Culture of Philadelphia
The culture of Philadelphia goes back to 1682 when Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. Inhabited by the Lenape, Philadelphia was envisioned as a place where people could live without fear of persecution because of their religion; as a result, many Quakers and others came to find refuge within the city. As Philadelphia grew into a major political and economic center of the United States, many different groups of religions and ethnicities flocked to the city. 19th and 20th century immigration and migration led to large concentrations of Irish, Germans, Puerto Ricans and African Americans. Philadelphia is still a major center of immigration, with large Chinese, Korean, East African, Middle Eastern and Mexican immigrant populations, among others; the city's cultural prominence has fallen since its founding. The city has made contributions in art, television and food. Philadelphia institutions range from the Philadelphia Museum of Art to Pat's Steaks. Before the first European settlers arrived, the region that would become Philadelphia was inhabited by the Lenape, a group of Native American people.
The Lenape fought with the earliest Dutch settlers, but had much better relations with William Penn and the early inhabitants of the English subjects of the colony of Pennsylvania. Still and development pushed the Lenape west. A member of the Religious Society of Friends who had faced religious persecution, Penn envisioned his colony as a place where many groups of people could live together and worship freely. Mennonites, Amish and Pietists moved to the area during the 17th century. By the mid-18th century and the English had become a minority in the colony as other ethnic groups such as the Welsh, Finns, African slaves and Germans moved to the city. Lutherans established places of worship as early as the 1720s and in 1748, led by Henry Muhlenberg, founded the Pennsylvania Ministerium. In 1734 followers of what would become the Schwenkfelder Church arrived in Philadelphia and settled in the region; the first American Presbytery was founded in 1706 in Philadelphia and a year in September 1707 the Philadelphia Baptist Association was founded, the oldest Baptist association in the United States.
The city's first Catholic chapel was built in 1733 and the city's first recorded practicing Jew, Nathan Levy, arrived as early as 1735. During most of the 19th century, immigrants from Germany and Ireland settled in the city. Many of these immigrants were Catholic which fueled anti-Catholic organizations. In the 1840s Philadelphia became a major base for anti-Catholic Protestant groups which soon led to deadly riots in 1844. However, by the end of the 19th century Roman Catholics had become the largest religion in Philadelphia. During the last decades of the 19th century the origin of immigrants shifted from England and Germany to Italy and Eastern Europe. Italians and Poles helped increase the city's Catholic population, but Jewish immigrants from Poland and Russia, were the largest religion to settle in the city during this period. Supplementing the settled German Jews, the city's Jewish population swelled from 5,000 in 1881 to 100,000 in 1905. Philadelphia's Italian population changed from 300 in 1870 to 77,000 in 1910.
Hungarian and Polish immigrants settled in the city, but in smaller numbers. In the 20th century political power began to shift from white Protestants to Irish and Italian Catholics and Jews, with the city's first Catholic and Jewish mayors elected in 1963 and 1992 respectively. In the second half of the 19th century immigration began from Latin America from Puerto Rico and Cuba. By the end of the 20th century Puerto Ricans became the largest Latino group in Philadelphia. Starting in the 1950s large numbers of Puerto Ricans settling in North Philadelphia. Immigrants from China founded Chinatown in the 1880s. By the 21st century, Philadelphia's two largest Asian ethnic groups were Koreans. Philadelphia became. Immigration from the Middle East to Philadelphia began as early as the 1880s with immigrants from Lebanon. Starting in the 1960s immigrants from other Middle Eastern countries, such as Syria, the Palestinian territories and Iraq moved to the city. Other immigrants from Asia during the last decades of the 20th century include Indians and Cambodians.
Another community who established an identity in Philadelphia during the 20th century was the gay community. The city's homosexual community is centered in a portion of Washington Square West, nicknamed the "gayborhood" by residents; the first blacks in Philadelphia were slaves. Slaves in Philadelphia lived in the same house of their owners and worked as servants or in their owners' shops. An abolition law in 1780 did not free any existing slaves, but banned the slave trade in Pennsylvania and freed the children of slaves born after the law was passed once they reached a certain age. By the time the law was passed, about 400 slaves and 800 free blacks lived in Philadelphia. Many newly freed slaves and escaped slaves from the South moved to the city, by 1820 the city's African American population was nearly eleven percent. During this time one former slave, Richard Allen, founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia; as the African Amer
A historic district or heritage district is a section of a city which contains older buildings considered valuable for historical or architectural reasons. In some countries or jurisdictions, historic districts receive legal protection from certain types of development considered to be inappropriate. Historic districts may or may not be the center of the city, they may be coterminous with the commercial district, administrative district, or arts district, or separate from all of these. In Canada, such districts are called "heritage conservation districts" or "heritage conservation areas" and are governed by provincial legislation. Many jurisdictions within the United States have specific legislation identifying and giving protection to designated historic districts; the term "Historic District" is not used in the United Kingdom. The equivalent urban areas are known as Conservation Areas. Iranian Heritage and Tourism organization has nominated and selected several cities for their valuable historical monuments and districts.
Baft-e Tarikhi is the name. Naein and Yazd are examples of Iranian cities with historic districts. Old City Old Town Downtown Central Business District Historic overlay district Media related to Historic districts at Wikimedia Commons
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
Transportation in Philadelphia
Transportation in Philadelphia involves the various modes of transport within the city and its required infrastructure. In addition to facilitating intracity travel, Philadelphia's transportation system connects Philadelphia to towns of its metropolitan area and cities of the Boston-Washington megalopolis; the city is crossed by the Delaware Expressway and the Schuylkill Expressway, which are the principal thoroughfares for intercity traffic. The Vine Street Expressway travels between I-76 and I-95 in Center City Philadelphia, the Roosevelt Boulevard carries crosstown traffic in northern Philadelphia. Philadelphia's public transit system is operated by the Southeast Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, which maintains an extensive system utilizing buses, rapid transit, commuter rail and the Philadelphia trackless trolley system; the main rail station of Philadelphia is 30th Street Station, which has access to 13 SEPTA Regional Rail routes and 11 Amtrak intercity rail routes. Philadelphia International Airport, the primary airport of Philadelphia, is a hub for domestic and international aviation.
The streets of Philadelphia follow a grid plan, one of the first such lay-outs used in a North American city. The grid plan originated in 1682, when William Penn founded Philadelphia and appointed Thomas Holme as his surveyor. Using 1,200 acres, Penn planned a system of organized streets to facilitate future growth. Since Penn survived the Great Fire of London and wanted to avoid similar catastrophes, he laid out streets wider than usual. Penn planned the city to stretch between the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, his grid plan of present-day Center City followed a 22-by-8-block pattern; the plan included a large square in the center of the town, four public squares near each corner of the city. Since the initial grid covered only the area of present-day Center City, other settlements such as Kensington developed using different grids; the grid system was extended to other regions of present-day Philadelphia, although several roads predating a grid system still exist. Certain neighborhoods of Philadelphia, such as those in the Far Northeast, do not use grid systems.
When the street grid was designed by Penn, he named the east-west streets after trees, assigned the north-south streets numbers, starting with Front Street by the Delaware River. Market Street, running east-west, Broad Street, running north-south, are the arteries of Center City, originate from a loop around Philadelphia City Hall; the naming system of the streets differs by neighborhood, although the main north-south streets are numbered in South Philadelphia, West Philadelphia, Lower North Philadelphia similar to how they are numbered in Center City. One example of a naming system is in South Philadelphia, where east-west streets use the surnames of former governors of Pennsylvania, starting with Reed Street and ending with Pattison Avenue. Several east-west streets in North Philadelphia are named after counties in Pennsylvania. Many other streets are named after locally or nationally significant people. During the 20th century, several streets were renamed to honor individuals, such as John F. Kennedy Boulevard.
The system for assigning street addresses was enacted in 1858. In areas with a consistent grid, the street address numbers increase by intervals of 100s for each block, starting with Front Street for east-west streets and Market Street for north-south streets. For example, 1200 South Street would refer to the intersection of 12th & South Street, 500 North 17th Street is 5 blocks north of Market Street. Philadelphia has a limited system of expressways due to the "freeway revolts" of the 1960s and 1970s. Several planned crosstown freeways were cancelled due to local opposition from neighborhoods which would have been displaced by the freeways. One of the proposed freeways was Interstate 695, which would have run along South Street from the Delaware waterfront to the Schuylkill River as the "Crosstown Expressway", continue through Southwest Philadelphia to Interstate 95 as the "Cobbs Creek Expressway". Although the Roosevelt Boulevard was proposed to be converted to an expressway, only the portion between Broad Street and the Schuylkill Expressway is built to freeway standards.
The main expressways of Philadelphia are the Delaware Expressway, which travels along the Delaware River, the Schuylkill Expressway, paralleling the Schuylkill River for most of its route. Other expressways are the Vine Street Expressway, running between the Schuylkill Expressway and Delaware Expressway through downtown Philadelphia, the Roosevelt Expressway, a freeway portion of the Roosevelt Boulevard. Philadelphia is connected to New Jersey across the Delaware River by four bridges, three of which are maintained by the Delaware River Port Authority; the oldest is the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, which opened in 1926, was the world's longest suspension bridge span until the opening of the Ambassador Bridge in 1929. The Ben Franklin Bridge connects Camden, New Jersey with Center City, thus making it a main crossing between Philadelphia and New Jersey; the Benjamin Franklin Bridge carries seven lanes of roadway, two rail lines of the PATCO Speedline, two pedestrian walkways. The longest bridge between Philadelphia and New Jersey is the Walt Whitman Bridge, which connects South Philadelphia to Gloucester City, New Jersey.
The Walt Whitman Bridge opened in 1957, with a total length of 11,981 feet and main span length of 2,000 feet. The bridge carries seven lanes of I-76, carries 120,000 vehicles per day. Connecting to Northeast Philade
University Avenue Bridge
The University Avenue Bridge is a double-leaf bascule bridge crossing the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The four-lane bridge links University Avenue in West Philadelphia with South 34th Street in the Grays Ferry section of South Philadelphia, it measures 536 feet long, 100 feet wide, clears the water by 30 feet. Built in 1930, the bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 26, 1994. List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in Pennsylvania List of crossings of the Schuylkill River 1917 drawing of proposed bridge, PhillyHistory.org 1929 Photo of unfinished bridge, PhillyHistory.org 1929 photo of drawbridge open, PhillyHistory.org 1950 photo of bridge, PhillyHistory.org Historic American Engineering Record No. PA-503, "University Avenue Bridge" U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: University Avenue Bridge
Northeast Philadelphia, nicknamed Northeast Philly, the Northeast and the Great Northeast, is a section of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. According to the 2000 Census, the Northeast has a sizable percentage of the city's 1.547 million people—a population of between 300,000 and 450,000, depending on how the area is defined. Beginning in the 1980s, many of the Northeast's middle class children graduated from college and settled in suburbs nearby Bucks County; the Northeast is home to a large working class Irish American population, but is home to Polish, Jewish, Italian and Russian neighborhoods. Due to the size of the Northeast, the Philadelphia City Planning Commission divides it into two regions called "Near Northeast" and "Far Northeast", the names being derived from their distance from Center City; the term "Near Northeast" is not used colloquially, but the term "Far Northeast" is in widespread use. The demarcation line between the two sections is given as Cottman Avenue. Northeast Philadelphia is bounded by the Delaware River on the east, Bucks County on the north, Montgomery County on the west.
The southern limit is given as Adams Avenue. The neighborhoods that make up Northeast Philadelphia include Crescentville, Rhawnhurst, Holme Circle, Upper Holmesburg, Morrell Park, Oxford Circle, Parkwood, Fox Chase, Castor Gardens, Bell's Corner, Summerdale, Modena Park, Pennypack Woods and Winchester Park; the first European settlement in the Northeast was by Swedish farmers, who emigrated there when the area was a part of the New Sweden colony. They were followed by English Quakers, including Thomas Holme, who came to begin the settlement of William Penn's Pennsylvania colony in the late 1680s. In the years to follow, Northeast Philadelphia developed as a scattering of small towns and farms that were a part of Philadelphia County, but not the City of Philadelphia. Before consolidation with the City, what is now the Northeast consisted of the townships of Byberry, Lower Dublin and Oxford,. While most of the land in what is now the Northeast was dedicated to farming, the presence of many creeks, along with proximity to Philadelphia proper, made the towns of the Northeast suitable for industrial development.
The Northeast's first factory was the Rowland Shovel Works on the Pennypack Creek. In 1802, it produced the first shovel made in the United States. More mills and factories followed along the Pennypack and Frankford Creeks, traces of the mill races and dams remain to this day; the most famous of these factories was the Disston Saw Works in Tacony, founded by English industrialist Henry Disston, whose saw blades were world-renowned. By 1854, the entire County of Philadelphia was incorporated into the City. In spite of the political incorporation, the Northeast retained its old development patterns for a time, the dense populations and urban style of housing that marked older, more traditional sections of the city had not yet found their way there. In the first three decades of the 20th century, rapid industrialization led to the growth of industrial sections of the northeast and the neighborhoods surrounding them; these demographic changes, along with the building of the Market-Frankford Line train and new arterial highways, such as the Roosevelt Boulevard, brought new middle class populations to the lower half of the Northeast.
Vast tracts of row homes were built in that section of the Northeast for new arrivals in the 1920s and 1930s with small, but valued front lawns, which impart a "garden suburb" quality to much of the Northeast, reducing the sense of physical density felt elsewhere in the city. Much of this development occurred east in Oxford Circle. After World War II, newer arrivals, armed with the mortgage benefits of the GI Bill, brought the baby boom to the Northeast; this newer population was Jewish or ethnic Catholic and completed the development of the region, filling in undeveloped areas of Rhawnhurst and Bell's Corner and developing the rural Far Northeast. As older sections of the city lost populations of young families, the Northeast's school-age population swelled, requiring rapid expansion of schools, cinemas, transportation and other needed amenities; the period from 1945 through the 1970s was marked in many American cities by urban decline in older, more industrial areas. This was true in Philadelphia, in which much of the city's North and South sections lost population, factories and commerce associated with "white flight."
During the postwar period, the Northeast experienced a heavy influx of growing middle-class families, had become an exclusively white community. This aroused controversy in the 1960s and 1970s, as passions for and against school busing were focused on the Northeast, to address racial imbalances in the city's public schools; that racial imbalance was addressed by the upward mobility enjoyed by many of the graduates of the Northeast's excellent public and parochial school systems, who made their way out of the Northeast and into the suburbs from the 1980s onward, making room for new arrivals from the city's Latino, African American and Asian populations. In the 1980s, the Northeast developed along a separate path from much of the rest of the city. In addition to the racial differences mentioned above, the political climate in the Northeast was balanced evenly b
Music of Philadelphia
The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is home to a vibrant and well-documented musical heritage, stretching back to colonial times. Innovations in classical music, opera, R&B, jazz and soul have earned the music of Philadelphia national and international renown. Philadelphia's musical institutions have long played an important role in the music of Pennsylvania, as well as a nationwide impact in the early development of hip hop music. Philadelphia's diverse population has given it a reputation for styles ranging from dancehall to Irish traditional music, as well as a thriving classical and folk music scene; the Philadelphia Orchestra's third conductor, Leopold Stokowski, championed American classical music of the 20th century, on tour, in recordings, notably in Walt Disney's 1940 animated film Fantasia, brought the traditional and modern classical repertoire to a broad American listening public for the first time. The Curtis Institute of Music on Rittenhouse Square, founded in 1924 by Curtis Publishing Company heiress Mary Louise Curtis Bok, has trained many of the world's best-known and respected American composers and performers, including Leonard Bernstein and Samuel Barber during the 20th century and current stars Juan Diego Flórez, Alan Gilbert, Hilary Hahn, Jennifer Higdon, Lang Lang.
