Carlisle Indian Industrial School
All of the school property, known as the Carlisle Barracks, is now a part of the U. S. Army War College. Founded in 1879 by Captain Richard Henry Pratt under authority of the US federal government, in this period, many people believed that Amerindians, a population that was numerically declining, were a vanishing race whose only hope for survival was rapid assimilation to American culture. After witnessing the success of the Indian students at Hampton Normal and Agricultural School, General Richard Henry Pratt decided to establish the first all Indian school, Carlisle. Carlisle was built out of a military barracks. Like Hampton, upon arrival at Carlisle students’ hair were cut, nlike Hampton, whose purpose was to return assimilated educated Indians to their people, Carlisle meant to turn the school into the ultimate Americanizer. At Carlisle, Pratt attempted to Kill the Indian, Save the Man through any means necessary, beyond a typical military regimen, Pratt was known to use corporal punishment on students who exhibited Native behaviors to help students become only dependent on themselves.
Carlisle became the model for 26 Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools in 15 states and territories and it has been designated a National Historic Landmark. From 1879 until 1918, over 10,000 Native American children from 140 tribes attended Carlisle, according to one source, tribes with the largest number of students included the Lakota, Seneca, Cherokee, Apache and Alaska Native. The Carlisle Indian School exemplified Progressive Era values, some Native Americans believed Carlisle provided an excellent education. Since the 1970s, Native American nations have taken control of the education of their children and started their own schools. At the same time, more Native Americans are living in urban environments, Pratts Fort Marion experiment was becoming influential. Distinguished visitors began to visit from all over the country, Commissioner of education came to see firsthand what Pratt was doing, and so did the president of Amherst College. Pratts Fort Marion program convinced him that distant education was the way to totally assimilate the Indian.
He wrote, the Indian is born a blank, like all the rest of us, transfer the savage born infant to the surroundings of a civilization and he will grow to possess a civilized language and habit. Witmer writes, If all men are created equal, why were blacks segregated in separate regiments, why werent all men given equal opportunities and allowed to assume their rightful place in society. Race became a meaningless abstraction in his mind, Pratt believed an industrial school model similar to Hampton would be useful for educating and assimilating Native Americans. Give me three hundred young Indians and a place in one of our best communities, and let me prove it, Carlisle Barracks in Pennsylvania, has been abandoned for a number of years. It is in the heart of fine agricultural country, the people are kindly disposed, and long free from the universal border prejudice against Indians
Hessian Powder Magazine
It was built in 1777, and is a stone walled structure, lined with interior brick. It measures 70 feet by 32 feet and the walls are 4 1/2-feet thick and it has a vaulted stone roof, covered by timbers and tin to take a gable form. Tradition says that some Hessian Prisoners of war, captured at the Battle of Trenton were sent to Carlisle and they were used to build this guard house, originally a magazine. It was probably first used as a guardhouse in the 1870s, afterwards, it was used as a quartermaster and medical supply storehouse, filmstrip laboratory, message center, and U. S. post office. It was designated a museum in 1948 and it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. History and information - US Army Heritage and Education Center
Hampden Township, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania
Hampden Township is the largest municipality by population in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 28,044 at the 2010 census, up from 24,135 at the 2000 census, the Johannes Eberly House was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Blue Mountain separates the township in the north from Perry County and its villages include Brennemans Mill, Good Hope, Mount Zion, and Sporting Hill. Interstate 81 crosses the northern part of the township, with access from Exit 61 at Mount Zion. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has an area of 17.9 square miles, of which 17.3 square miles is land and 0.54 square miles. The population density was 1,558 people per square mile, there were 12,261 housing units at an average density of 681. 1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 88. 9% White,1. 7% African American,0. 1% Native American,7. 1% Asian,0. 0% Pacific Islander,0. 6% from other races, and 0. 2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2. 0% of the population,25. 4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the family size was 2.94. In the township the population was out, with 23. 2% under the age of 18,9. 6% from 18 to 24,25. 2% from 25 to 44,31. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 42.6 years, for every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males, the median income for a household in the township was $85,284, and the median income for a family was $105,121. Males had an income of $62,566 versus $51,473 for females. The per capita income for the township was $42,955, about 1. 2% of families and 3. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2. 6% of those under age 18 and 3. 1% of those age 65 or over. Hampden Township became a first class township on Jan 1,1960, the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections has its headquarters in the township. Hampden Township is served by the Cumberland Valley School District, Hampden Pool and Park Creekview Recreation Area Salem Community Park Conodoguinet Youth Park The township manages Armitage Golf Club, a 70-par course located along Orrs Bridge Road.
