United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Georgia Institute of Technology
The Georgia Institute of Technology referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology in Atlanta, Georgia. It has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia; the school was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post-Civil War Southern United States. It offered only a degree in mechanical engineering. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university. Today, Georgia Tech is organized into six colleges and contains about 31 departments/units, with emphasis on science and technology, it is well recognized for its degree programs in engineering, business administration, the sciences and design. Georgia Tech is ranked 8th among all public national universities in the United States, 7th in the Best Engineering Schools ranking, 35th among all colleges and universities in the United States by U.
S. News & World Report rankings, 34th among global universities in the world by Times Higher Education rankings. Georgia Tech has been ranked as the "smartest" public college in America. Student athletics, both organized and intramural, are a part of alumni life; the school's intercollegiate competitive sports teams, the four-time football national champion Yellow Jackets, the nationally recognized fight song "Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech", have helped keep Georgia Tech in the national spotlight. Georgia Tech fields eight men's and seven women's teams that compete in the NCAA Division I athletics and the Football Bowl Subdivision. Georgia Tech is a member of the Coastal Division in the Atlantic Coast Conference; the idea of a technology school in Georgia was introduced in 1865 during the Reconstruction period. Two former Confederate officers, Major John Fletcher Hanson and Nathaniel Edwin Harris, who had become prominent citizens in the town of Macon, Georgia after the Civil War believed that the South needed to improve its technology to compete with the industrial revolution, occurring throughout the North.
However, because the American South of that era was populated by agricultural workers and few technical developments were occurring, a technology school was needed. In 1882, the Georgia State Legislature authorized a committee, led by Harris, to visit the Northeast to see firsthand how technology schools worked, they were impressed by the polytechnic educational models developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. The committee recommended adapting the Worcester model, which stressed a combination of "theory and practice", the "practice" component including student employment and production of consumer items to generate revenue for the school. On October 13, 1885, Georgia Governor Henry D. McDaniel signed the bill to create and fund the new school. In 1887, Atlanta pioneer Richard Peters donated to the state 4 acres of the site of a failed garden suburb called Peters Park; the site was bounded on the south by North Avenue, on the west by Cherry Street.
He sold five adjoining acres of land to the state for US$10,000. This land was near Atlanta's northern city limits at the time of its founding, although the city has expanded several miles beyond it. A historical marker on the large hill in Central Campus notes the site occupied by the school's first buildings once held fortifications to protect Atlanta during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War; the surrender of the city took place on the southwestern boundary of the modern Georgia Tech campus in 1864. The Georgia School of Technology opened in the fall of 1888 with two buildings. One building had classrooms to teach students, it was designed for students to produce goods to sell and fund the school. The two buildings were equal in size to show the importance of teaching both the mind and the hands, though, at the time, there was some disagreement to whether the machine shop should have been used to turn a profit. On October 20, 1905, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt visited Georgia Tech.
On the steps of Tech Tower, Roosevelt delivered a speech about the importance of technological education. He shook hands with every student. Georgia Tech's Evening School of Commerce began holding classes in 1912; the evening school admitted its first female student in 1917, although the state legislature did not authorize attendance by women until 1920. Annie T. Wise became the first female graduate in 1919 and was Georgia Tech's first female faculty member the following year. In 1931, the Board of Regents transferred control of the Evening School of Commerce to the University of Georgia and moved the civil and electrical engineering courses at UGA to Tech. Tech replaced the commerce school with what became the College of Business; the commerce school would split from UGA and become Georgia State University. In 1934, the Engineering Experiment Station was founded by W. Harry Vaughan with an initial budget of $5,000 and 13 part-time faculty. Founded as the Georgia School of Technology, Georgia Tech assumed its pre
Office of Science and Technology Policy
The Office of Science and Technology Policy is a department of the United States government, part of the Executive Office of the President, established by United States Congress on May 11, 1976, with a broad mandate to advise the President on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs. The director of this office is colloquially known as the President's Science Advisor; the position has been vacant since President Donald Trump took office, along with a number of other leadership positions in the agency. In January 2019, meteorologist Kelvin Droegemeier was confirmed to the position, after two years of the position being vacant. President Richard M. Nixon eliminated the President's Science Advisory Committee after his second Science Advisor, Edward E. David Jr. resigned in 1973, rather than appointing a replacement. The United States Congress established the OSTP in 1976 with a broad mandate to advise the President and others within the Executive Office of the President on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.
The 1976 Act authorizes OSTP to lead inter-agency efforts to develop and to implement sound science and technology policies and budgets and to work with the private sector and local governments, the science and higher education communities, other nations toward this end. Under President Donald Trump, OSTP's staff dropped from 135 to 45 people; as of March 29, 2018, the OSTP director position remains vacant, the longest vacancy for the position since the office's founding. Kelvin Droegemeier, an atmospheric scientist who serves as the vice president of research at the University of Oklahoma, was nominated for the position on August 1, 2018 and confirmed by the Senate on January 2, 2019; the OSTP's mission is set out in the National Science and Technology Policy and Priorities Act of 1976. The act calls for the OSTP to serve as a source of scientific and technological analysis and judgment for the President with respect to major policies and programs of the federal government, it further authorizes the OSTP to: Advise the President and others within the Executive Office of the President on the impacts of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.
The OSTP handles a broad range of scientific and technological issues within the Executive Office of the President. It participates in a multitude of White House Policy Coordinating Committees that are tasked with developing policies for the federal government and are populated by senior officials from cabinet and independent agencies; the OSTP has 45 staff members, most of whom are experienced scientists functioning as assistant directors or policy analysts. Key positions are not always published online. Director for the Office of Science and Technology Policy: Dr. Kelvin Droegemeier Chief Technology Officer of the United States: Michael Kratsios Deputy Chief Technology Officer: Michael Kratsios Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations About OSTP, official website Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Federal Register The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service
Minerva Schools at KGI
Minerva Schools at KGI is a university program headquartered in San Francisco, California. It a partnership between the Minerva Project and Keck Graduate Institute, a member of the Claremont University Consortium, it offers both a four-year undergraduate program as well as a master's in science graduate program. The Minerva Project is a for-profit corporation that owns the technology platform the school runs on. Minerva Schools at KGI is a non-profit institution; the Minerva Institute for Research and Scholarship is a second non-profit arm which provides scholarships for Minerva Schools students, supports the academic research of faculty, awards the Minerva Prize for teaching excellence. In April 2012, Minerva Project received US$25,000,000 in venture funding from Benchmark Capital to create the undergraduate program that would become the Minerva Schools at KGI. Stephen Kosslyn joined Minerva in March 2013 to serve as Founding Dean. Prior to joining Minerva, Kosslyn served as Director of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and Dean of Social Sciences at Harvard University.
Kosslyn was responsible for hiring the heads of the four colleges in the School of Arts & Science and overseeing the development of Minerva's seminar-based curriculum. In July 2013, Minerva Project partnered with the Keck Graduate Institute to launch the Minerva Schools at KGI. Minerva received WASC regional accreditation for five of its programs: the Bachelor of Science in Social Sciences, the Bachelor of Arts in Arts and Humanities, the Bachelor of Science in Natural Sciences, the Bachelor of Science in Computational Sciences, the Bachelor of Science in Business. Minerva admitted its first class in 2014; the school offered places to 69 students, out of 2,464 applications. 29 students matriculated in and granted 69 acceptances resulting in a 2.8% acceptance rate and a 42% yield. Starting in 2016, Minerva expanded into postgraduate education by offering a Master of Science in Decision Analysis. In 2017, the school had a 57 % acceptance yield. Stephen Kosslyn, Founding Dean Emeritus, was responsible for hiring the first four heads of the School of Arts & Science: Dr. Diane F. Halpern as Dean Emerita, Social Sciences Dr. Eric Bonabeau as Dean Emerita, Computational Sciences Dr. James D.
Sterling as Dean Emerita, Natural Sciences Dr. Daniel Levitin as Dean Emerita, Arts & HumanitiesIn January 2015, Minerva announced the hiring of Dr. Vicki Chandler as Dean of the College of Natural Sciences. Chandler was the Chief Program Officer of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and a Professor in the Departments of Plant Sciences and the BIO5 Institute at the University of Arizona. In January 2018, Chandler was promoted to Chief Academic Officer. In January 2016, Dr. Richard Holman was announced as Dean of the College of Computational Sciences; that same year, in November, the hiring of Dr. Brian Ross as Dean of the College of Social Sciences, Dr. John Percival as Dean of the College of Business was announced. In May 2018, the colleges were group into two divisions: the Division of Arts and Sciences, led by Dr. Ross, the Division of Business and Computational Sciences, led by Dr. Holman. Professors are trained to use the Active Learning Forum. Faculty retain intellectual property rights to their research.
Courses are conducted as online seminars capped at 19 students. Minerva applies a 1972 study; such tasks include working with material, applying it, arguing about it instead of rote memorization. All classes begin with a short quiz and end with a second one in the class, claimed to increase retention; the automated recording of student performance allows tracking of progress. Students take four “Cornerstone Courses” that introduce "Habits of Mind" and "Foundational Concepts" that cut across the sciences and humanities. In a science class, for example, students develop an understanding of the need for controlled experiments. In a humanities class, they learn the classical techniques of rhetoric and develop basic persuasive skills; the curriculum builds from that foundation. Minerva encourages students to use massive open online courses to learn what is taught in first-year courses. According to its Dean of Faculty, Stephen Kosslyn, Minerva has administered CLA+ tests on its own students and these results indicate that its pedagogy is working.
Kossyln writes: "In fall 2016, Minerva freshmen performed in the 95th percentile compared to freshmen at other schools — we are selective, expected a result like this. That same group, when compared to college seniors, performed at the 78th percentile as incoming freshmen. By spring 2017, just 8 months those same Minerva freshmen performed at the 99th percentile when compared to the seniors at all the other institutions, but more than that: Minerva was ranked number 1 of all schools that administered the test." Minerva maintains two residence halls in San Francisco, one in the Nob Hill neighborhood and one on Market Street, as well as ones in Berlin, Buenos Aires, Hyderabad. and London. Minerva has no classroom facilities, since all classes are conducted through an active learning platform developed by the school, where students participate in seminar classes of up to 19 people. Aaron Sankin, "Is the Minerva Project the future of higher education?", The Kernel - the Weekly Magazine from Dailydot.com, week of August 17, 2014, http://kernelmag.dailydot.com/issue-sections/headline-story/9993/what-is-minerva-project/, retrieved 2014-08-27 Levels-of-processing effect Official website
Auburn University is a land-grant and public research university in Auburn, United States. With more than 23,000 undergraduate students and a total enrollment of more than 30,000 with 1,260 faculty members, Auburn is the second largest university in Alabama. Auburn University is one of the state's two public flagship universities. Auburn was chartered on February 1, 1856, as East Alabama Male College, a private liberal arts school affiliated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1872, under the Morrill Act, it became the state's first public land-grant university and was renamed as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama. In 1892, it became the first four-year coeducational school in Alabama, in 1899 was renamed Alabama Polytechnic Institute to reflect its changing mission. In 1960, its name was changed to Auburn University to acknowledge the varied academic programs and larger curriculum of a major university; the Alabama Legislature chartered the institution as the East Alabama Male College on February 1, 1856, coming under the guidance of the Methodist Church in 1859.
Its first president was Reverend William J. Sasnett, the school opened its doors in 1859 to a student body of eighty and a faculty of ten. Auburn's early history is inextricably linked with the Reconstruction-era South. Classes were held in "Old Main" until the college was closed due to the war, when most of the students and faculty left to enlist; the campus was a training ground for the Confederate Army, "Old Main" served as a hospital for Confederate wounded. To commemorate Auburn's contribution to the Civil War, a cannon lathe used for the manufacture of cannons for the Confederate Army and recovered from Selma, was presented to the college in 1952 by brothers of Delta Chapter of the Alpha Phi Omega fraternity, it sits today on the lawn next to Samford Hall. The school reopened in 1866 after the end of its only closure. In 1872, control of the institution was transferred from the Methodist Church to the State of Alabama for financial reasons. Alabama placed the school under the provisions of the Morrill Act as a land-grant institution, the first in the South to be established separately from the state university.
This act provided for 240,000 acres of Federal land to be sold to provide funds for an agricultural and mechanical school. As a result, in 1872 the school was renamed the Mechanical College of Alabama. Under the Act's provisions, land-grant institutions were supposed to teach military tactics and train officers for the United States military. In the late 19th century, most students at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama were enrolled in the cadet program, learning military tactics and training to become officers; each county in the state was allowed to nominate two cadets to attend the college free of charge. The university's original curriculum focused on agriculture; this trend changed under the guidance of William Leroy Broun, who taught classics and sciences and believed both disciplines were important for the growth of the university and the individual. In 1892, two historic events occurred: women were admitted to the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Alabama, football was played as a school sport.
Football replaced polo as the main sport on campus. The college was renamed the Alabama Polytechnic Institute in 1899 because of Broun's influence. On October 1, 1918, nearly all of Alabama Polytechnic Institute's able-bodied male students 18 or older voluntarily joined the United States Army for short-lived military careers on campus; the student-soldiers numbered 878, according to API President Charles Thach, formed the academic section of the Student Army Training Corps. The vocational section was composed of enlisted men sent to Auburn for training in radio and mechanics; the students received honorable discharges two months following the Armistice that ended World War I. API struggled through the Great Depression, having scrapped an extensive expansion program by then-President Bradford Knapp. Faculty salaries were cut drastically, enrollment decreased along with State appropriations to the college. By the end of the 1930s, Auburn had recovered, but faced new conditions caused by World War II.
As war approached in 1940, there was a great shortage of engineers and scientists needed for the defense industries. The U. S. Office of Education asked all American engineering schools to join in a "crash" program to produce what was called "instant engineers." API became an early participant in an activity that became Engineering and Management War Training. Funded by the government and coordinated by Auburn's Dean of Engineering, college-level courses were given in concentrated evening classes at sites across Alabama. Taken by thousands of adults – including many women – these courses were beneficial in filling the wartime ranks of civilian engineers and other technical professionals; the ESMWT benefited API by providing employment for faculty members when the student body was diminished by the draft and volunteer enlistment. During the war, API trained U. S. military personnel on campus. Following the end of World War II, API, like many colleges around the country, experienced a period of massive growth caused by returning military personnel taking advantage of their GI Bill offer of free education.
In the five-year period following the end of the war, enrollment at API more than doubled. Recognizing the school had moved beyond its agricultural and mechanical roots, it was granted university status by the Alabama Legi
Illinois Institute of Technology
Illinois Institute of Technology is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois. It was established from the merger in 1940 of Lewis Institute; the university has programs in engineering, psychology, business, industrial technology, information technology and law. It traces its history to several 19th-century engineering and professional education institutions in the United States; the Institute of Design, Chicago-Kent College of Law, Midwest College of Engineering were merged into it. In 1890, when advanced education was reserved for society's elite, Chicago minister Frank Wakely Gunsaulus delivered what came to be known as the "Million Dollar Sermon." From the pulpit of his South Side church, near the site Illinois Institute of Technology now occupies, Gunsaulus said that with a million dollars he could build a school where students can learn to think in practical not theoretical terms. Inspired by Gunsaulus' vision, Philip Danforth Armour, Sr. gave $1 million to found the Armour Institute—and Armour, his wife, Malvina Belle Ogden Armour and their son J. Ogden Armour continued to support the university in its early years.
When Armour Institute opened in 1893, it offered professional courses in engineering, chemistry and library science. Illinois Tech was created in 1940 by the merger of Lewis Institute. Located on the west side of Chicago, Lewis Institute, established in 1895 by the estate of hardware merchant and investor Allen C. Lewis, offered liberal arts as well as science and engineering courses for both men and women. At separate meetings held by their respective boards on October 26, 1939, the trustees of Armour and Lewis voted to merge the two colleges. A Cook County circuit court decision on April 23, 1940 solidified the merger; the Institute of Design, founded in Chicago by László Moholy-Nagy in 1937, merged with Illinois Tech in 1949. Chicago-Kent College of Law, founded in 1887, became part of the university in 1969, making Illinois Institute of Technology one of the few technology-based universities with a law school. In 1969, the Stuart School of Management and Finance—now known as the Stuart School of Business – was established thanks to a gift from the estate of Lewis Institute alumnus and Chicago financier Harold Leonard Stuart.
The program became the Stuart School of Business in 1999. The Midwest College of Engineering, founded in 1967, joined the university in 1986, giving Illinois Tech a presence in west suburban Wheaton with what is today known as the Rice Campus—home to Illinois Tech's School of Applied Technology. In December 2006, the University Technology Park at Illinois Institute of Technology, an incubator and life sciences/tech start-up facility, was started in existing research buildings located on the south end of Main Campus; as of April 2014, the University Tech Park at Illinois Institute of Technology is home to many companies. Today, IIT is a private, Ph. D.-granting university with programs in engineering, human sciences, applied technology, business and law. It is one of 16 institutions that comprise the Association of Independent Technological Universities; the university and its contract research affiliate, IIT Research Institute, have an annual research volume of $130 million. Current research strengths include fluid dynamics and aerospace, synchrotron radiation science, environmental engineering and regulatory policy, polymer science and recycling, food safety and technology, transportation and infrastructure.
IIT has more than 40,000 living alumni and is known as the alma mater of accomplishments as well as of people. IIT and IITRI scientists and engineers have made some of the century's most important technological advances, such as the invention of magnetic recording and the development of re-entry technology for spacecraft. IIT architects have shaped the skyline of Chicago and cities throughout the world. IIT Research Institute has several locations throughout the United States, the university has five campuses in the Chicago area; the 120-acre Main Campus, centered at 33rd and State Streets in Chicago, as well as many of its buildings, was designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who directed the architecture program at IIT from 1938 to 1958 and was one of the 20th century's most influential architects. In 1976, the American Institute of Architects recognized the campus as one of the 200 most significant works of architecture in the U. S. S. R. Crown Hall, home of IIT College of Architecture, was named a National Historic Landmark in 2001, part of the IIT Main Campus was entered into the National Register of Historic Places in 2005.
The state-of-the-art, 10-story Downtown Campus at 565 W. Adams Street houses Chicago-Kent College of Law, the Center for Financial Markets, the Master of Public Administration Program, Stuart School of Business. Institute of Design, an international leader in teaching systemic, human-centered design, is located at 350 N. LaSalle Street in Chicago's River North neighborhood; the 19-acre Daniel F. and Ada L. Rice Campus in west suburban Wheaton complements area community colleges, serving west suburban residents and employees in Illinois' high-tech corridor by offering graduate programs, upper-level undergraduate courses, continuing professional education; the five-acre Moffett Campus in southwest suburban Bedford Park houses the Institute for Food Safety and Health, including its National Center for Food Safety and Technology, a consortium of government and academia that seeks to improve the quality and safety of the nation's food supply. IIT continued to expand after the merger; as one of the fir
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira