at the front entrance; the first library in the United States to be commissioned by Carnegie was in 1886 in his adopted hometown of Allegheny, Pennsylvania. In 1890, it became the second of his libraries to open in the USA; the building contained the first Carnegie Music Hall in the World. The first Carnegie library to open in the United States was in Braddock, about 9 miles up the Monongahela river from Pittsburgh, home to one of the Carnegie Steel Company's mills in 1889, it was the second Carnegie Library in the United States to be commissioned, 1887, was the first of just four libraries that he endowed. An 1893 addition doubled the size of the building and included the third Carnegie Music Hall in the United States. Carnegie limited his support to a few towns in which he had an interest.
These would be in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area. In America, 6 out of the first 7, 7 of the first 10, 9 of the first 13 libraries he commissioned are all found in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Architectural critic Patricia Lowry wrote "to this day, Carnegie's free-to-the-people libraries remain Pittsburgh's most significant cultural export, a gift that has shaped the minds and lives of millions."Until 1898, only one library was commissioned in America outside Southwestern Pennsylvania—a library in Fairfield, commissioned in 1892. As the first time that Carnegie had funded a library in which he had no personal ties, it helped initiate the funding model that would be used by Carnegie for thousands of additional libraries. Beginning in 1899, his foundation funded a dramatic increase in the number of libraries; this coincided with the rise of women's clubs in the post-Civil War period, which were most responsible for organizing efforts to establish libraries, including long-term fundraising and lobbying within their communities to support operations and collections.
They led the establishment of 75–80 percent of the libraries in communities across the country. Carnegie believed in giving to ambitious. Under segregation black people were denied access to public libraries in the Southern United States. Rather than insisting on his libraries being racially integrated, Carnegie funded separate libraries for African Americans. For example, in Houston he funded a separate Colored Carnegie Library; the Carnegie Library in Savannah, opened in 1914 to serve black residents, excluded from the public library. The organized Colored Library Association of Savannah had raised money and collected books to establish a small Library for Colored Citizens. Having demonstrated their willingness to support a library, the group petitioned for and received funds from Carnegie. Future U. S. Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas wrote in his memoirs that he used it as a boy, before the library system was desegregated. Most of the library buildings were unique, constructed in a number of styles, including Beaux-Arts, Italian Renaissance, Classical Revival, Spanish Colonial.
Scottish Baronial was one of the styles used in Carnegie's native Scotland. Each style was chosen by the community, although as the years went by James Bertram, Carnegie's secretary, became less tolerant of designs which were not to his taste. Edward Lippincott Tilton, a friend recommended by Bertram, designed many of the buildings; the architecture was simple and formal, welcoming patrons to enter through a prominent doorway, nearly always accessed via a staircase. The entry staircase symbolized a person's elevation by learning. Outside every library was a lamppost or lantern, meant as a symbol of enlightenment. Carnegie’s grants were large for the era and his library philanthropy is one of the largest philanthropic activities, by value, in history. Small towns received grants of $10,000 that enabled them to build large libraries that were among the most significant town amenities in hundreds of communities. Books and libraries were important to Carnegie, beginning with his early childhood in Scotland and his teen years in Allegheny/Pittsburgh.
There he listened to readings and discussions of books from the Tradesman's Subscription Library, which his father helped create. In Pennsylvania, while working for the l
David Littell House
The David Littell House is a historic house in Hanover Township in the southwestern part of Beaver County, United States. Built in 1851, the house is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Littell House was erected by the local builders Hayward and Cain on land owned by the Littell family for several generations. William Littell was among the area's first settlers, having received a warrant for the tract of land where the house was built after his service in the Revolutionary War, he was a prominent member of the local community, owning wide lands in the area and serving as a justice of the peace after 1795. Littell donated some of his grant for the location of the Service Associate Presbyterian Church and Seminary, which joined the United Presbyterian Church of North America at its formation in 1858. After his death, his son David — a leading member of the Service church — inherited the land. Besides agriculture, the property was the location of a tannery, in business at the time of the house's construction, and, profitable enough to make Littell a rich man.
The Littell House remained in the Littell family after David's death, passing successively into the hands of his son and great-granddaughter. Because the names of its builders are known, the history of the David Littell House is better known than that of most rural period houses in its vicinity. In 1986, the David Littell House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it received this recognition due to its unique degree of preservation, as it was one of few nineteenth-century houses remaining in Hanover Township and the only one that had survived without major changes. The house was seen as a prime example of local history, as it remained a living example of early nineteenth-century industry and agriculture in the township. A Greek Revival house located along Pennsylvania Route 18 near the small community of Mechanicsburg, the Littell House is a typical two-story brick farmhouse of its era, it features a symmetrical house plan with a central hallway and two rooms on each side of the house, each of which has a fireplace and two windows to the front or back of the house.
Among its most unusual features is a hallway window on the second story, which includes details built in a way common in houses of the period but quite rare in Western Pennsylvanian farmhouses. The roof was flat or sloped. Although the house has been altered in other ways since its construction, these changes have been insignificant — for example, replacing the shingled roof with slates and adding a new front door to protect the interior — and have had little or no effect on the house's historic integrity; the Littell property includes four significant sites in addition to the house. Littell did not build a house at the current location: three previous house sites are located on the same property. Moreover, a group of three pits used for drying hides in the tannery is located near the southeastern corner of the property. Located on the property are a barn, a garage, an outhouse, two wooden sheds.