Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Wellsboro is a borough in Tioga County, United States,52 miles northwest of Williamsport. Early in the 20th century, Wellsboro was the shipping point, in 1900,2,945 people lived here, in 1910,3,183 lived here. The population was 3,328 at the 2000 census and it is the county seat of Tioga County, and home to the Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania. Wellsboro was incorporated in 1830 and was named in honor of Mary Wells, wife of one of the original settlers, the town was the home of George W. Sears, a sportswriter for Forest and Stream magazine in the 1880s and an early environmentalist. His stories, appearing under the pen name, Nessmuk popularized self-guided canoe camping tours of the Adirondack lakes in open, lightweight solo canoes, the very-low-budget film maker John Polonia. was emloyed by BiLo Market for 22 years, as his movies did not pay the bills. He died in Wellsboro in 2008, the Robinson House, Jesse Robinson House, Wellsboro Armory, and Wellsboro Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Additional historical information can be found at http, //www. joycetice. com/towns/wellsboro. htm, Wellsboro is located at 41°44′48″N 77°18′7″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has an area of 4.9 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,328 people,1,469 households, the population density was 681.0 people per square mile. There were 1,602 housing units at a density of 327.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 98. 14% White,0. 39% African American,0. 18% Native American,0. 90% Asian,0. 18% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 57% of the population. 36. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 18. 2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.83. In the borough the population was out with 20. 9% under the age of 18,7. 7% from 18 to 24,23. 1% from 25 to 44,24. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 44 years, for every 100 females there were 80.9 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.3 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $30,169, and the median income for a family was $39,898. Males had an income of $37,083 versus $20,492 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $18,096, about 9. 5% of families and 14. 8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19. 8% of those under age 18 and 13. 9% of those age 65 or over. WNDA 1490AM and WNBT-FM are owned by Southern Belle LLC, the Wellsboro Gazette is a weekly print publication owned by Tioga Publishing Company which covers news in Wellsboro and surrounding towns
Government agencies, at the state and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts, the first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931. Properties within a district fall into one of two types of property and non-contributing. A contributing property, such as a 19th Century mansion, helps make a historic district historic, while a non-contributing property, such as a medical clinic. The contributing properties are key to a districts historic associations, historic architectural qualities. A property can change from contributing to non-contributing and vice versa if significant alterations take place, the ordinance declared that buildings in the district could not have changes made to their architectural features visible from the street.
By the mid-1930s, other U. S. cities followed Charlestons lead, an amendment to the Louisiana Constitution led to the 1937 creation of the Vieux Carre Commission, which was charged with protecting and preserving the French Quarter in the city of New Orleans. The city passed an ordinance that set standards regulating changes within the quarter. Other sources, such as the Columbia Law Review in 1963, the Columbia Law Review gave dates of 1925 for the New Orleans laws and 1924 for Charleston. The same publication claimed that two cities were the only cities with historic district zoning until Alexandria, Virginia adopted an ordinance in 1946. The National Park Service appears to refute this, in 1939, the city of San Antonio, enacted an ordinance that protected the area of La Villita, which was the citys original Mexican village marketplace. In 1941 the authority of local controls on buildings within historic districts was being challenged in court. In City of New Orleans vs Pergament Louisiana state appellate courts ruled that the design, beginning in the mid-1950s, controls that once applied to only historic districts were extended to individual landmark structures.