The city has played an prominent role in developing popular music. In the early years of rock and roll, a number of South Philadelphia-born popular vocalists made Philadelphia and popular music synonymous, including Chubby Checker, Frankie Avalon, Bobby Rydell; this led to the airing of the popular rock and roll dance show American Bandstand, from Philadelphia, hosted by twenty-something Dick Clark from the Channel 6 studios at 46th and Market Streets at the time, where teenagers would descend in droves after school to be televised dancing to the latest hits on the pop charts in front of a national audience. Philadelphia has a wide variety of performance venues for music; the city's most senior venue is the famed Academy of Music. Established in 1857, the Academy is the longest continuously operating opera house in the United States, still being used for its original purpose. At the center of Philadelphia's musical life, the Academy is home to many internationally recognized performance ensembles, including the Philly Pops, the Pennsylvania Ballet and the Opera Company of Philadelphia.
The Academy presents touring artists and musical theatre of the highest caliber. The most recent addition to the city's list of venues is the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the internationally renowned Philadelphia Orchestra, which opened in 2001; the Philadelphia Singers sing in concerts with the orchestra. The center is home to the Chamber Orchestra of Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Chamber Music Society; the PCMS, established in 1986, puts on concerts by internationally renowned performers as well as local ensembles like 1807 and Friends, who have been prominent local performers since 1981. Of major importance to the city is the Mann Center for the Performing Arts, one of the largest outdoor amphitheatres in the United States. Established in 1976 as the Robin Hood Dell West, the Mann Center is the summer performance space for the Philadelphia Orchestra, it is host to major touring artists from all genres of music and is Philadelphia's main venue for popular entertainers.
In addition to the Mann Center, the Tower Theater, in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania just outside Philadelphia serves as a destination for many top touring acts. The Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts is another notable venue in the city. Founded in 1971, the Center now includes the University of Pennsylvania's Irvine Auditorium, Zellerbach Theatre and Harold Prince Theatre; the center offers a varied program of more than 170 performances each year, including concerts and dance. Philadelphia has a thriving jazz and cabaret scene due to the efforts of the John W. Coltrane Cultural Society, which honors local jazz legend John Coltrane and helps to promote jazz in the city. There are a number of nightclubs in the city that host live music, most notably Warmdaddy's, a hot spot for jazz and blues entertainers for more than four decades; the city is home to the Clef Club of Jazz and Performing Arts, called the "first-ever club designed and constructed as a jazz institution". Another notable venue is World Cafe Live, which opened October 2004.
A three-tiered music hall and bar, WCL has been host to such artists as George Clinton and the Parliament-Funkadelic, Rhett Miller, Natalie Cole, KT Tunstall, Allen Toussaint, Pink Martini and Liz Phair. Philadelphia's diverse ethnic groups have established several organizations that promote their musical styles, including the Asian Arts Initiative and the Latin American Musicians Association; the AMLA was established by Jesse Bermudez in 1982 in North Philadelphia, to promote Latino music and musicians. The Association runs a Latin School of Arts, which features teachers like Elio Villafranca and Pablo Batista; the Italian American Broadcasting Network is based out of Philadelphia and promotes radio stations that broadcast Italian music in southeastern Pennsylvania. The Painted Bride Art Center is a local organization which promotes alternative and avant garde music, while Crossroads Music is the city's only organization dedicated to presenting musicians with roots in specific cultural traditions from all parts of the world Other local institutions include the Philadelphia Gay Men's Chorus, founded in 1981, the Mendelssohn Club, a choral group that dates back to the 19th century.