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Flag of Berlin

The flag of Berlin has three stripes of red-white-red, the two outer stripes each occupying a fifth of its height, the middle the remaining three fifths. It is emblazoned with a bear on the civil flag, while it bears the coat of arms of Berlin on the state flag; the civil flag of West Berlin was adopted on 26 May 1954. Designed by Ottfried Neubecker, it came in second in the contest of 1952, the winner being rejected by the Senate; the bear is placed off-center toward the left. A bear occurs on seals and signet rings from as early as the late 12th century due to a canting association with the city's name; the state flag replaces the bear with the full coat of arms, with the bear inside the escutcheon. Being the state flag for West Berlin, it became the flag of the entire city after the reunification of Germany in 1990. Prior to that, it had been the naval ensign as no other existing flag could be used; the proportions of the flag are 3:5. Between 1618 and 1861 a bicolour of black over white was used as both a civil and state flag, under Brandenburg and successive Prussian rules.

Between 1861 and 1912, a horizontal tricolour of black and white was used in the proportions of 2:3. It was designed by Ernst Fidicin based in the Brandenburg colors following the coronation of Wilhelm I on 19 December 1861. Between 1913 and 1954, the civil flag was similar to the current one, except the design of the bear was different; until 1935, the emblem itself was not established. From 1955 on, East Berlin had the addition of two white stripes taking the outside halves of the upper and lower red stripes, a different design for the bear inside an escutcheon, topped with a crown; the East Berlin flag was therefore a modified version of the old state flag, with the civil flag being deliberately avoided in East Berlin—and conversely, adopted as official in West Berlin—due to the bear in the civil flag being off-center to the left and facing left suggesting an orientation toward the West. The West Berlin flag was adopted for all of Berlin after 1990. Berolina, personification of Berlin

Francis de Havilland Hall

Francis de Havilland Hall was an English physician and laryngologist. After education at Bruce Castle School, Francis de Havilland Hall entered in 1866 St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School. There, Hall qualified MRCS, LSA in 1868, he graduated MB and in 1872 graduated MD. From 1868 to 1878 he held house appointments at St Bartholomew's Hospital. After a brief time in general practice, Hall became in 1875 a medical registrar at the Westminster Hospital. There he was, for about twenty years, assistant physician in charge of the throat department and became in 1896 full physician in 1896, retiring in 1912 as consulting physician. At the Westminster Hospital Medical School he lectured on the principles and practice of medicine. Although a specialist in throat diseases — his best known work was Diseases of the Nose and Throat — he displayed his all-round knowledge as an authority on life assurance, being elected president of the Assurance Medical Officers’ Association. In 1879 in Tunbridge Wells, he married Amy Margaret Smith.

Upon his death in 1929 he was survived by his widow, one son, three daughters, but his younger son died of wounds in WWI. 1881 — elected FRCP 1903–1904 — presidency of the Medical Society of London 1913 — Lumleian Lecturer on Intrathoracic Aneurysm Hall, F. D.. "The Bearing of Albuminuria on Life Assurance". British Medical Journal. 1: 348. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1416.348. PMC 2197491. PMID 20752196. Hall, F. D.. "Erysipelas of the Pharynx and Larynx". British Medical Journal. 1: 434–436. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1626.434. PMC 2419826. PMID 20753570. Hall, F. D.. "Rhinoliths". British Medical Journal. 1: 205. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1674.205-b. PMC 2402505. Hall, F. D.. "The Sympathetic in Graves's Disease". British Medical Journal. 2: 970. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1713.970-a. PMC 2422347. Hall, F. D.. "Antitoxin Treatment of Diphtheria". British Medical Journal. 2: 513. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1757.513. PMC 2404751. Hall, F. D.. "Hoarseness in Life Assurance". British Medical Journal. 1: 330. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1728.330. PMC 2403601. Hall, F. D.. "The Lettsomian Lectures on Diseases of the Nose and Throat in Relation to General Medicine: Delivered before the Medical Society of London".

British Medical Journal. 1: 319–324. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1884.319. PMC 2432915. PMID 20756788. Hall, F. D.. "The Lettsomian Lectures on Diseases of the Nose and Throat in Relation to General Medicine: Delivered before the Medical Society of London". British Medical Journal. 1: 448–453. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1886.448. PMC 2433043. PMID 20756815. Hall, F. D.. "The Lettsomian Lectures on Diseases of the Nose and Throat in Relation to General Medicine: Delivered before the Medical Society of London". British Medical Journal. 1: 579–584. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.1888.579. PMC 2433156. PMID 20756846. Hall, F. D.. "Medical Sickness and Accident Society". British Medical Journal. 2: 117. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1958.117. PMC 2433981. Hall, F. D.. "Functional Aphonia in a Male". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 1: 77–78. PMC 2046110. PMID 19973031. Hall, F. D.. "An Address ON ACUTE RHEUMATISM, ITS ALLIES AND ITS COUNTERFEITS". British Medical Journal. 1: 1161–1165. Doi:10.1136/bmj.1.2524.1161. PMC 2319046. PMID 20764469. Hall, F. D.. "A Case of Chloroma: With Pathological Report".

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2: 157–176. PMC 2046590. PMID 19973748. Hall, F. D.. "Splenectomy for Splenic Anæmia". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2: 238–239. Doi:10.1177/003591570900200189. PMC 2047079. PMID 19973418. Hall, F. D.. "The Medical Sickness Society". British Medical Journal. 2: 176. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2585.176-a. PMC 2335553. Hall, F. D.. "Bleeding and Blistering". British Medical Journal. 2: 1422. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2707.1422-b. PMC 2334744. Hall, F. D.. "Cure by Laughter". British Medical Journal. 2: 967. Doi:10.1136/bmj.2.2754.967-c. PMC 2346276