Nevada is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 34th most populous, nearly three-quarters of Nevadas people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the states four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada is officially known as the Silver State because of the importance of silver to its history and economy. It is known as the Battle Born State, because it achieved statehood during the Civil War, as the Sage-brush State, for the plant of the same name. Nevada borders Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, Nevada is largely desert and semi-arid, much of it located within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are located within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe, about 86% of the states land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute, the first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish. They called the region Nevada because of the snow covered the mountains in winter. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, and it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31,1864, as the second of two added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws, in 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century, Nevada is the only U. S.
state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevadas largest employer, with mining continuing as a sector of the economy. The name Nevada comes from the Spanish nevada, meaning snow-covered, most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the vowel of trap. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the vowel of father, although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators, the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. Nevada is almost entirely within the Basin and Range Province, and is broken up by many mountain ranges
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Goldfield is an unincorporated community and the county seat of Esmeralda County, United States. It is a place, with a resident population of 268 at the 2010 census. It is located 247 miles southeast of Carson City, along U. S. Route 95, Goldfield was a boomtown in the first decade of the 20th century due to the discovery of gold — between 1903 and 1940, Goldfields mines produced more than $86 million. Much of the town was destroyed by a fire in 1923, although several buildings survived and remain today, notably the Goldfield Hotel, the Consolidated Mines Building, gold exploration continues in and around the town today. Gold was discovered at Goldfield in 1902, its year of inception, by 1904, the Goldfield district produced about 800 tons of ore, valued at $2,300,000, 30% of the states production that year. This remarkable production caused Goldfield to grow rapidly, and it became the largest town in the state with about 20,000 people. One prominent, or notorious, early Goldfield resident was George Graham Rice, a former check forger, the collapse of his Sullivan Trust Company and its associated mining stocks caused the failure of the Goldfield State Bank in 1907.
Rice quickly left Goldfield, but continued to promote mining shares for another quarter-century, another prominent resident from 1906 was George Wingfield, one of Nevadas entrepreneurs, who built the Goldfield Hotel. In collaboration with his partner George S. Nixon, Wingfield started in Belmont, Nevada in 1901, George S. Nixon and Wingfield made huge fortunes in Goldfield by forming the Goldfield Consolidated Mining Company. By 1906, they were worth $30 million, Wingfield moved to Reno soon after realizing his great wealth could be spread across northern Nevada and northern California. Between 1903 and 1918, mining in the two towns grew from $2.8 million to $48.6 million and Virgil Earp came to Goldfield in 1904. Virgil was hired as a Goldfield deputy sheriff in January 1905, in April, he contracted pneumonia and, after six months of illness, he died on October 18,1905. Wyatt Earp left Goldfield shortly afterward, Goldfield reached a peak population around 20,000 people in 1906 and hosted a lightweight boxing championship match between Joe Gans and Oscar Battling Nelson.
In addition to the mines, Goldfield was home to large reduction works, the gold output in 1907 was over $8.4 million, the year in which the town became the county seat, in 1908, output was about $4,880,000. By the 1910 census, its population had declined to 4,838, part of the problem was the increasing cost of pumping brine out of the diggings, making them uneconomic. By 1912, ore production had dropped to $5 million, in 1923, a fire caused by a moonshine still explosion destroyed most of the towns flammable buildings. Some brick and stone buildings from before the fire remain, including the hotel, between this branch and the mine owners, serious differences arose, and several strikes occurred in December 1906 and January 1907 for higher wages. In November and December 1907, some of the adopted a system of paying in cashiers checks
Nevada Governor's Mansion
The Nevada Governors Mansion is the official residence of the Governor of Nevada and their family. Reno architect George A. Ferris designed this Classical Revival style mansion and it is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. The Governors Mansion of the State of Nevada was built between 1908 and 1909, until that time, Nevadas governors and their families found lodging where they could in or near Carson City, the capital. State Assembly Bill 10, the Mansion Bill, was passed in 1907 to secure a permanent site, acting Governor Denver S. Dickerson and his family were the first residents when they occupied the mansion in July 1909. The building was first opened to the public during a house on New Years Day,1910. The governors daughter, June Dickerson, was born in the mansion on September 2,1909, the mansion was at the center of a legal dispute resulting from the divorce case of Governor Jim Gibbons and his now-former wife, Dawn. Several months before filing a petition in May 2008, the Governor moved out of the mansion.
Upon filing for divorce, he filed a petition seeking his wifes eviction from the mansion, citing state law requires that the Governor maintain his or her home. Mrs. Furthermore, her attorney cited state law which allows divorcing couples to divide equally anything of value enjoyed by both parties until the divorce is finalized. After their divorce, Governor Gibbons moved back into the mansion, and Dawn Gibbons relocated to an apartment in Las Vegas
Esmeralda County, Nevada
Esmeralda County is a county in the west of U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 783, making it the least populous county in Nevada, Esmeralda County has no incorporated communities. Its county seat is the Census Designated Place of Goldfield and its 2000 census population density of 0.2706 inhabitants per square mile was the second-lowest of any county in the contiguous United States. Its school district has no school, so students in grades 9-12 go to school in Tonopah and are in the database of the Nye County School District. Esmeralda is the only Nevada county in the Los Angeles TV market as defined by A. C. Nielsen, Esmeralda County is one of the original counties in Nevada, established in 1861. When it was organized, it comprised the part of the Nevada Territory south of the 39th parallel, Esmeralda is the Spanish and Portuguese word for emerald. An early California miner from San Jose Ca, James Manning Cory, named the Esmeralda Mining District after the Gypsy dancer, from Victor Hugos novel, just after the organization of Esmeralda County, the vast majority of it wasnt discovered yet.
Frémont was one of the few people who had discovered parts of the county and he had crossed Big Smoky Valley in 1845. Also and its northern corridor had been discovered, in 1862 and 1863, the area along the Reese River was discovered during the Reese River excitement. Explorers kept going south and explored the Shoshone Mountains, the mining district Union was organized after silver was found in 1863 and the settlement of Ione was founded over there. The total area of Esmeralda County more than halved as Nye County was organized on February 16,1864 and that county was entirely created out of land that used to be part of Esmeralda County. Esmeralda has had three county seats, Aurora until 1883, Hawthorne from 1883 to 1907 and finally Goldfield, at one point, due to the disputed border with California, Aurora was simultaneously the county seat of both Mono County and Esmeralda County, Nevada. Samuel Clemens wrote about his time as a miner in the Esmeralda District in his book Roughing It, Esmeralda grew from a gold mining boom in the first years of the 20th century.
The mines were tapped out by the end of the 1910s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 3,589 square miles. It is the fourth-smallest county in Nevada by area, a very small part of Death Valley National Park lies in its southeast corner. The county is dominated by the Silver Peak and Monte Cristo mountain ranges and it was moved to Goldfield on May 1,1907. The courthouse was opened on May 1,1908 and has been in use since then
U.S. Route 95 in Nevada
U. S. Route 95 is a major U. S. highway traversing the U. S. state of Nevada from north to south directly through Las Vegas and providing connections to both Carson City and Reno. US95 is cosigned with Interstate 80 for 95 miles between a junction in Churchill County and Winnemucca before heading north into Oregon at McDermitt, along much of its course through Nevada, US95 has signs designating it as the Veterans Memorial Highway. U. S. Route 95 enters Nevada near Cal-Nev-Ari in Clark County and heads north towards Railroad Pass, the two routes are cosigned in the Las Vegas area and east of Henderson, Interstate 515 begins. I-515 is cosigned with US 93/95 for its route around eastern Las Vegas. The freeway heads west into downtown Las Vegas, where it intersects Interstate 15, at the Spaghetti Bowl interchange, US93 follows I-15 northbound and I-515 ends. US95 heads west, north at the Rainbow Curve, the freeway portion ends and it becomes a brief four-lane divided highway. US95 exits Clark County and heads into eastern Nye County for 107 miles and it enters Esmeralda and continues for 44 miles before meeting US6 in Tonopah, back in Nye County.
US95 heads northwest towards Hawthorne and Schurz, where US95 Alternate splits west towards US50, providing a route towards Carson City. US95 itself goes north towards Fallon, where it intersects US50, US95 meets Interstate 80 and US95 Alternate about halfway between Lovelock and Fernley. The two routes run concurrently for 95 miles until reaching Winnemucca, where US95 splits from I-80. In downtown Winnemucca, US95 turns north in the direction of Paradise Valley. North of Winnemucca, US95 meets the terminus of SR140, which connects to Lakeview and Klamath Falls, Oregon. US95 finally exits Nevada at McDermitt and heads into Oregon, when the original plan for the U. S. highway system was adopted by the American Association of State Highway Officials in 1926, US95 was one of the routes created. At that time, the route existed in Idaho from the Canada–US border near Eastport to Weiser near the Oregon state line. A proposal to extend US95 south to Winnemucca was considered by AASHO in 1937, however, AASHO reconsidered the idea at its meeting on June 28,1939, as part of a larger plan to extend the highway south to Blythe, California.
This plan was adopted, officially establishing US95 throughout Nevada effective January 1,1940, the route was marked along several preexisting state highways as follows, From the Oregon state line at McDermitt, US95 followed State Route 8 for 74 miles to Winnemucca. At Winnemucca, the route joined U. S. Route 40, in Fernley, US95 followed State Route 2 for 28 miles to Fallon. The highway turned south at Fallon, running 39 miles concurrently with the segment of State Route 1A to Schurz
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity