Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Goh Keng Swee
Goh Keng Swee, DUT, was the second Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore between 1973 and 1984, a Member of Parliament for the Kreta Ayer constituency for a quarter of a century. Born in Malacca in the Straits Settlements into a Peranakan family, he came to Singapore at the age of two years, he was a student at Raffles College and the London School of Economics and Political Science, his interest in politics began during his time in London, where he met fellow students seeking independence for British Malaya. From 1945 onwards he worked for the Department of Social Welfare rising to become its director. In 1958 he resigned from the Civil Service to work full-time for the People's Action Party, becoming a key member and vice-chairman of its Central Executive Committee; the following year he contested the Kreta Ayer seat in the 1959 general election for the Legislative Assembly, joined the first government of Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew as Minister for Finance. Upon Singapore's independence on 9 August 1965, Goh became the nation's first Minister for the Interior and Defence.
He subsequently served as Minister for Defence and Minister for Education. Following his retirement from politics, Goh continued to be active in public life, serving as deputy chairman of the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation. M. Rothschild & Sons Ltd.. In 1972, Goh was the recipient of the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Government Services, was conferred the Order of Sikatuna by the Philippine Government. Following his retirement from politics, in 1985 Goh was awarded the Darjah Utama Temasek, First Class, Singapore's highest civilian honour, he was made the first Distinguished Fellow of the Economic Development Board Society in 1991. Goh was diagnosed with bladder cancer in September 1983 and he retired from politics in December 1984, he kept a low profile but remained active with various organisations where he served on the board or as an adviser. After he married Phua Swee Liang in 1991, the couple travelled to places such as Australia and Hawaii. However, a series of strokes in the late 1990s and early 2000s took a heavy toll on him.
He was bedridden in his final years and died on 14 May 2010. Goh Keng Swee was born in Malacca in the Straits Settlements on 6 October 1918 into a middle-income Peranakan family, the fifth of six children, his father Goh Leng Inn was a manager of a rubber plantation, while his mother Tan Swee Eng was from the family that produced the Malaysian politicians Tun Tan Cheng Lock and his son, Tun Tan Siew Sin, who would become Goh's lifelong political opponent. Goh was given the Christian name Robert, which he refused to respond to; when he was two years old, his family moved from Malacca to Singapore where his maternal grandparents owned several properties. The Gohs relocated to the Pasir Panjang rubber estate when his father found work there, became manager in 1933. In common with many Peranakan families, the Gohs spoke both Malay at home. Goh's father Leng Inn and the latter's brothers-in-law Chew Cheng Yong and Goh Hood Keng taught in the Anglo-Chinese School for various periods, were involved in the Middle Road Baba Church while Hood Keng was pastor there.
Goh himself attended this church as well. After studying at the Anglo-Chinese Primary School and the Anglo-Chinese Secondary School between 1927 and 1936 where he was second in his class in the Senior Cambridge Examinations, Goh went on to graduate from Raffles College in 1939 with a Class II Diploma in Arts with a special distinction in economics, he joined the colonial Civil Service as a tax collector with the War Tax Department but, according to his superiors, was not good at his job and was fired. Shortly after the start of World War II, he joined the Singapore Volunteer Corps, a local militia, but returned to his previous work after the fall of Singapore. Goh married Alice Woon, a secretary, a colleague, in 1942 and they had their only child, Goh Kian Chee, two years later. In 1945 he relocated his young family to Malacca, but they returned to Singapore the following year after the Japanese occupation ended; that year, he joined the Department of Social Welfare, was active in post-war administration.
He became supervisor of the Department's Research Section six months later. Goh won a scholarship which enabled him to further his studies at the London School of Economics and Political Science. During his time in London, Goh met fellow students seeking independence for British Malaya, including Abdul Razak, Maurice Baker, Lee Kuan Yew and Toh Chin Chye. A student discussion group, the Malayan Forum, was organised in 1948 with Goh as the founding chairman. Goh graduated with first class honours in economics in 1951, won the William Farr Prize for achieving the highest marks in statistics. Upon his return t
Resident Identity Card
The Chinese identity card is an official identity document for personal identification in the People's Republic of China. According to the second chapter, tenth clause of the Resident Identity Card Law, residents are required to apply for resident identity cards from the local Public Security Bureau, sub-bureaus or local executive police stations. Prior to 1984, citizens within the People's Republic of China were not required to obtain or carry identification in public. On April 6, 1984, the State Council of the People's Republic of China passed the Identity Card Provisional Bill, commencing the process of gradual introduction of personal identification, in the footsteps of many developed countries at the time; the first generation identification cards were single paged cards made of polyester film. Between 1984 and 1991, trials for the new identity card system took place in Beijing and Tianjin. Shan Xiurong, a Chinese Opera performer and soprano from Beijing, was the first person to receive a first-generation identity card in China.
On September 6, 1985, the Standing Committee of the 12th National People's Congress passed the Identity Card Bill of the People's Republic of China, which regulated that all citizens over the age of 16 apply for identification cards. At that point, the Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China created a unified authority responsible for the issuing and management of the ID cards. From 2003, it is reported that a total of 1.14 billion ID cards have been created in China, for a total of 960,000,000 holders. However, as a result of technological development and certain techniques made available to the civilian population, the existing cards became easier to counterfeit, opening the increasing threat of false identification. On June 1, 2003, the National People's Congress passed the new Resident Identity Card Law, which expanded the scope of documents issued, allowed soldiers in the People's Liberation Army and members of the People's Armed Police to apply for special identity cards.
Individuals under the age of 16 were permitted to voluntarily apply for an identification card. The law established the use of newer, second-generation cards, which are machine-readable and more difficult to forge; the identity card contains basic information regarding the individual, such as the following: Reverse side Full name – in Chinese characters only. Non-Chinese ethnic names and foreign names are transliterated into Chinese. First-generation ID cards contained handwritten names for rare Chinese characters, whilst the second-generation cards used computer-printed text in a larger font compared to that of the first generation, do not support rarer characters. Gender – containing one character for either male or female. Ethnicity – as listed by the People's Republic of China. Date of birth – listed in the Gregorian calendar format, in YYYY年MM月DD日 Big-endian order. Domicile – the individual's permanent residence as dictated by the Identity Card Bill of the People's Republic of China. Identification number Photo of the individualObverse side Issuing authority The limits to validity of the document Information stored in the identity database for second-generation ID cards includes work history, educational background, ethnicity, police record, medical insurance status, landlord's phone number and personal reproductive history.
In addition, more detailed personal information can be obtained by viewing hukou information from the card database. Starting on January 1, 2013, Beijing has started trials to include fingerprints in the ID cards, making it more difficult to forge ID cards or for people to use the ID cards of others. In 1984, discussion over the contents of the identity card became controversial regarding whether to include details such as "marital status" and "occupation"; the first-generation ID cards contained a black-and-white photograph portrait of the individual. From 1 January 2013 a mandatory switch to the second-generation cards came into force. If used, first-generation cards are treated as expired ID cards, will not be accepted, it is a criminal offense to accept first-generation ID cards if the person who accepts it know that it is a first-generation card. The dimensions of the second-generation cards are 85.725 mm×53.975 mm×0.900 mm, the identity photo is sized at 358x441 pixels, printed at a resolution of 350dpi on RGB using 24-bit True Color, prepared using JPEG compression techniques in line with the requirements of ISO DIS 10918-1.
The final image appears. Within the ethnic minority regions in China, identity cards possess corresponding text in the respective minority language for both first-generation and second-generation cards. For example, cards signed and issued in Guangxi all contain accompanying text in Zhuang, as well as Chinese characters. According to the fourth clause of the Resident Identity Card Law, "based on the de facto situation within the organs of self-government within autonomous ethnic regions, the content of the resident identity card can, alongside Chinese charact
Macau Resident Identity Card
The Macau Resident Identity Card or BIR is an official identity card issued by the Direcção dos Serviços de Identificação of Macau. There are two types of Resident Identity Cards: one for permanent residents, one for non-permanent residents; the Macau resident ID card, is for permanent residents of Macau, is valid for travel to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, as long as the visit is no longer than 180 days and for business, transit or leisure. The current generation of contactless electronic identity card were first issued in 2013, replacing the first generation contact-based electronic identity card issued from 2002; the cards replace the old Bilhete de Identidade Cidadão Estrangeiro. Holder of the Certificate of Entitlement to the Right of abode in the Macau SAR, or Born in Macau and one of the applicant's parents was a Macau resident at the time of birth The Macau resident ID card, is for non-permanent residents of Macau. Holder of One-way Exit Permit of the People's Republic of China, Holder of a Certificado de Residência issued by the police in Macau, or Holders of Residence Permit "Guia de Autorização de Residência" New applications for a BIR require a valid birth certificate.