Indian Creek Park Pinebrook Neighborhood Park Hampden Township official website Hampden Township Recreation Department Armitage Golf Club Cumberland Valley School District
Mount Holly Springs, Pennsylvania
Mount Holly Springs is a borough in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 2,030 at the 2010 census and it is part of the Harrisburg–Carlisle Metropolitan Statistical Area. Mount Holly Springs is located in south-central Cumberland County at 40°6′58″N 77°11′12″W, Mountain Creek runs through the center of the borough, exiting the mountains via a water gap between Mount Holly to the west and Keller Hill to the east. Mountain Creek is a tributary of Yellow Breeches Creek, which flows east to the Susquehanna River, the borough limits extend south through the water gap to the Upper Mill area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 1.5 square miles, of which 1.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles. The borough is surrounded by South Middleton Township but is a separate municipality, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,925 people,836 households, and 541 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,276.8 people per square mile, there were 926 housing units at an average density of 614.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the borough was 97. 82% White,0. 88% African American,0. 05% Native American,0. 52% Asian,0. 31% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 19% of the population. 29. 4% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.86. In the borough the population was out, with 24. 5% under the age of 18,6. 5% from 18 to 24,34. 1% from 25 to 44,22. 6% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.6 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $40,625, and the median income for a family was $48,333. Males had an income of $33,731 versus $25,262 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $19,229, about 5. 4% of families and 6. 0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12. 9% of those under age 18 and 6. 0% of those age 65 or over. Amelia S. Givin Free Library, an example of Richardsonian Romanesque architecture, sid Bream played first base in Major League Baseball.
He grew up in Mount Holly, borough of Mount Holly Springs official website Photos and History of Mt. Holly Springs
Yellow Breeches Creek
Yellow Breeches Creek, known as Minnimingo Creek, is a 56. 1-mile-long tributary of the Susquehanna River in central Pennsylvania, USA. In 1718 Peter Chartier and his father Martin established a trading post about a mile north of the Yellow Breeches along the Susquehanna River, chartiers Landing was located just off the river between what are now 15th and 16th Streets in New Cumberland, Pennsylvania. Yellow Breeches Creek rises on the side of South Mountain, in the Michaux State Forest. It flows north through Walnut Bottom and turns east to run down the Cumberland Valley and it passes through Huntsdale, site of the Huntsdale State Fish Hatchery. The creek begins to meander, and swings around the side of Mount Holly Springs. Just below the town, it is joined by Mountain Creek, old Town Run enters just before the creek passes along the south side of Boiling Springs and the spring-fed lake that gives the town its name. The Boiling Springs Lake tributary enters Yellow Breeches Creek east of the town, the tributarys crystal clear water is a popular trout fishing spot.
The creek passes through Williams Grove and meets Dogwood Run just downstream, below Williams Grove, it forms the boundary between Cumberland and York counties. It flows through the campus of Messiah College, is joined by Stony Run, pippins Run joins it, and it flows east to Lisburn, where it makes a sharp turn to flow northwest. It turns north, and makes a number of meanders to turn east, cedar Run enters near the top of the northernmost meander. It cuts east, emptying into the Susquehanna. Known for its fishing, the Yellow Breeches is a popular spot for fly fishers who flock to the mile-long catch. The Yellow Breeches is stocked by the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission as well as local fly shops, including Yellow Breeches Outfitters and it is one of the designated Pennsylvania Scenic Rivers. The Etters Bridge crosses Yellow Breeches Creek in Fairview Township and Lower Allen Township, the Gilbert Bridge crosses Yellow Breeches Creek in Monaghan Township, York County and Upper Allen Township, Pennsylvania
U.S. Route 11 in Pennsylvania
U. S. Route 11 roughly parallels Interstate 81 in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. Between those two cities, US11 follows the Susquehanna River, while I-81 follows a route over the mountains. US11 enters Pennsylvania parallel to Interstate 81 south of Greencastle in Antrim Township, the two routes head to the northeast, running parallel to each other as they pass through Chambersburg, where they intersect U. S. Route 30, and Carlisle. Northeast of Carlisle in Middlesex, US11 interchanges with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, the stretch of US11 between I-76 and I-81 is known as the Miracle Mile since it contains plenty of traveler services including restaurants, gas stations, truck stops, etc. There is no interchange between the two interstates, so travelers must use this stretch, or travel through downtown Carlisle, to get from one interstate to the other. US11, now to the south of I-81, continues eastward into the suburbs of Harrisburg as the Carlisle Pike. This road serves a major route in eastern Cumberland County.
Rumored to have originally been a Native American trail, it is now a significant center of urban sprawl serving much of Harrisburgs western suburbs, the road passes through Middlesex Township, the small unincorporated village of New Kingstown, Silver Spring and Hampden Township. Upon reaching Pennsylvania Route 581, US11 splits from Carlisle Pike, in Camp Hill, a close suburb of Harrisburg, US11 stops paralleling I-81 and joins U. S. Route 15 northward through the western suburbs of Harrisburg, crossing I-81 in this area. As the road exits the Harrisburg area, US11 and US15 begin to parallel the Susquehanna River as both head northward, Route 322 near Duncannon and U. S. Route 522 in Selinsgrove. The two routes remain overlapped to an intersection in Shamokin Dam, where US15 branches off to the northwest, US11, in contrast, continues to parallel the main Susquehanna River, passing through municipalities such as Danville and Berwick prior to reaching Wilkes-Barre. North of Wilkes-Barre in Pittston, US11 breaks from the Susquehanna, from Wilkes-Barre, the highway goes through nearby Scranton, becoming the North Scranton Expressway north of downtown.
It carried unsigned State Route 3027 until State Routes 0011 and 0307 were moved off their routes to match the signed US11. SR3027 still runs along Mulberry Street from Jefferson Avenue, where US11, in the northwest corner of Scranton, US11 intersects U. S. Route 6. US6 joins US11 westward to Factoryville, where US11 separates from US6 and this stretch was originally built from 1918-1922 on the old route of the Delaware and Western Railroad, and is called the Lackawanna Trail. Prior to 1941, US11 followed Walnut Bottom Road between Shippensburg and Carlisle while PA33 ran along the Governor Rittner Highway, in 1941, US11 and PA33 swapped alignments, with US11 moving to Governor Rittner Highway and PA33 moving to Walnut Bottom Road. Prior to 1989, US11 followed an older alignment bypassing Downtown Scranton, from Pittston Avenue, US11 turned right onto Moosic Street and climbed the hill. At Crown Avenue, it turned left, joining PA307 which was coming from the direction on Moosic Street
There is no industry, no mass-commercialization, and very little night life outside of the college. The population of Grantham is 85-90% between the ages of 18 and 25 years old - if you count the student population. The actual residents number between 600-650, a number of which are Messiah alumni, employees or parents of the same. R. After the noddle factory went out of business, the facility was used for aircraft parts and it was destroyed by fire prior to 1957 and stood derelict for many years, eventually it was demolished to provide a new maintenance facility for the growing college. Most of the oldest homes in downtown Grantham were built around 1915-17 to house workers for the factory, currently some of these older homes are used as rentals for college students and others, while others remain private homes. The original Grantham National Bank building still stands on Mill Road, the other early business was the mill, a large stone building built in 1775, located on a chase that feeds from Yellow Breeches Creek.
It was the closest place for farmers to bring their grain for milling, the mill is currently a private residence, the home of the original miller is being renovated as a private residence after being used by Messiah College students from about 2003 to 2007. As of 2007, the rest of the Griswold farm was being developed into a subdivision of single family homes. At the far edges of the community are some newer townhomes, summer weekend evenings are often punctuated by the roar of nearby Williams Grove Speedway, but traffic through town is now minimal, which allows for safe biking and walking along Granthams roads. An active Grantham Community Association meets regularly to address related to township zoning, town-gown relations. An annual yard sale weekend is posted to bring traffic to the town. The Gilbert Bridge was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989, Messiah College, Pennsylvania, a census-designated place covering the Messiah College campus but not Grantham proper
Irving Female College
Irving Female College, known as Irving Manor Apartments and Seidle Memorial Hospital, is a historic school complex located in Mechanicsburg in Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. The complex consists of two buildings, Irving Hall and Columbian Hall, Irving Hall is the older building, dating from about 1856. It is a three-story, U-shaped brick building with trim in the Italianate style. An extension to the building was built about 1900, Columbian Hall, built in 1893, is a three-story, rectangular brick building with a wood frame addition. It is in a combined Italianate / Spanish Renaissance Revival style and it features a projecting stair tower with a semi-conical roof. Both Irving Hall and Columbian Hall were converted to apartments in the late-1930s, the complex formerly included a third building, known as Argyle, which was the home of the Irving College president. Built in 1911, it was a rectangular Spanish Renaissance Revival style dwelling, with a low hipped roof, Argyle was demolished in 1991 to make room for expansion of Seidle Hospital.
The Irving College complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, Irving Female College was established in 1856, at a time when educational opportunities were expanding for women across the United States. Its founder was Mechanicsburg businessman Solomon Gorgas, who named the college in honor of the noted American author Washington Irving, Irving offered a traditional liberal arts education, culminating in either a Bachelor of Arts or a less rigorous Mistress of English Literature degree. Like many women’s colleges of the era, Irving ran preparatory classes for those who could not meet the requirements for admission. Low enrollment and poor management forced a closure of the college in 1883. It reopened in 1888 and prospered under the leadership of E. E. Campbell, for the next two decades, enrollment stayed consistently at or above 100 – residential and part-time students. In 1895 the college added a department and changed its name to Irving College. The curriculum expanded to include shorter secretarial and home economics courses, most graduates who found paid employment outside the home gravitated toward teaching.
In the 1920s, Irving College suffered from limited resources, competition from coeducational schools. It closed permanently after the 1929 graduation, alumnae held regular reunions into the 1990s. They donated their collection of memorabilia to the Joseph T. Simpson Public Library in Mechanicsburg