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National Republican Congressional Committee

The National Republican Congressional Committee is the Republican Hill committee which works to elect Republicans to the United States House of Representatives. The NRCC was formed in 1866, when the Republican caucuses of the House and Senate formed a "Congressional Committee", it supports the election of Republicans to the House through direct financial contributions to candidates and Republican Party organizations. It is a registered 527 group; the NRCC is always chaired by a Republican member of the House, who may serve up to two consecutive terms. The current chair is Rep. Tom Emmer of Minnesota. Former chairmen include Rep. Joseph W. Babcock, Rep. Frank P. Woods, Rep. Simeon D. Fess, Rep. William R. Wood, Rep. Chester C. Bolton, Rep. Joseph W. Martin Jr. Rep. J. William Ditter, Rep. Charles A. Halleck, Rep. Leonard W. Hall, Rep. Richard M. Simpson, Rep. William E. Miller, Bob Wilson, Rep. Robert H. Michel, Rep. Guy Vander Jagt, Rep. Bill Paxon, Rep. John Linder, Rep. Tom Davis, Rep. Tom Reynolds, Rep. Tom Cole, Rep. Pete Sessions, Rep. Greg Walden and Rep. Steve Stivers.

It is governed by an Executive Committee of 11 members, which includes the party's Leader in the House ex officio, other members elected by the Republican Conference following a House election. The Chairman is elected by the House Republican Conference after each congressional election; the eight elected leaders of the Republican Conference of the House of Representatives serve as ex officio members of the NRCC's executive committee. The day-to-day operations of the NRCC are overseen by Executive Director Parker Poling, who manages a staff involved in campaign strategy development and management, digital, fundraising and legal compliance. In addition to Chairman Stivers, several other members of the House of Representatives aid the efforts of the Committee by overseeing various areas important to the NRCC; the NRCC is broken down into several internal divisions which have various areas of responsibility: Executive, Research, Finance and Digital. Founded in the 2007–2008 election cycle by Congressmen Eric Cantor, Kevin McCarthy and Paul Ryan, the Young Guns program began as an organization of House Republicans dedicated to electing open seat and challenger candidates nationwide.

The Young Guns fostered a strategy of opposing anything proposed by President Obama and earned the Republican Party moniker "The Party of No." During the 2008 cycle, through a partnership of Republican volunteers, donors and 59 members of the House of Representatives, five House GOP challengers won against incumbent Democrats. Four of those were Young Guns – Tom Rooney, Bill Cassidy, Lynn Jenkins, Pete Olson. Under the leadership of Chairman Sessions, the NRCC adopted the Young Guns program as the candidate recruitment and training program for House Republicans, it is designed to assist Republican candidates for the House of Representatives. At a 2009 Republican leadership retreat, Congressman Pete Sessions held up an example of the Taliban waging "asymmetric warfare" against their enemies, he stated "the purpose of the minority was to become the majority." This program is open to all Republican candidates – regardless of a primary or convention situation in their districts – with the ultimate goal of ensuring whoever the Republican nominee is, they are able to build the strongest campaign possible.

Those enrolled work with NRCC staff to meet rigorous benchmarks designed to improve their campaign structure, fundraising and online strategy. There are three levels of the Young Guns program – "On the Radar," "Contender," and "Young Gun." In 2010, 92 campaigns were granted "Young Gun" status. Beginning in 2015, the pilot Patriot Program provided funding to support 12 Republican candidates in key districts that voted Democrat in presidential elections; the program provides fundraising and organizational assistance with the goal of preserving a Republican majority in Congress. The incumbent candidates are considered close contests; the current candidates endorsed by the Patriot Program are Rep. David Valadao, Rep. Will Hurd, Rep. Barbara Comstock, Rep. Steve Knight, Rep. Brian Fitzpatrick, Rep. John Faso, Rep. Brian Mast, Rep. Jason Lewis and Rep. Claudia Tenney. In 2000 and 2002, one-third of the committee's $210.8 million raised. The committee held record-breaking events featuring President George W. Bush.

After the ban of soft money donations, the NRCC's fundraising sources and techniques have been criticized. For the 2004 election cycle, its top three donors included two Indian tribal clients of Jack Abramoff. Others include gambling interests. On September 21, 2006 Chairman Tom Reynolds met with lobbyists in Washington, D. C. to warn them to contribute only to Republicans and not to challengers from the Democratic Party because their donations would be tracked and they would lose favors among the Republican members of Congress. Similar activities of the K Street Project occurred when Davis was head of the NRCC; the NRCC has offered awards such as "

Opinion polling for the November 2015 Turkish general election

In the leadup to the November 2015 general election, various organisations carried out opinion polling to gauge voting intention. Results of such polls are displayed in this article; these polls only include Turkish voters nationwide and do not take into account Turkish expatriates voting abroad. The results tend to vary widely. Opposition parties tend to regard such polls as unreliable and have presented legislation to Parliament tightening restrictions on how opinion polls conduct their research. After the previous election in June 2015, the polling company ORC issued a written statement apologising for the inaccuracies in their pre-election polls. KONDA, another polling company, made an apology for similar reasons after their predictions varied with the actual result after the 2014 presidential election; the following table shows the most accurate polling companies based on the last opinion polls conducted by each company before the June 2015 vote, taking into account the domestic-only vote shares won in the election.

According to media reports, Turkey's Justice and Development Party government has attempted to suppress polling companies who publish polls predicting that the AKP will lose seats in the election. Gezici Research and Polling Company have had some of their pollsters arrested in February and September 2015, after predicting that the AKP will lose power in the next election. Opinion polling for the Turkish general election, June 2015

1925 in radio

The year 1925 saw a number of significant events in radio broadcasting history. 1 January – In Sweden, AB Radiotjänst broadcasts its first programme. 27 January – Australia's second oldest existing radio station, 2HD, goes on air for the first time in Newcastle, New South Wales. 1 February – The Polish Radiotechnical Society makes its first official broadcast from Warsaw. 22 February – First radio transmission of a religious service in Denmark, from the Garrison Church in Copenhagen. 8 March – Westinghouse Electric, owner of KDKA among other stations, announces from its Pittsburgh headquarters a proposal to form "radio networks" via shortwave technology. 1 April – In Denmark, Radioordningen is established. 23 April – KRO is established in the Netherlands. 17 June – In Spain, Unión Radio opens station EAJ-7 Radio Madrid. 7 July – Inauguration in France of state radio station Marseille PTT. 25 September – The Berliner Funkturm begins transmissions. 1 November – VARA is established in the Netherlands.

14 January – First broadcast on Swedish national radio of one of the world's longest-running radio programmes, Barnens brevlåda, which will run for 1,785 editions – all presented by "Uncle Sven" – until 1972. 21 March – Lowell Thomas is first heard on the radio on Pittsburgh station KDKA. 8 April – Station WADC commences regular programming in Akron, Ohio. It had debuted earlier as a temporary station during a car show held at the Central Garage, the call letters standing for the station's sponsor, the Automotive Dealers Company. Known since June 2, 2005 as WARF, it is today Akron's oldest surviving radio station. 4 October – The Atwater Kent Hour debuts on WEAF and 10 other connected stations. 5 October – WSM signs on in Nashville, Tennessee. 15 November – First transmission from Radio RV-10 in the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. 28 November – The weekly country music-variety program Grand Ole Opry is first broadcast on WSM radio in Nashville, Tennessee, as the "WSM Barn Dance". 24 December – KMOX begins broadcasting in St. Louis, Missouri.

April – WGI-Medford Hillside, Massachusetts declares bankruptcy and shuts down for good. Undated – WAAB 1150 AM ceases broadcasting. 1150 AM will return the next year as WJBO. 15 May – Regis Cordic, American radio personality and actor 25 May – Derek Cooper, English food writer and broadcaster 7 July – Wally Phillips, American radio personality 8 September – Peter Sellers, English comic actor 28 September – Jerry Clower, American country music comedian 27 October – Monica Sims, British radio executive 31 October – Shirley Dinsdale, American ventriloquist 11 November – June Whitfield, English comic actress