National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Bandelier National Monument
Bandelier National Monument is a 33, 677-acre United States National Monument near Los Alamos in Sandoval and Los Alamos Counties, New Mexico. The monument preserves the homes and territory of the Ancestral Puebloans of an era in the Southwest. Most of the structures date to two eras, dating between 1150 and 1600 AD. The Monument is 50 square miles of the Pajarito Plateau, on the slopes of the Jemez Volcanic field in the Jemez Mountains, there are three miles of road, and more than 70 miles of hiking trails. The Monument protects Ancestral Pueblo archeological sites, a diverse and scenic landscape, the park infrastructure was developed in the 1930s by crews of the Civilian Conservation Corps, and are a National Historic Landmark for their well-preserved architecture. The National Park Service co-operates with surrounding pueblos, other federal agencies, the monument received 193,914 visitors in 2011. In October 1976, roughly seventy percent of the monument,23,267 acres, was included within the National Wilderness Preservation System, the parks elevations range from about 5,000 feet at the Rio Grande to over 10,200 feet at the summit of Cerro Grande.
The Valles Caldera National Preserve adjoins the monument on the north and west, much of the area was covered with volcanic ash from an eruption of the Valles Caldera volcano 1.14 million years ago. The tuff overlays shales and sandstones deposited during the Permian Period, the volcanic outflow varied in hardness, the Ancestral Pueblo People broke up the firmer materials to use as bricks, while they carved out dwellings from the softer material. Human presence in the area has been dated to over 10,000 years before present, permanent settlements by ancestors of the Puebloan peoples have been dated to 1150 CE, these settlers had moved closer to the Rio Grande by 1550. Spanish colonial settlers arrived in the 18th century, the Pueblo Jose Montoya brought Adolph Bandelier to visit the area in 1880. Looking over the dwellings, Bandelier said, It is the grandest thing I ever saw. Based on documentation and research by Bandelier, there was support for preserving the area, supporting infrastructure, including a lodge, was built during the 1920s and 1930s.
This group of 31 buildings illustrates the principles of National Park Service Rustic architecture, being based on local materials. It has been designated as a National Landmark District, Frijoles Canyon contains a number of ancestral pueblo homes, rock paintings, and petroglyphs. Some of the dwellings were rock structures built on the floor, others were cavates produced by voids in the volcanic tuff of the canyon wall. A1. 2-mile, predominantly paved, Main Loop Trail from the visitor center affords access to these features. A trail extending beyond this leads to Alcove House, a shelter cave produced by erosion of the soft rock and containing a small