National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Paso Robles, California
Paso Robles is a city in San Luis Obispo County, United States. Located on the Salinas River north of San Luis Obispo, the city is known for its hot springs, its abundance of wineries, its production of olive oil, almond orchards, for playing host to the California Mid-State Fair; this area of the Central Coast, known as the City of El Paso De Robles, Paso Robles, or "Paso", is known for its thermal springs. Native Americans lived in the area thousands of years before the mission era, they knew this area as the “Springs” or the “Hot Springs.”Paso Robles is located on the Rancho Paso de Robles Mexican land grant, purchased by James and Daniel Blackburn in 1857. Their partner was Drury James of Kentucky, a veteran of the Mexican War and uncle of the outlaw Jesse James; the land was a rest-stop for travelers of the Camino Real trail, was known for its mineral hot springs. In fact, Franciscan priests from neighboring Mission San Miguel constructed the first mineral baths in the area. During this period, Paso Robles began to attract the pioneer settlers who would become the founding members of the community.
They would establish cattle ranches and almond orchards, dairy farms, vineyards. In 1864, the first El Paso de Robles Hotel was constructed and featured a hot mineral springs bath house. Today, only three locations are left that offer the healing mineral bath hot spring experience which brought people like Ignacy Jan Paderewski to Paso Robles. James and Daniel Blackburn donated two blocks to the city for a public park to be used for the pleasure of its citizens and visitors. By original deed, the land was to revert to the donors if used for any other purpose than a public park. Two exceptions were made: allowing the building of the Carnegie Library, the conversion of the library to a museum; the grounds were laid out by a Mr. Redington and a planting day was held when each citizen set out his own donation; the whole park was hedged in by a fence of cactus, in 1890 a bandstand was built with money raised by private theatricals. In 1886, after the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad, work began on laying out a town site, with the resort as the nucleus.
Two weeks after the first train arrived on October 31, 1886, a three-day celebration was held including a special train from San Francisco bringing prospective buyers, who toured the area and enjoyed the daily barbecues. On November 17, the "Grand Auction" was held; the local agent for the SPR when it arrived in Paso Robles was R. M. "Dick" Shackelford, a Kentucky native who had come to California in 1853 to dig for gold. Shackelford had a varied career, going from gold mining to hauling freight by ox team, to lumbering, which took him to Nevada, where he served one term as a delegate in the state's first legislature for Washoe County. By 1886 Shackelford had returned to California and was living in Paso Robles, where he began buying up extensive property, building warehouses and starting lumber yards along the railroad's route. Shackelford established the Southern Pacific Milling Company, which had a virtual monopoly on local milling until local farmers, in an effort to break Shackelford's strangehold, themselves organized their own milling cooperative, the Farmers' Alliance Flour Mill.
In 1889, the same year that Paso Robles incorporated as a city, construction began on a magnificent new hotel. The hotel required over one-million bricks and cost a princely $160,000; the new El Paso de Robles Hotel opened for business in 1891. The new hotel was three stories tall and built of solid masonry, set off by sandstone arches; this ensured the hotel was fireproof. The hotel featured a seven-acre garden and nine-hole golf course. Inside there was a library, a beauty salon, a barber shop, various billiard and lounging rooms; the new hotel offered an improved hot springs plunge bath as well as 32 individual bath rooms. The 20 by 40-foot plunge bath was considered one of the finest and most complete of its time in the United States. On January 17, 1914, one of the world's most well-known concert pianists and composers came to the hotel: Ignace Paderewski. After three weeks of treatments at the hotel's mineral hot springs for his arthritis, he resumed his concert tour, he returned to live at the hotel and bought two ranches west of Paso Robles.
During the next 30 years, the hotel was visited by other notables: Boxing champion Jack Dempsey, President Theodore Roosevelt, Adela Rogers St. Johns, Phoebe Apperson Hearst, actors Douglas Fairbanks, Boris Karloff, Bob Hope, Clark Gable all stayed at the El Paso de Robles Hotel, and when Major League baseball teams used Paso Robles as a spring training home, the Pittsburgh Pirates and Chicago White Sox stayed at the hotel and soaked in the mineral hot springs to soothe tired muscles. For a time, Paso Robles was known as the “Almond City” because the local almond growers created the largest concentration of almond orchards in the world; the ranchers in the outlying areas were important to the Paso Robles area. On these ranches were cattle and horses, grain crops, garden produce and fruit and nut orchards. Many of these ranch lands and orchards have become vineyards for the many wineries which draw tourists to the area. To show their appreciation to the ranchers, in October 1931 the business people established Pioneer Day, still an annual celebration.
Pioneer Day is celebrated most years on the Saturday prior to October 12
San Simeon, California
San Simeon is a town and census-designated place on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California. Its position along State Route 1 is about halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those cities being 230 mi away. A key feature of the area is Hearst Castle, a hilltop mansion built by William Randolph Hearst in the early 20th century, now a tourist attraction; the area is home to a large northern elephant seal rookery, known as the Piedras Blancas rookery. It is located 7 mi north of San Simeon on Highway 1. Prehistorically, the local area was inhabited by the Chumash people, who settled the coastal San Luis Obispo area around 10,000 to 11,000 BC, including a large village south of San Simeon at Morro Creek; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, traveled northwest along the coast in September, 1769. On September 11–12, the party passed the future location of San Simeon. At Ragged Point, about 15 mi past San Simeon, the party turned inland across the Santa Lucia Range.
San Simeon was founded as an asistencia to Mission San Miguel Arcángel, founded in 1797 and located to the east across the Santa Lucia Range. San Simeon was named for Rancho San Simeon, although the town-site is north of that rancho, on the former Rancho Piedra Blanca, a Mexican land grant given in 1840 to José de Jesús Pico. In 1865, Pico sold part of the rancho to the father of William Randolph Hearst; the first Europeans to settle in the immediate area near the bay of San Simeon were Portuguese shore whalers under the command of Captain Joseph Clark from the Cape Verde Islands, around 1864. In 1869, Captain Clark built a wharf near the point for his whaling station. A small community grew near the 1869 wharf, but the waves near the wharf were too high, the wharf was abandoned. In 1878, Hearst built a new wharf, the small community moved near the new wharf. A general store was built near the Clark wharf, relocated near the 1878 wharf. Shore whaling continued on the point until the mid-1890s.
It ceased for a short time, started up again in 1897, continued to about 1908 when it ceased for good. In 1953, the Hearst Corporation donated the William Randolph Hearst Memorial Beach, including the Hearst Pier, to San Luis Obispo County, it is part of Hearst San Simeon State Park. The present-day San Simeon pier was built in 1957; the name San Simeon refers to some geologic structures of the area elements of the coastal Jurassic-age landforms and ophiolite mineral formations. According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place covers an area of 0.8 square miles, all of it land. The original townsite of San Simeon is at San Simeon Bay, was the important 19th-century shipping point with the successive wharves that were built. San Simeon Acres, about 4 mi south of the original townsite at the mouth of Pico Creek, so about halfway between old San Simeon and Cambria, was established in the 1950s. Most of the development at San Simeon Acres was in the 1960s to the 1980s. Many motels and cafes serve visitors to Hearst Castle.
San Simeon and the Hearst Castle area has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, moderated by its relative proximity to the Pacific coastline. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Simeon had a population of 462; the population density was 579.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Simeon was 58.4% White, 0.9% African American, 1.1% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 34.6% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 55.8%. Of the 197 households, 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 7.1% had a female householder with no husband present 6.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 6.1% were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 2.5% were same-sex married couples or partnerships. The average household size was 2.34. About 61.4% of all households were families. The population was distributed as 22.9% under the age of 18, 6.7% aged 18 to 24, 24.2% aged 25 to 44, 28.1% aged 45 to 64, 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males. The 301 housing units averaged 377.8 per square mile, of which 44.2% were owner-occupied, 55.8% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.2%. Chamber of Commerce History of San Simeon and the Hearst Family History of San Simeon and Sebastian store
Morro Bay, California
Morro Bay is a waterfront city in San Luis Obispo County, California located along California State Route 1 on California's Central Coast. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 10,234, down from 10,350 at the 2000 census; the prehistory of Morro Bay relates to Chumash settlement near the mouth of Morro Creek. At least as early as the Millingstone Horizon thousands of years before present, there was an extensive settlement along the banks and terraces above Morro Creek; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portola expedition, came down Los Osos Valley and camped near today's Morro Bay on September 8, 1769. Franciscan missionary and expedition member Juan Crespi noted in his diary that "we saw a great rock in the form of a round morro". Morro Rock gave its name to the town; the descriptive term morro is common to the Spanish and Italian languages, the word is part of many place names where there is a distinctive and prominent hill-shaped rock formation. Note that the similar Spanish descriptive word "moro" indicates a bluish color rather than a shape.
The first recorded Filipinos to visit America arrived at Morro Bay on October 18, 1587, from the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza. While governed by Mexico, large land grants split the surrounding area into cattle and dairy ranchos; these ranchos needed shipping to bring in dry goods and to carry their crops and other farm products to cities. Thus, Morro Bay grew; the town of Morro Bay was founded by Franklin Riley in 1870 as a port for the export of dairy and ranch products. He was instrumental in the building of a wharf. During the 1870s, schooners could be seen at the Embarcadero picking up wool, potatoes and dairy products. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the town has been a center for beach holidays. Tourism is the city's largest industry, coexisting with the town's commercial fishery; the most popular beach is on the north side of Morro Rock, north of the harbor. There are excellent beaches north and south of the town which are now owned by the State of California. A subspecies of butterfly, the "Morro Bay Blue" or " Morro Blue" was first found at Morro beach, by the entomologist Robert F. Sternitzky, in June 1929.
In the 1940s, Morro Bay developed an abalone fishing industry. Halibut, rockfish and many other species are still caught by both commercial and sport vessels. In addition, oysters are aquacultured in the shallow back bay. A portion of Morro Bay is designated as a state and national bird sanctuary, it is a state and national estuary. Much of Morro Bay is a state wildlife area where waterfowl hunting is conducted during the season and is one of the few areas in California where Pacific brant are pursued. In 2007, the California Fish and Game Commission designated Morro Bay as a marine protected area named the Morro Bay State Marine Reserve. Morro Bay is located at 35°22′45″N 120°51′12″W. Morro Bay 35°20′16″N 120°51′05″W is the name of the large estuary, situated along the northern shores of the bay itself; the larger bay on which the local area lies is Estero Bay, which encompasses the communities of Cayucos and Los Osos. The city of Morro Bay is 20 km northwest of San Luis Obispo and is located on Highway 1.
Los Osos Creek discharges into Morro Bay. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.3 square miles, of which, 5.3 square miles of it is land and 5.0 square miles of it is water. The town's most striking feature is Morro Rock, a 576 foot high volcanic plug which stands at the entrance to the harbor, it was surrounded by water, but the northern channel was filled in to make the harbor. It was quarried from 1889 to 1969, in 1968, it was designated a Historical Landmark; the area around the base of Morro Rock is open to visitors, with parking paths. However, climbing the rock itself is prohibited except with a permit, both due to risk of injury, because it is a peregrine falcon reserve. Morro Rock is one in a series of similar plugs that stretch in a line inland called the Nine Sisters, it is possible. Morro Bay is a natural embayment with an artificial harbor constructed by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, it is the only all-weather small craft commercial and recreational harbor between Santa Barbara and Monterey.
Morro Rock was surrounded by water, but the Army built a large artificial breakwater and road across the north end of the harbor, linking Morro Rock and the mainland. Some of the rock used for this and for the artificial breakwaters was quarried from Morro Rock itself. Other rock was imported by barge from Catalina Island; the bay extends inland and parallels the shore for a distance of about 6.4 km south of its entrance at Morro Rock. Morro Bay is recognized for protection by the California Bays and Estuaries Policy. Only small craft are capable of passing the harbor channel. A large natural sandspit, augmented by breakwaters, protects the harbor from the Pacific Ocean to the west. At its northern end, remains of a bridge that used to connect the shore with the sandspit can be seen. Morro Bay Harbor's channel must be dredged every three to four years; the Shark Inlet connected the back bay to the ocean. Some have proposed reopening it to slow the sedimentation, filling up the bay. There has been work on reducing erosion in t
San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, California
San Miguel is a census-designated place in San Luis Obispo County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,336, up from 1,427 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Miguel had a population of 2,336; the population density was 1,369.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Miguel was 1,638 White, 65 African American, 58 Native American, 19 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 474 from other races, 81 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,196 persons; the Census reported that 2,324 people lived in households, 12 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 698 households, out of which 358 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 379 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 93 had a female householder with no husband present, 57 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 73 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 115 households were made up of individuals and 25 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33. There were 529 families; the population was spread out with 774 people under the age of 18, 262 people aged 18 to 24, 711 people aged 25 to 44, 481 people aged 45 to 64, 108 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.3 males. There were 791 housing units at an average density of 463.9 per square mile, of which 435 were owner-occupied, 263 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.7%. 1,399 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 925 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,427 people, 468 households, 335 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 852.3 people per square mile.
There were 503 housing units at an average density of 300.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 63.28% White, 1.47% African American, 2.73% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 23.83% from other races, 8.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.66% of the population. There were 468 households out of which 46.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families. 20.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.53. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 33.0% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.3 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $33,264, the median income for a family was $32,847. Males had a median income of $26,216 versus $20,134 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,444. About 6.1% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. San Miguel is home to the Mission San Miguel Arcángel, founded on 25 July 1797. Mission San Miguel Arcángel was founded on July 25, 1797 by the Franciscan order, on a site chosen due to the large number of Salinan Indians that inhabited the area, whom the Spanish priests wanted to evangelize, it is located at San Miguel, California, in San Luis Obispo County. The mission remains in use as a parish church to this day. After being closed to the public for six years due to the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, the church re-opened on December 22, 2009. Inside the church are murals by Esteban Munras. Father Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded the mission on July 25, 1797, making it the sixteenth California mission.
Its location between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio de Padua provided a stop on the trip that had taken two days. In 1803, the mission reported an Indian population of 908, while its lands grazed 809 cattle, 3,223 sheep, 342 horses and 29 mules; that year's harvest included about 2,186 fanegas of corn. Most of the mission burned, while still being developed, in 1806, it was rebuilt within a year. On July 15, 1836, the Mexican government secularized mission lands, including Mission San Miguel, Ygnacio Coronel took charge. In 1846, Governor Pío Pico sold the Mission for $600 to William Reed. Reed used the Mission as a store. In 1848, Reed and his family were murdered; the Mission was a stopping place for miners coming from Los Angeles to San Francisco, was was used as a saloon, dance hall and living quarters. In 1859, President James Buchanan returned the Mission to the Church. In 1878, after 38 years without a resident padre, Father Philip Farrelly became the "First Pastor" of Mission San Miguel Arcángel.
Through all the years the priests kept the church in condition and it is called the best-preserved church in
Hearst Castle, San Simeon, is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark located on the Central Coast of California in the United States. The joint concept of William Randolph Hearst, the publishing tycoon, his architect Julia Morgan, it was built between 1919 and 1947. Known formally as "La Cuesta Encantada", referred to as San Simeon, Hearst himself called his castle, the "Ranch", his father George Hearst had purchased the original 40,000 acre estate in 1865 and Camp Hill, the site for the future Hearst Castle, was used for family camping holidays during Hearst's youth. Following his mother's death in 1919 Hearst inherited some $11,000,000 and estates including the land at San Simeon. Hearst used his fortune to further develop his media empire of newspapers and radio stations, the profits from which supported a lifetime of building and collecting. Within a few months of Phoebe Hearst's demise, Hearst had commissioned Julia Morgan to build "something a little more comfortable up on the hill", the genesis of the present castle.
Morgan was an architectural pioneer. Working in close collaboration with Hearst for over twenty years, the castle at San Simeon is her most renowned creation. In the Roaring Twenties and into the 1930s, Hearst Castle reached its social peak. Intended as a family home for Hearst, his wife Millicent and their five sons, by 1925 Hearst had separated from his wife and held court at San Simeon with his mistress, the actress Marion Davies, their guest list comprised most of the Hollywood stars of the period. Political luminaries covered Calvin Coolidge and Winston Churchill while other notables included Charles Lindbergh, P. G. Wodehouse and George Bernard Shaw. Visitors gathered each evening at Casa Grande for drinks in the Assembly Room, dined in the Refectory and watched the latest movie in the Theatre before retiring to the luxurious accommodation provided by the guest houses of Casa del Mar, Casa del Monte and Casa del Sol. During the days, they admired the views, played tennis, bowls or golf and swam in the "most sumptuous swimming pool on earth".
While Hearst entertained, Morgan built. Hearst, his castle and his lifestyle were satirized by Orson Welles in his 1941 film Citizen Kane. In the film, which Hearst sought to suppress, Charles Foster Kane's palace Xanadu is said to contain, "paintings, statues, the stones of many another palace — a collection of everything so big it can never be catalogued or appraised. Welles' allusion referred to Hearst's mania for collecting, the dealer Joseph Duveen called him the "Great Accumulator". With a passion for acquisition from childhood, Hearst bought architectural elements, antiques, statuary and textiles on an epic scale. Shortly after starting San Simeon, Hearst began to conceive of making the castle "a museum of the best things that I can secure". Foremost among his purchases were architectural elements from Western Europe Spain. Much was incorporated into the fabric of Hearst Castle. In addition, Hearst assembled antiques of high quality. In May 1947 ill health compelled Marion Davies to leave the castle for the last time.
He died in Los Angeles in 1951. In 1958, the Hearst family gifted many of its contents to the State of California, it has since operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument and attracts in the region of three quarters of a million visitors per year. The Hearst family retains ownership of the majority of the 82,000 acre wider estate and, under a land conservation agreement reached in 2005, has worked with the California State Parks Department and American Land Conservancy to preserve the undeveloped character of the area. Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearst's father, George Hearst purchased in 1865; the younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips. He inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. Although the large ranch had a Victorian mansion, the location selected for Hearst Castle was undeveloped, atop a steep hill whose ascent was a dirt path accessible only by foot or on horseback over five miles of cutbacks.
The original ranch house, constructed by George Hearst in the 1870s, remains a private property maintained by the Hearst Corporation. Hearst and his family occupied Casa Grande for the first time at Christmas, 1925. Thereafter, Milicent Hearst went back to New York, from 1926 until she left with Hearst for the last time in 1947, Heart's mistress Marion Davies acted as his chatelaine at the castle; the Hollywood and politi
Bank of Italy (Paso Robles, California)
The Bank of Italy is a historic bank building located at 1245 Park St. in Paso Robles, California. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 19, 1998. Built in 1921, the three-story building is the tallest in Paso Robles. August Nyberg, the owner and architect of the bank, designed it in the Renaissance Revival style; the brick building's design features quoin-like corners, semicircular windows on the second floor with latticed glass and radiating brick borders, recessed transoms. The Bank of Italy and Midland Light and Power moved into the building in 1922, the bank purchased the building the following year. Bank of America acquired the Bank of Italy in 1930; the second floor of the building was used by various businesses, including several doctors, while the third floor held meetings for local fraternal organizations. Bank of America left the building in 1969. In 1992, art dealer Ali Salmanzadeh opened a gallery on the first floor.