Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 CE. Mummies of humans and other animals have found on every continent. Over one million animal mummies have been found in Egypt, many of which are cats, in addition to the well-known mummies of ancient Egypt, deliberate mummification was a feature of several ancient cultures in areas of America and Asia with very dry climates. The Spirit Cave mummies of Fallon, Nevada in North America were accurately dated at more than 9,400 years old. Before this discovery, the oldest known deliberate mummy was a child, one of the Chinchorro mummies found in the Camarones Valley, which dates around 5050 BCE. The oldest known naturally mummified corpse is a severed head dated as 6,000 years old. These substances were defined as mummia, the OED defines a mummy as the body of a human being or animal embalmed as a preparation for burial, citing sources from 1615 CE onward.
However, Chambers Cyclopædia and the Victorian zoologist Francis Trevelyan Buckland define a mummy as follows, applied to the frozen carcase of an animal imbedded in prehistoric snow. Wasps of the genus Aleiodes are known as mummy wasps because they wrap their prey as mummies. While interest in the study of mummies dates as far back as Ptolemaic Greece, prior to this, many rediscovered mummies were sold as curiosities or for use in pseudoscientific novelties such as mummia. The first modern scientific examinations of mummies began in 1901, conducted by professors at the English-language Government School of Medicine in Cairo, Egypt. The first X-ray of a mummy came in 1903, when professors Grafton Elliot Smith, British chemist Alfred Lucas applied chemical analyses to Egyptian mummies during this same period, which returned many results about the types of substances used in embalming. Lucas made significant contributions to the analysis of Tutankhamun in 1922, pathological study of mummies saw varying levels of popularity throughout the 20th century.
In 1992, the First World Congress on Mummy Studies was held in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, more than 300 scientists attended the Congress to share nearly 100 years of collected data on mummies. This was not possible prior to the Congress due to the unique, in more recent years, CT scanning has become an invaluable tool in the study of mummification by allowing researchers to digitally unwrap mummies without risking damage to the body. The level of detail in such scans is so intricate that small linens used in areas such as the nostrils can be digitally reconstructed in 3-D. Such modelling has been utilized to perform autopsies on mummies to determine cause of death and lifestyle. Mummies are typically divided into one of two categories, anthropogenic or spontaneous
Athanasius Kircher, S. J. was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion and medicine. Kircher has been compared to fellow Jesuit Roger Boscovich and to Leonardo da Vinci for his enormous range of interests and he taught for more than forty years at the Roman College, where he set up a wunderkammer. A resurgence of interest in Kircher has occurred within the community in recent decades. Kircher claimed to have deciphered the writing of the ancient Egyptian language. He did, correctly establish the link between the ancient Egyptian and the Coptic languages, and some regard him as the founder of Egyptology. Kirchers work in geology included studies of volcanoes and fossils, Kircher displayed a keen interest in technology and mechanical inventions, inventions attributed to him include a magnetic clock, various automatons and the first megaphone. The invention of the lantern is often misattributed to Kircher. A scientific star in his day, towards the end of his life he was eclipsed by the rationalism of René Descartes, in the late 20th century, the aesthetic qualities of his work again began to be appreciated.
One modern scholar, Alan Cutler, described Kircher as a giant among seventeenth-century scholars, another scholar, Edward W. Schmidt, referred to Kircher as the last Renaissance man. Kircher was born on 2 May in either 1601 or 1602 in Geisa, near Fulda, currently Hesse, from his birthplace he took the epithets Bucho and Fuldensis which he sometimes added to his name. He attended the Jesuit College in Fulda from 1614 to 1618, the youngest of nine children, Kircher studied volcanoes owing to his passion for rocks and eruptions. He was taught Hebrew by a rabbi in addition to his studies at school and he studied philosophy and theology at Paderborn, but fled to Cologne in 1622 to escape advancing Protestant forces. On the journey, he escaped death after falling through the ice crossing the frozen Rhine — one of several occasions on which his life was endangered. Later, traveling to Heiligenstadt, he was caught and nearly hanged by a party of Protestant soldiers, from 1622 to 1624 Kircher was sent to begin his regency period in Koblenz as a teacher.
He was ordained to the priesthood in 1628 and became professor of ethics and mathematics at the University of Würzburg, beginning in 1628, he began to show an interest in Egyptian hieroglyphs. In 1631, while still at Würzburg, Kircher allegedly had a vision of a bright light. This was the year that Kircher published his first book, in 1633 he was called to Vienna by the emperor to succeed Kepler as Mathematician to the Habsburg court. On the intervention of Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc, the order was rescinded and he was sent instead to Rome to continue with his scholarly work, on the way, his ship was blown off course and he arrived in Rome before he knew of the changed decision
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
The Roman College was a school established by St. Ignatius of Loyola in 1551, just 17 years after he founded the Society of Jesus. It quickly grew to include classes from school through university level. It moved to different locations to accommodate its growing student population. The college, renamed Gregorian University in 1584 after its benefactor, since the Gregorian University has occupied new quarters, but the buildings on this full square block memorialize the early commitment of the Society of Jesus to education. With the burgeoning student population the Jesuits in 1626 replaced the chapel of the Annunziata with the church of St. Ignatius on the premises, in 1787 the college added an observatory that became preeminent. With the Capture of Rome in 1870, the building was taken over by the Italian government, its eastern wing houses the headquarters of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture and the wing that overlooks the square is home to the high school Ennio Quirino Visconti. The first university founded by the Jesuits was the College of Messina in 1548, the funding came from Francis Borgia, 4th Duke of Gandía.
He had been a member of the Society of Jesus since 1548 but secretly, he retained his rank while attending to his obligations. In 1551 the Collegio Romano was a small, rented building at the base of the Capitoline Hill, polanco wrote of teaching Latin and Greek and Hebrew, Christian doctrine is taught. Above the door of the school a sign says, a school of grammar, humanism. Jesuits were the first pupils, Edmond Auger, Emmanuel Gomez, John Egnazi, within its first year the building could not accommodate the influx of students and Ignatius sought a larger facility. Without leaving the center of Rome, in September 1551 he rented a building on Via del Gesù behind the ancient church of Santo Stefano del Cacco and this second home of the Roman College was called the House of Frangipani after the famous family which owned it. This was the home of the Roman College. Despite the cost, Ignatius wanted to begin teaching philosophy and theology in the school year 1553–1554 and this increased the student body, both of Jesuits and externs.
At this time Ignatius founded the print shop which over the years introduced new typefaces, the Roman College was here for only four years when it became too small for the growing number of students and larger premises were sought. The building was demolished when Salviati built the new Roman College, in 1560, Vittoria della Tolfa, Marchesa della Valle, a relative of Paul IV, donated an entire city block and its existing buildings to the Society of Jesus. This remained the site of the Roman College until the takeover of its buildings by the Italian government in 1870, Ignatius of Loyola had died on 31 July 1556 and was succeeded by Fr. James P. Laynez, a companion of Ignatius and a papal theologian during the three periods of the Council of Trent
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
It depicted the version from the Gospel of Matthew of Christ walking on the water, the only one of the three gospel accounts where Saint Peter is summoned to join him. The mosaic, designed to be seen from a distance, was extremely large. A full-scale copy in oil, commissioned by the Vatican from Francesco Berretta in 1628, the full mosaic was probably about 9.4 by 13 metres, with an inscription in Latin verse running below the image. The mosaic probably replaced a Late Antique one in the same location, according to Stefaneschis obituary of 1347, the work cost 2,200 florins. It was rectangular, and positioned so that leaving the basilica saw it across the courtyard outside the church. A figure of a man fishing on the shore to the left was thought to be a self-portrait of Giotto, as Vasaris Life records. The composition was dominated by the boat with its large sail. Of the eleven still in the boat, it has been suggested that the one holding the tiller is Saint Paul. In the sky, two almost naked classical style wind god figures blow through horns or funnels, one each side.
Giotto would have produced drawings for specialist mosaic workers to recreate on the wall and it was used on Papal coins and medals, though usually with Peter in the boat, often as the only figure. It was the modern work described in Albertis De Pictura. Such a large depiction of a scene was unprecedented in marine art. The former is considerably restored, and was discovered underneath work in 1911, despite none of the copies of the original including these figures it is thought they were part of the original, probably in a border. There are thought to be patches of original work remaining in the mosaic still in St Peters. Areas where original work seems to survive are in the edge of the ship. The style of the work can now only be judged from the two fragments, restored as they are. But, as Svetlana Alpers has shown, these were the terms in which Vasari tended to describe large history paintings he admired, according to John White, The relatively schematic, linear quality of much late-thirteenth- and early-fourteenth-century work is wholly absent.
The impressionistic technique and range of colour both derive from the fifth century and it is impossible to say how much this technique reflects the ideas of Giotto himself and how much those of the skilled mosaicists working under him
National Etruscan Museum
The National Etruscan Museum is a museum of the Etruscan civilization, housed in the Villa Giulia in Rome, Italy. The villa was built for pope Julius III, for whom it was named and it remained in papal property until 1870, when, in the wake of the Risorgimento and the demise of the Papal States, it became the property of the Kingdom of Italy. The museums most famous treasure is the terracotta funerary monument. The Villa Giulia National Etruscan Museum, Short Guide, roma, LErma di Bretschneider, Ingegneria per la cultura. Tarquinia National Museum Museo Nazionale Etrusco information
It was during this period that Romes control expanded from the citys immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. During the first two centuries of its existence, the Roman Republic expanded through a combination of conquest and alliance, by the following century, it included North Africa, most of the Iberian Peninsula, and what is now southern France. Two centuries after that, towards the end of the 1st century BC, it included the rest of modern France and much of the eastern Mediterranean. By this time, internal tensions led to a series of wars, culminating with the assassination of Julius Caesar. The exact date of transition can be a matter of interpretation, Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. Over time, the laws that gave exclusive rights to Romes highest offices were repealed or weakened. The leaders of the Republic developed a tradition and morality requiring public service and patronage in peace and war, making military.
