Antoni Leśniowski was a Polish surgeon, credited with publishing what may have been the earliest reports of the condition which became known as Crohn's disease. He graduated in medicine from the University of Warsaw in 1890, studied further in Berlin. From 1892 to 1912 he worked as a surgeon at the Infant Jesus Hospital in Warsaw, specialising in urology. Despite this, his most notable reports were on several cases of inflammatory bowel disease. On May 10, 1903, Medycyna, a weekly medical newspaper, published an article in which he described several cases of intestinal disease, concluding in at least one case: "we suspected a chronic inflammatory process in the wall of the gut." He wrote three further articles describing cases for the Pamiętnik Towarzystwa Lekarskiego Warszawskiego between 1903 and 1905, consistent with what is now known as Crohn's disease, although the evidence is not conclusive. In one of these articles, in 1904, he reported a meeting of the Warsaw Medical Society, at which he presented a surgical specimen of an inflammatory tumour of the terminal ileum with a fistula to the ascending colon.
The disease was described again in 1932 by US American gastroenterologists Burrill Bernard Crohn, Leon Ginzburg and Gordon D. Oppenheimer, since that time, due to the precedence of the name Crohn in the alphabet, it has been known in the worldwide literature as Crohn’s disease. Only in Poland is it known as Leśniowski-Crohn’s disease. During 1912–1914, he was the director of Warsaw’s St Anthony Hospital until 1919, was the head of surgery department in the Holy Ghost Hospital in Warsaw. During 1919–1936, he was a professor of surgery at the University of Warsaw, he wrote a textbook on general surgery. Antoni Leśniowski at Who Named It
Rita Rapp was an American physiologist who led the Apollo Food System team. She won an NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the United States Civil Service Commission Federal Woman's Award and University of Dayton Distinguished Alumni Award. A plaque in her honor remains at the Johnson Space Center. Rapp was born in Ohio, she attended Piqua Catholic High School. She completed a Bachelor of Science from the University of Dayton in 1950, she was one of the first women to join the Saint Louis University School of Medicine, graduated in 1953. She completed her graduate physiology training at the University of Giessen. Rapp joined Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in 1953, where she worked in the aeromedical laboratories, she studied the impact of high g-forces on the human body. In 1960 Rapp worked on centrifugal affects. After the Apollo program began in 1966, Rapp joined the Apollo Food Systems team, looking at the stowage of food in space, she worked with Whirlpool Corporation and dietitians to identify ways space food could be packaged and prepared.
She was the main interface between the astronauts. She tried to use as much commercially available food as possible. Astronauts requested pumpkin pie and trail mix, her sugar cookies were prized by the onboard crew. She prepared the individual meals of each Apollo astronaut separately and they each used color-coded eating utensils, she moved to the Manned Spacecraft Center at Johnson Space Center in 1962. In 1971 she was awarded the United States Civil Service Commission Federal Woman's Award for her "extraordinary contributions to the Apollo program", she was the first woman from the Manned Spacecraft Center to be selected for the award. Her developments were popular beyond NASA and used in the commercial food market; when Skylab began in 1973, Rapp led a 30 person team. During Skylab, Rapp determined, she was the first woman to win the Research & Development Associates For Military Food & Packaging Systems Isker award in 1975 in recognition of her contributions to food preparation and container research.
She contributed to the NASA Apollo–Soyuz Test Project Report in 1977. In 1980 Rapp won the University of Dayton Distinguished Alumni Award, she was awarded a NASA Exceptional Service Medal in 1981. She preserved foods using dehydration, thermostabilization and moisture control. In 1986 she published Space Shuttle Food-System Summary with Connie Stadler. Rapp died on July 1989, after a long illness, she was recognized as a space food pioneer. There is a collection of files relating to Rapp at the Piqua Library, her biography appeared in Libby Jackson's A Galaxy of Her Own: Amazing Stories of Women in Space. A plaque that recognizes Rapp's commitment to the safety and comfort of the NASA flight crew, hangs at Johnson Space Center