Other documents may be required depending on the applicants status in Macau and mainland China. To renew the BIR, the old BIR, photograph and documentation to prove any change in status is required. There is an additional fee if the original BIR can not be presented at time of application for renewal. Embedded chip Digital photograph Surname, Given Name Date of Birth Date of Issue Validity Date - expiry date Date of First Issue Signature ID number Multiple laser image of photo, ID number and date of birth) Code for place of birth and sex Height Name of type of card in Chinese and Portuguese Reference to legal references on the issuance of this card Machine-readable zone Seal of the Government of Macau The Macau Resident Identity Card by itself can be used to travel to Hong Kong, as long as the card is a permanent card, regardless of nationality, the holder is able to stay for up to 180 days in Hong Kong visa-free. Macao Special Administrative Region passport Macao Special Administrative Region Travel Permit Visit Permit for Residents of Macao to HKSAR Politics of Macau Wealth Partaking Scheme Hong Kong Identity Card Resident Identity Card used in the People's Republic of China Application of Macao SAR Resident Identity Card - Direcção dos Serviços de Identificação Certificate of Entitlement to the Right of Abode in the Macau - Direcção dos Serviços de Identificação
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades. Lee is recognised as the nation's founding father, with the country described as transitioning from the "third world to first world in a single generation" under his leadership. After attending the London School of Economics, Lee graduated from Fitzwilliam College, with double starred-first-class honours in law. In 1950, he became a barrister of the Middle Temple and practised law until 1959. Lee co-founded the People's Action Party in 1954 and was its first secretary-general until 1992, leading the party to eight consecutive victories. After Lee chose to step down as Prime Minister in 1990, he served as Senior Minister under his successor, Goh Chok Tong until 2004 as Minister Mentor until 2011, under his son Lee Hsien Loong. In total, Lee held successive ministerial positions for 56 years, he continued to serve his Tanjong Pagar constituency for nearly 60 years as a member of parliament until his death in 2015.
From 1991, he helmed the 5-member Tanjong Pagar GRC, remained unopposed for a record five elections. Lee campaigned for Britain to relinquish its colonial rule, attained through a national referendum to merge with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963, but racial strife and ideological differences led to its separation to become a sovereign city-state two years later. With overwhelming parliamentary control at every election, Lee oversaw Singapore's transformation from a British crown colony with a natural deep harbour to a developed economy. In the process, he forged a system of meritocratic effective and incorrupt government and civil service. Many of his policies are now taught at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. Lee eschewed populist policies in favour of long-term economic planning, he championed meritocracy and multiracialism as governing principles, making English the common language to integrate its immigrant society and to facilitate trade with the West, whilst mandating bilingualism in schools to preserve students' mother tongue and ethnic identity.
His rule was criticised for curtailing civil liberties and bringing libel suits against political opponents. He argued that such disciplinary measures were necessary for political stability which, together with rule of law, were essential for economic progress, famously saying:Anybody who decides to take me on needs to put on knuckle-dusters. If you think you can hurt me more than I can hurt you, try. There is no other way. On 23 March 2015, Lee Kuan Yew died of pneumonia, at 91. In a week of national mourning, 1.7 million residents and guests paid tribute to him at his lying-in-state at Parliament House and at community tribute sites around the island. Lee was a fourth-generation Singaporean of ethnic Chinese ancestry of Hakka and Peranakan descent, his Hakka great-grandfather, Lee Bok Boon, born in 1846, emigrated from Dabu County, China, to Singapore in 1863. He married a shopkeeper's daughter, Seow Huan Nio, but returned to China in 1882, leaving behind his wife and three children, he died just two years after his return.
Lee Kuan Yew's grandfather Lee Hoon Leong, was born in Singapore in 1871. He was educated in English at Raffles Institution, graduated with the top mark among Malay and other Singaporean students in the school. Lee Hoon Leong worked as a dispenser, an unqualified pharmacist, as a purser on a steamship of the Heap Eng Moh Shipping Line owned by a Chinese Indonesian businessman, Oei Tiong Ham. While working as a purser, Lee Hoon Leong, aged 26, married 16-year-old Ko Liem Nio, an Indonesian Peranakan, in Semarang, Dutch East Indies, it was an arranged marriage, as was the custom. Both families were middle-class, the bride and groom were both English-educated. Lee Hoon Leong's maternal grandfather owned the Katong market, a few rubber estates and houses at Orchard Road. Lee Hoon Leong became managing director of the Heap Eng Moh Steamship Company Ltd. Lee Hoon Leong had two wives, common at that time, fathered five daughters and three sons, his son Lee Chin Koon was educated in English too. He married Chua Jim Neo, a Peranakan, who gave birth to Lee Kuan Yew, their first child, in 1923, in Singapore.
Lee Kuan Yew had three younger brothers: Dennis Lee Kim Yew, Freddy Lee Thiam Yew and Dr Lee Suan Yew. Like Lee Kuan Yew, his brother Dennis read law at the University of Cambridge, they set up a law firm, Lee & Lee. Edmund W. Barker, Lee's close friend joined the law firm. Lee and Barker left the law firm to enter politics. Lee's brother Freddy became a stockbroker. Lee Kuan Yew's grandfathers' wealth declined during the Great Depression. However, his father had a secure job as a shopkeeper at Shell, where he was promoted to depot manager and provided with a chauffeured car and house, his aunt, Lee Choo Neo, was the first female doctor to practice in Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew once described his father as a man who affected his family negatively due to his nasty temper, Lee Kuan Yew learned from a young age to keep his temper in check. Lee's English-educated parents named him'Kuan Yew', which stands for'light and brightness', with an alternate meaning'bringing great glory to one's ancestors', his paternal grandfather gave him the
Yang Mulia Seri Paduka Tun Haji Yusof bin Ishak was a Singaporean politician, the first President of Singapore, serving from 1965 to 1970. He was chosen by the Parliament of Singapore in 1970. Before becoming head-of-state, Yusof was a well-known journalist and co-founded Utusan Melayu, still in publication today, he started journalism after he graduated from Raffles Institution in 1929 and in 1932, he joined Warta Malaya, a well-known Malay newspaper company at that time. He co-founded Utusan Melayu. Tun Yusof held many appointments within the Singaporean government, he served on the Film Appeal Committee from 1948 to 1950 and was a member of both the Nature Reserves Committee and Malayanisation Commission for a year. In July 1959, he was appointed Chairman of Singapore, he was sworn on 3 December 1959 as Singapore's Yang di-Pertuan Negara after the PAP won the first election held in Singapore after Singapore's self-governance. Yusof became the first President of Singapore after the country gained independence on 9 August 1965.
His portrait appears on the Singapore Portrait Series currency notes introduced in 1999. Born on 12 August 1910 in Terong, Perak Darul Ridzuan, part of the Federated Malay States, Yusof was the eldest son in a family of nine, he was of Minangkabau descent from his father's side while his mother was a Malay from the Langkat region in Indonesia. His father, Ishak bin Ahmad, was a civil servant and held the post of Acting Director of Fisheries, Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, his brother, Aziz Ishak, was a Malayan freedom fighter. Yusof received his early education in a Malay school in Kuala Kurau and began his English studies in 1921 at King Edward VII School in Taiping, He was admitted to Victoria Bridge School in 1923 when his father was posted to Singapore. In 1924, he was enrolled in Raffles Institution for his secondary education. During his time in Raffles Institution, he played various sports such as swimming, weight lifting, water-polo, boxing and cricket and had represented the school in various sporting events.
He was part of the Singapore National Cadet Corps and was commissioned as the first cadet officer in the Corps due to his outstanding performance. Yusof received his Cambridge School Certificate with distinction in 1927, he was awarded the Queen's Scholarship and decided to prolong his studies at Raffles Institution until 1929. After graduating from Raffles Institution in 1929, Yusof began his career as a journalist and went into partnership with two other friends to publish, Sportsman, a sports magazine devoted to sports. In 1932, Yusof joined a well-known newspaper during that time. Warta Malaya was influenced by developments in the Middle East and Yusof wanted a newspaper dedicated to Malay issues, he fulfilled his vision by establishing Utusan Melayu with several Malay leaders in Singapore in May 1939. During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, Utusan Melayu had to stop circulation as machinery used to print the paper were requisitioned to publish the Japanese paper, Berita Malai. Yusof moved back to Taiping and with the remaining money he had, he opened a provision shop and lived there until the war ended in 1945 and Utusan Melayu resumed publication.
In 1957, Yusof moved to Kuala Lumpur and in February 1958, the headquarters of Utusan Melayu was relocated to the city. During the post-war period, many Malays wanted independence of Malaya from the British and Yusof, fanned this fervour through his publications which resulted in the formation of the United Malay Nationalist Organisation in 1946. However, his democratic ideals were different from UMNO's vision of reestablishing the monarchy of Malaya; this resulted in rising tensions within the Utusan Melayu and in 1959, Yusof had sold his shares he had in the company and resigned as UMNO had bought over all of the shares of Utusan Melayu. Yusof held several appointments within the Singaporean government, he had served on the Film Appeal Committee from 1948 to 1950 and was a member of both the Nature Reserves Committee and Malayanisation Commission for a year. After his resignation from Utusan Melayu, Yusof took the position of Chairman of the Public Service Commission of Singapore at the invitation of Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew.
After PAP's victory from the 1959 Singaporean elections, Yusof was appointed as Yang di-Pertuan Negara and was sworn on 3 December 1959. During his time as Yang di-Pertuan Negara, Singapore was divided by racial conflicts. Yusof promoted multiculturalism and reached out to people of all races to help restore trust and confidence after the 1964 racial riots. On 9 August 1965, Singapore became an independent nation; the position of Yang di-Pertuan Negara was abolished and Yusof became the first President of Singapore. As president, Yusof reached out to the people to reassure citizens astonished by Singapore's expulsion and continued to promote multiculturalism and a national identity within the country by visiting constituencies and reached out to different racial and religious groups. Yusof served for three terms in office. Yusof is survived by his wife of twenty one years, Puan Noor Aishah, their three children, Orkid Kamariah and Zuriana. Puan Noor Aishah continued her husband's legacy of public service and was the first Asian to become president of the Singapore Girl Guides Association.
She and her now adult children were interviewed for the Channel NewsAsia documentary Daughters of Singapore
South African identity card
The South African smart identity card – known as a Smart ID Card – replaces the old green bar-coded identity book. Both are identity documents; this proof includes a person's photograph, their full name, their date of birth, their place of birth, their unique identity number. South African identity documents include evidence of votes cast in local and national elections, as a means to prevent voter fraud. Identity documents are issued to South African citizens or permanent residence permit holders who are 15 years and six months or older. People, including spouses and children, who are working for the South African government or one of its statutory bodies outside of South Africa qualify to receive a South African identity document. Identity documents are issued by South Africa's National Department of Home Affairs; as of January 2019, South Africans citizens born outside of South Africa, as well as permanent residents, still cannot apply for the new ID card, nor access the online services of Home Affairs.
Only South African citizens born in South Africa may apply for the new Smart ID card. The card is not available to South Africans citizens born outside of South Africa, or South African permanent residents, whom need to apply instead for the old green ID book. South African citizens born in South Africa can apply for a smart ID card in two ways: they can either apply at their local home affairs, or they can apply online at the Home Affairs e-Channel website; the website provides a step-by-step guide on. People in South Africa who need help with applying for their smart ID card can call the Department of Home Affairs contact centre on 0800 601 190. Surname First name Sex Nationality Identity number Date of birth Country of birth South African citizenship status Primary image on front of card, secondary image on back of card Signature National identity cards Department of Home Affairs, Know your new Smart ID Card Department of Home Affairs, Identity documents