The United States Congress adopted legislation that declared the Georgetown neighborhood in Washington, by 1965,51 American communities had adopted preservation ordinances. By 1998, more than 2,300 U. S. towns, contributing properties are defined through historic district or historic preservation zoning laws, usually at the local level. Zoning ordinances pertaining to historic districts are designed to maintain a historic character by controlling demolition and alteration to existing properties. It can be any property, structure or object that adds to the integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, either local or federal. Definitions vary but, in general, they maintain the same characteristics, another key aspect of a contributing property is historic integrity
Lawrenceville is a borough in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The population was 627 at the 2000 census, the James Ford House and Judge John Ryon House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lawrenceville is located at 41°59′48″N 77°7′31″W and it is at the intersection of Pennsylvania Route 287 and Pennsylvania Route 49. The only traffic light in town can be found at this intersection, Lawrenceville is on the banks of the Tioga and Cowanesque rivers. The confluence of streams is just outside downtown Lawrenceville. Cowanesque Lake, a US Army Corps of Engineers flood prevention lake is just to the west of town on Pennsylvania Route 49, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.6 square miles, all of it land. The community is at the New York state line, and part of its development continues into the town of Lindley in Steuben County, as of the census of 2000, there were 627 people,262 households, and 175 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 1,143.2 people per square mile, there were 280 housing units at an average density of 510.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99. 20% White,0. 32% African American,0. 16% Native American and 0. 32% Asian, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 48% of the population. Of all households 27. 9% were made up of individuals and 13. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.81. In the borough the population was out with 24. 6% under the age of 18,9. 7% from 18 to 24,27. 0% from 25 to 44,19. 6% from 45 to 64. The median age was 37 years, for every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $29,896, and the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had an income of $32,171 versus $25,833 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $16,127, about 14. 5% of families and 15. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27. 0% of those under age 18 and 3. 3% of those age 65 or over.
While Lawrenceville is very small, there are a couple of family owned restaurants, there is a Dollar General and a small grocery store called Prestons. Some towns that are near Lawrenceville are Tioga, Pa, Mansfield, Pa. and Wellsboro, Tioga is about 5–7 minutes away and there is a skating rink and some family-owned restaurants. Mansfield is about 20 minutes away, and that is a larger town
James Ford House
James Ford House is a historic home located at Lawrenceville in Tioga County, Pennsylvania. It is a 2 1⁄2-story brick house built in 1831 in the late Federal style, congressman James Ford had this house built for his son. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, National Register of Historic Places listings in Tioga County, Pennsylvania
Morris Township, Tioga County, Pennsylvania
Morris Township is a township in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. The population was 606 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has an area of 73.5 square miles. Morris Township is bordered by Delmar Township to the north and it forms a U shape around the southern part of Duncan Township, bordering Duncan Township to the east and west. Bloss Township borders Morris Townships northeastern corner, liberty Township forms the eastern border. Lycoming County is on the border and Elk Township is on the western border. As of the census of 2000, there were 646 people,246 households, the population density was 8.8 people per square mile. There were 551 housing units at a density of 7. 5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98. 61% White,0. 15% African American,0. 46% Native American,0. 31% Asian, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 31% of the population. 21. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.97.
In the township the population was out with 23. 8% under the age of 18,4. 6% from 18 to 24,23. 7% from 25 to 44,26. 2% from 45 to 64. The median age was 43 years, for every 100 females there were 106.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.9 males, the median income for a household in the township was $27,885, and the median income for a family was $31,786. Males had an income of $21,625 versus $21,429 for females. The per capita income for the township was $13,519, about 11. 7% of families and 13. 7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14. 4% of those under age 18 and 10. 6% of those age 65 or over. Blackwell – A village on Pennsylvania Route 414 in the part of the township. Doane – A village on Pennsylvania Route 414 in the part of the township. Hoytville – A village at the junction of Pennsylvania Route 414, lorenton – A village on Pennsylvania Route 287 that is on the border with Pine Township in Lycoming County
Colton Point State Park
Colton Point State Park is a 368-acre Pennsylvania state park in Tioga County, Pennsylvania, in the United States. It is on the west side of the Pine Creek Gorge, known as the Grand Canyon of Pennsylvania, the park extends from the creek in the bottom of the gorge up to the rim and across part of the plateau to the west. Colton Point State Park is known for its views of the Pine Creek Gorge, and offers opportunities for picnicking, hiking and hunting, whitewater boating, and camping. Colton Point is surrounded by Tioga State Forest and its park, Leonard Harrison State Park. The park is on a state forest road in Shippen Township 5 miles south of U. S. Route 6, Pine Creek flows through the park and has carved the gorge through five major rock formations from the Devonian and Carboniferous periods. Native Americans once used the Pine Creek Path along the creek, the path was used by lumbermen, and became the course of a railroad from 1883 to 1988. Since 1996, the 62-mile Pine Creek Rail Trail has followed the creek through the gorge, the gorge is home to many species of plants and animals, some of which have been reintroduced to the area.