Many of Romes legal and legislative structures can still be observed throughout Europe and much of the world in modern nation states, the exact causes and motivations for Romes military conflicts and expansions during the republic are subject to wide debate. While they can be seen as motivated by outright aggression and imperialism and they argue that Romes expansion was driven by short-term defensive and inter-state factors, and the new contingencies that these decisions created. In its early history, as Rome successfully defended itself against foreign threats in central and northern Italy, with some important exceptions, successful wars in early republican Rome generally led not to annexation or military occupation, but to the restoration of the way things were. But the defeated city would be weakened and thus able to resist Romanizing influences. It was able to defend itself against its non-Roman enemies. It was, more likely to seek an alliance of protection with Rome and this growing coalition expanded the potential enemies that Rome might face, and moved Rome closer to confrontation with major powers.
The result was more alliance-seeking, on the part of both the Roman confederacy and city-states seeking membership within that confederacy. While there were exceptions to this, it was not until after the Second Punic War that these alliances started to harden into something more like an empire and this shift mainly took place in parts of the west, such as the southern Italian towns that sided with Hannibal. In contrast, Roman expansion into Spain and Gaul occurred as a mix of alliance-seeking, in the 2nd century BC, Roman involvement in the Greek east remained a matter of alliance-seeking, but this time in the face of major powers that could rival Rome. This had some important similarities to the events in Italy centuries earlier, with some major exceptions of outright military rule, the Roman Republic remained an alliance of independent city-states and kingdoms until it transitioned into the Roman Empire. It was not until the time of the Roman Empire that the entire Roman world was organized into provinces under explicit Roman control
Jewellery or jewelry consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, necklaces and bracelets. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes, for many centuries metal, often combined with gemstones, has been the normal material for jewellery, but other materials such as shells and other plant materials may be used. It is one of the oldest type of archaeological artefact – with 100, the most widespread influence on jewellery in terms of design and style have come from Asia. Jewellery may be made from a range of materials. Gemstones and similar such as amber and coral, precious metals and shells have been widely used. In most cultures jewellery can be understood as a symbol, for its material properties, its patterns. Jewellery has been made to nearly every body part, from hairpins to toe rings. The word jewellery itself is derived from the jewel, which was anglicised from the Old French jouel. In British English, Indian English, New Zealand English, Hiberno-English, Australian English, both are used in Canadian English, though jewelry prevails by a two to one margin.
Numerous cultures store wedding dowries in the form of jewellery or make jewellery as a means to store or display coins, jewellery has been used as a currency or trade good, an example being the use of slave beads. Many items of jewellery, such as brooches and buckles, originated as functional items. Jewellery can symbolise group membership or status, wearing of amulets and devotional medals to provide protection or ward off evil is common in some cultures. These may take the form of symbols, plants, body parts, in creating jewellery, coins, or other precious items are often used, and they are typically set into precious metals. Alloys of nearly every metal known have been encountered in jewellery, for example, was common in Roman times. Modern fine jewellery usually includes gold, white gold, palladium, most contemporary gold jewellery is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in karats, indicated by a number followed by the letter K. American gold jewellery must be of at least 10K purity, many whimsical fashions were introduced in the extravagant eighteenth century.
Cameos that were used in connection with jewellery were the attractive trinkets along with many of the objects such as brooches, ear-rings. Some of the necklets were made of pieces joined with the gold chains were in and bracelets were made sometimes to match the necklet
Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V or Xystus V, born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Bishop of Rome from 24 April 1585 to his death in 1590. As a youth, he joined the Franciscan order, where he displayed talents as a scholar and preacher, and enjoyed the patronage of Pius V, the cost of these works was met by heavy taxation that caused much suffering. His foreign policy was regarded as over-ambitious, and he excommunicated both Elizabeth I of England and Henry IV of France and he is recognized as a significant figure of the Counter-Reformation. Felice Peretti was born on 13 December 1521 at Grottammare, in the Papal States, to Pier Gentile, Felice adopted Peretti as his family name in 1551, and was known as Cardinal Montalto. He himself claimed that he was nato di casa illustre — born of an illustrious house, according to Isidoro Gatti, the Peretti family came from Piceno, todays Marche, in Italy. According to another source, his father came from Montalto, a nearby village, there is a theory that he was of Dalmatian Slavic origin, and according to Sava Nakićenović, he hailed from the Svilanović family from Kruševice in the Bay of Kotor.
The theory that his family originated in Kruševice is supported by the fact that the Pope used three pears for his coat of arms, according to this theory, Peretti may be an Italian rendition of the Slavic surname, as Peretti itself links to pears. About 1552 he was noticed by Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Protector of the Franciscan order, Cardinal Ghislieri and Cardinal Caraffa and he was sent to Venice as inquisitor general, but was so severe and conducted matters in such a high-handed manner that he became embroiled in quarrels. The government asked for his recall in 1560, the violent dislike he conceived for Boncampagni exerted a marked influence upon his subsequent actions. He hurried back to Rome upon the accession of Pius V, who made him vicar of his order. The first phase was enlarged after Peretti became pope and was able to clear buildings to open four new streets in 1585–6, the villa contained two residences, the Palazzo Sistino or di Termini and the casino, called the Palazzetto Montalto e Felice.
Cardinal Montaltos other concern was with his studies, one of the fruits of which was an edition of the works of Ambrose. As pope he personally supervised the printing of an edition of Jeromes Vulgate – said to be as splendid a translation of the Bible into Latin as the King James version is into English. Though not neglecting to follow the course of affairs, Felice carefully avoided every occasion of offence and this discretion contributed not a little to his election to the papacy on 24 April 1585, with the title of Sixtus V. The story of his having feigned decrepitude in the conclave, in order to win votes, is pure invention, one of the things that commended his candidacy to certain cardinals may have been his physical vigour, which seemed to promise a long pontificate. The terrible condition in which Pope Gregory XIII had left the ecclesiastical states called for prompt, Sixtus proceeded with an almost ferocious severity against the prevailing lawlessness. Thousands of brigands were brought to justice, within a time the country was again quiet.
It was claimed there were more heads on spikes across the Ponte SantAngelo than melons for sale in the marketplace
The ducat /ˈdʌkət/ was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the medieval centuries until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period, the gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar. The word ducat is from Medieval Latin ducatus = relating to a duke, Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice, whose title means duke, introduced a silver ducat whose types are related to the ducats of Roger II. Later gold ducats of Venice, became so important that the name ducat was associated exclusively with them, the Venetian business model of the 13th century was importing goods from the East and selling them at a profit north of the Alps. They paid for goods with Byzantine gold coins but when the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos backed a rebellion called the Sicilian Vespers in 1282.
This was just one more in a series of debasements of the hyperpyron, both Florence and Genoa had introduced gold coins in 1252 and the florin of Florence had become the standard European gold coin. Venice modeled the size and weight of their ducat on the florin, the Venetian ducat contained 3.545 grams of 99. 47% fine gold, the highest purity medieval metallurgy could produce. Gold ducat types derive from silver ducat types, which were ultimately Byzantine, the obverse shows the Doge of Venice kneeling before St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice. Saint Mark holds the gospel, which is his usual attribute, the legend on the left identifies the saint as S M VENET, i. e. Saint Mark of Venice, and the legend on the right identifies the doge, with his title DVX in the field. On the reverse, Christ stands among a field of stars in an oval frame, the reverse legend is the same as on Roger II’s ducats. Succeeding doges of Venice continued striking ducats, changing only their name on the obverse, during the 15th century, the value of the ducat in terms of silver money was stable at 124 Venetian soldi, i. e. schillings.
The term ducat became identified with this amount of money as well as the gold coin. Conflict between England and Spain in 1567, increased the price of gold and upset this equivalence, at this point, the coin was called the ducato de zecca, i. e. ducat of the mint, which was shortened to zecchino and corrupted to sequin. Leonardo Loredan extended the coinage with a half ducat and subsequent doges added a quarter, all of these coins continued to use the designs and weight standards of the original 1284 ducat. Even after dates became a feature of western coinage, Venice struck ducats without them until Napoleon ended the Venetian Republic in 1797. Instead, the Roman coin showed a senator kneeling before St. Peter on the obverse, the Popes subsequently changed these designs, but continued to strike ducats of the same weight and size into the 16th century. Most imitations of the Venetian ducat were made in the Levant, the Knights of Saint John struck ducats with grand master Dieudonné de Gozon, 1346-1353, kneeling before Saint John on the obverse and an angel seated on the Sepulcher of Christ on the reverse.
Subsequent Grand masters, found it expedient to copy the Venetian types more exactly, first at Rhodes and they struck ducats at Chios that could be distinguished from the Venetian originals only by their workmanship