The park is named for Henry Colton, a Williamsport lumberman who cut timber there starting in 1879, the CCC built the facilities at Colton Point before and shortly after the parks 1936 opening. Most of the CCC-built facilities remain in use, and have led to the listing as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places. Since a successful publicity campaign in 1936, the park and gorge have been a popular tourist destination, humans have lived in what is now Pennsylvania since at least 10,000 BC. The first settlers were Paleo-Indian nomadic hunters known from their stone tools, the hunter-gatherers of the Archaic period, which lasted locally from 7000 to 1000 BC, used a greater variety of more sophisticated stone artifacts. The Woodland period marked the transition to semi-permanent villages and horticulture. Archeological evidence found in the state from this time includes a range of types and styles, burial mounds, pipes and arrows. Colton Point State Park is in the West Branch Susquehanna River drainage basin and they were a matriarchal society that lived in stockaded villages of large long houses, and occasionally inhabited the mountains surrounding the Pine Creek Gorge.
Their numbers were reduced by disease and warfare with the Five Nations of the Iroquois. After this, the lands of the West Branch Susquehanna River valley were under the control of the Iroquois. The Iroquois lived in houses, primarily in what is now New York. The Seneca tribe of the Iroquois believed that Pine Creek Gorge was sacred land and they used the path through the gorge and had seasonal hunting camps along it, including one just north of the park near what would be the village of Ansonia
U.S. Route 6
U. S. Route 6, called the Grand Army of the Republic Highway, honoring the American Civil War veterans association, is a main route of the U. S. Highway system. While it currently runs east-northeast from Bishop, California to Provincetown, the highways longest-lasting routing, from 1936 to 1964, had its western terminus at Long Beach, California. During this time, US6 was the longest highway in the country, in 1964, the state of California renumbered its highways, and most of the route within California was transferred to other highways. This dropped the highways length below that of US20, US6 is a diagonal route, whose number is out of sequence with the rest of the U. S. Highway grid in the western US. When it was designated in 1926, US6 only ran east of Erie, subsequent extensions, largely replacing the former U. S. Route 32 and U. S. US6 does not serve a major corridor, unlike other highways. George R. Stewart, author of U. S, the modern US6 in California is a short, two-lane, north–south surface highway from Bishop to the Nevada state line.
Prior to a 1964 highway renumbering project, US6 extended to Long Beach along what is now US395, California 14, Interstate 5, Interstate 110/California 110, despite the renumbering having removed all freeway portions, it is still part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. US 6s former routing included a segment of the famous Arroyo Seco Parkway. Currently, US6 begins at US395 in Bishop and heads north between farms and ranches in the Chalfant Valley at the base of the 14, 000-foot western escarpment of the White Mountains, after about 30 miles Benton is reached, which has a cafe and gas station. California 120 begins here, heading west past Mono Lake through Lee Vining, over Tioga Pass, US6 continues north to the Nevada state line. From the California border, US6 heads northeast through semi-desert Queen Valley with Boundary Peak, Nevadas highest summit and these twin peaks are the northernmost high summits of the White Mountains, both over 13,000 ft. The highway climbs into the Pinyon-Juniper zone and crosses Montgomery Pass 7,167 ft, from the pass, US6 descends into barren shadscale desert, passing Columbus Salt Marsh on the left, merging with US95 from Coaldale Junction to Tonopah.
Nevada Test and Training Range begins about 15 mi southeast of Tonopah, just east of Tonopah, US6 continues east across a series of desert mountain ranges and valleys, including the Monitor Range. Rainfall increases eastward, so become less barren and peaks over 11,500 ft add scenic interest. Ely is the largest town on Route 6 in Nevada, US50 joins Route 6 at Ely. East of Ely, Routes 6/50 cross the Schell Creek Range, known for verdant forests and meadows, and for a large deer and elk population. The highway descends to Spring Valley, crosses the Snake Range at Sacramento Pass, north of Nevadas second-highest mountain, Wheeler Peak, beyond the pass, US6 passes just north of Baker, a Mormon farming community, and reaches the Utah state line
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate