Executive Office of the President of the United States
The Executive Office of the President of the United States is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President, it consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office, National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget. With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to address various fields of the modern day. There are about 4,000 positions in the Executive Office of the President, most of which do not require confirmation from the U. S. Senate; the budget for the EOP in FY 2017 was $714 million. The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, since January 2, 2019 held by acting Chief of Staff, Mick Mulvaney, appointed by Donald Trump, the current and 45th President of the United States. In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created.
Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, created in 1921 and located in the Treasury Department, it absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. The new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice, but it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors. Roosevelt's efforts are notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the 19th century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally.
It was not until 1857. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president", two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, there were thirty-one staff. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939 as he expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions. After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U. S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.
Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million. Senior staff within the EOP have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President; the core White House staff appointments, most EOP officials are not required to be confirmed by the U. S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions; the information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; the White House Office is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President. The various agencies of the EOP are listed above. Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations White House Records Office Executive Office of the President The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment and Congressional Oversight Congressional Research Service Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the Executive Office of the President of the United States Works by Executive Office of the President of the United States at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Executive Office of the President of the United States at Internet Archive
France A. Córdova
France Anne-Dominic Córdova is an American astrophysicist and administrator, the fourteenth director of the National Science Foundation. She was the eleventh President of Purdue University from 2007 to 2012. Córdova was born in Paris, the eldest of twelve children, her mother was her father a Mexican-American West Point graduate and businessman. She attended high school at Bishop Amat High School in La Puente, east of Los Angeles and went on to Stanford University, where she graduated cum laude with a bachelor's degree in English and conducted anthropological field work in a Zapotec Indian pueblo in Oaxaca, Mexico, she earned a PhD in Physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1979. Córdova worked at the Space Astronomy and Astrophysics Group at the Los Alamos National Laboratory from 1979 to 1989, where she served as Deputy Group Leader, she headed the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at Pennsylvania State University from 1989 to 1993. From 1993 to 1996, Córdova was the youngest person and first woman to hold the position of NASA Chief Scientist, serving as the primary scientific advisor to the NASA administrator and the principal interface between NASA headquarters and the broader scientific community.
Córdova went to the University of California, Santa Barbara where she was Vice-Chancellor for Research and a Professor of Physics. In 2002 she was appointed Chancellor of the University of California, where she was a Distinguished Professor of Physics and Astronomy. Córdova led the initial steps toward establishing the UC Riverside School of Medicine. Córdova became the eleventh president of Purdue University in 2007 and promoted student success and the commercialization of interdisciplinary research, her administration oversaw the establishment of Purdue's College of Health and Human Sciences and its Global Policy Research Institute. At the end of her term, Purdue's trustees credited her with leading the school to record levels of research funding, reputational rankings, student retention rates. President Barack Obama appointed Córdova to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution in 2009, she served until 2014, she was chair of the Board of Regents from 2012 to 2014. In 2014, Córdova was nominated by President Obama and confirmed by the United States Senate as the 14th head of the National Science Foundation.
Córdova's scientific career contributions have been in the areas of observational and experimental astrophysics, multi-spectral research on x-ray and gamma ray sources, space-borne instrumentation. She has published more than 150 scientific papers, most in 2007. In September 2007, she was appointed to the board of directors of BioCrossroads, Indiana's initiative to grow the life sciences through a public-private collaboration that supports the region's research and corporate strengths while encouraging new business development. Córdova is married to science educator Christian J. Foster, with whom she has two children, Anne-Catherine and Stephen. In 1996, Córdova received the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, she was recognized as a 2000 Kilby Laureate, for "contributions to society through science, innovation and education." She was named one of the 80 Elite Hispanic Women by Hispanic Business Magazine in 2002. In 2008, Córdova was nominated to the Stanford University Multicultural Alumni Hall of Fame by El Centro Chicano, Stanford's Chicano and Latino organization.
She was appointed by President George W. Bush to the National Science Board in 2008. In 2012, she received the Women in Space Science Award from the Adler Planetarium. Purdue University's France A. Córdova Recreational Sports Center was named for her in 2012. A 98-million-dollar renovation of the 55-year-old facility was approved during her presidency; the building was one of 10 recreation facilities to receive a Facility of Merit Award for 2014 from Athletic Business. Córdova is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Association for Women in Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is a National Associate of the National Academies, she has received numerous honorary doctorates, including from Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Purdue University, Duke University, the University of Connecticut, Rochester Institute of Technology. UC Riverside Chancellor France A. Córdova Named Purdue University President Purdue's new president'out of this world' Gale - Free Resources - Hispanic Heritage - Biographies - France Anne Córdova France Córdova Video produced by Makers: Women Who Make America
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School; this marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings.
Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards.
In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project. The NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components; the NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau, served May 1, 1899 – September 30, 1909 John F. Anderson, served October 1, 1909 – November 19, 1915 George W. McCoy, served November 20, 1915 – January 31, 1937 Lewis R. Thompson, served February 1, 1937 – January 31, 1942 R
Francis Sellers Collins is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project. He is director of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, United States. Before being appointed director of the NIH, Collins led the Human Genome Project and other genomics research initiatives as director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, one of the 27 institutes and centers at NIH. Before joining NHGRI, he earned a reputation as a gene hunter at the University of Michigan, he has been elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, has received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Medal of Science. Collins has written a number of books on science and religion, including the New York Times bestseller, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief. After leaving the directorship of NHGRI and before becoming director of the NIH, he founded and served as president of The BioLogos Foundation, which promotes discourse on the relationship between science and religion and advocates the perspective that belief in Christianity can be reconciled with acceptance of evolution and science through the advancement of evolutionary creation.
In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Collins to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Collins was born in Staunton, the youngest of four sons of Fletcher Collins and Margaret James Collins. Raised on a small farm in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley, Collins was home schooled until the sixth grade, he attended Robert E. Lee High School in Virginia. Through most of his high school and college years he aspired to be a chemist, he had little interest in what he considered the "messy" field of biology. What he referred to as his "formative education" was received at the University of Virginia, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry in 1970, he went on to graduate as a Doctor of Philosophy in physical chemistry at Yale University in 1974. While at Yale, a course in biochemistry sparked his interest in the subject. After consulting with his mentor from the University of Virginia, Carl Trindle, he changed fields and enrolled in medical school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, earning a Doctor of Medicine degree there in 1977.
From 1978 to 1981, Collins served a residency and chief residency in internal medicine at North Carolina Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill. He returned to Yale, where he was a Fellow in Human Genetics at the medical school from 1981 to 1984. At Yale, Collins worked under the direction of Sherman Weissman, in 1984 the two published a paper, "Directional Cloning of DNA Fragments at a Large distance From an Initial Probe: a Circularization Method"; the method described was named chromosome jumping, to emphasize the contrast with an older and much more time-consuming method of copying DNA fragments called chromosome walking. Collins joined the University of Michigan faculty in 1984, rising to the rank of professor in internal medicine and human genetics, his gene-hunting approach, which he named "positional cloning", developed into a powerful component of modern molecular genetics. Several scientific teams worked in the 1970s and 1980s to identify genes and their loci as a cause of cystic fibrosis.
Progress was modest until 1985, when Lap-Chee Tsui and colleagues at Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children identified the locus for the gene. It was determined that a shortcut was needed to speed the process of identification, so Tsui contacted Collins, who agreed to collaborate with the Toronto team and share his chromosome-jumping technique; the gene was identified in June 1989, the results were published in the journal Science on September 8, 1989. This identification was followed by other genetic discoveries made by Collins and a variety of collaborators, they included isolation of the genes for Huntington's disease, neurofibromatosis, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, inv AML and Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome. In 1993 National Institutes of Health Director Bernadine Healy appointed Collins to succeed James D. Watson as director of the National Center for Human Genome Research, which became National Human Genome Research Institute in 1997; as director, he oversaw the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, the group that carried out the Human Genome Project.
In 1994 Collins founded NHGRI's Division of Intramural Research, a collection of investigator-directed laboratories that conduct genome research on the NIH campus. In June 2000 Collins was joined by President Bill Clinton and biologist Craig Venter in making the announcement of a working draft of the human genome, he stated that "It is humbling for me, awe-inspiring to realize that we have caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book known only to God." An initial analysis was published in February 2001, scientists worked toward finishing the reference version of the human genome sequence by 2003, coinciding with the 50th anniversary of James D. Watson and Francis Crick's publication of the structure of DNA. Another major activity at NHGRI during his tenure as director was the creation of the haplotype map of the human genome; this International HapMap Project produced a catalog of human genetic variations—called single-nucleotide polymorphisms—which is now being used to discover variants correlated with disease risk.
Among the labs engaged in that effort is Collins' own lab at NHGRI, which has sought to identify and understand the genetic variations that influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition to his basic genetic research and scientific leadership, Collins is known for his close attention to ethical and legal issues
Edward Scott Pruitt is an American lawyer and Republican politician from the state of Oklahoma. He served as the fourteenth Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency from February 17, 2017 to July 6, 2018, he was nominated for the EPA position by President Donald Trump and was confirmed by the United States Senate to lead the EPA in a 52–46 vote. Pruitt represented Tulsa and Wagoner Counties in the Oklahoma Senate from 1998 until 2006. In 2010, Pruitt was elected Attorney General of Oklahoma. In that role, he was pro-life, opposed same-sex marriage, the Affordable Care Act, environmental regulations as a self-described "leading advocate against the EPA's activist agenda." In his campaigns for Oklahoma Attorney General, Pruitt received major corporate and employee campaign contributions from the fossil fuel industry, taking in at least $215,574 between 2010 and 2014 though he ran unopposed in the latter year. As Oklahoma's Attorney General, Pruitt sued the Environmental Protection Agency at least 14 times regarding the agency's actions.
In 2012, Pruitt was elected as chairman of the Republican Attorneys General Association and re-elected for a second term in February 2013. Pruitt rejects the scientific consensus that human-caused carbon dioxide emissions are a primary contributor to climate change. By July 2018, Pruitt was under at least 14 separate federal investigations by the Government Accountability Office, the EPA inspector general, the White House Office of Management and Budget, the U. S. Office of Special Counsel, two House committees over his spending habits, conflicts of interests, extreme secrecy, management practices. Pruitt made frequent use of first-class travel as well as military flights; as EPA administrator, Pruitt leased a condo in Washington D. C. at a discounted rate from a lobbyist whose clients were regulated by the EPA. Pruitt further caused ethics concerns by circumventing the White House and using a narrow provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act to autonomously give raises to his two closest aides of $28,000 and $57,000 each, which were higher than salaries paid to those in similar positions in the Obama administration, which allowed both to avoid signing conflicts of interest pledges.
By June 2018, amid a steady succession of revelations of misconduct, a growing chorus of conservatives had begun suggesting that Pruitt should resign. On July 5, 2018, Pruitt announced he would resign from office on July 6, leaving Andrew R. Wheeler as the acting head of the agency. Pruitt was born in 1968 in Danville, the eldest of three siblings, but moved to Lexington as a boy. There, his father, owned steak houses and his mother, Linda Pruitt Warner, was a homemaker, he was a football and baseball player at Lafayette High School, earning a baseball scholarship to the University of Kentucky, where he played second base. After a year, he transferred to Georgetown College in Kentucky and graduated in 1990 with bachelor's degrees in political science and communications, he moved to Tulsa, Oklahoma where he attended the University of Tulsa College of Law and earned a Juris Doctor in 1993. After law school Pruitt started a solo legal practice in Tulsa that he named "Christian Legal Services," which focused on defending Christians in religious liberty cases.
Pruitt worked as a lawyer for five years before running for state senate representing Broken Arrow, a Tulsa suburb, where he served two terms. After five years as an attorney, Pruitt was elected to the Oklahoma Senate in 1998, representing Tulsa and Wagoner Counties. In 1999 and again in 2005, Pruitt introduced legislation to establish fathers' "property rights" over unborn fetuses, which meant that a pregnant woman would be required to get the consent of the father prior to an abortion. After two years in the Senate, Pruitt was selected to serve as the Republican whip from 2001 to 2003, he was selected to serve as the Republican Assistant Floor Leader, a position he held until he left the Senate in 2006. During that time he sat as the chair of a task force for the American Legislative Exchange Council. There, he worked to put limits on workers' compensation and sponsored a reform bill that sought to impose drug tests on workers who were involved in job injuries or accidents. In 2001, while a freshman state legislator, Pruitt sought his party's nomination to succeed Steve Largent as the representative for Oklahoma's 1st congressional district but was unsuccessful.
In 2003, after his unsuccessful congressional campaign, Pruitt bought a share in a Triple-A baseball team, the Oklahoma City RedHawks, partnering with major Republican donor Robert A. Funk. Pruitt, whose annual salary as a state senator was $38,400, financed his part of the purchase with a loan from SpiritBank. In 2010, they sold the team for an undisclosed profit. In October 2003, while a state senator, Pruitt purchased a home in Oklahoma City through a shell company, Capitol House L. L. C. in which six partners held equal shares. The buyers included lobbyist Justin Whitefield, healthcare executive Jon Jiles, Robert Funk, attorney Ken Wagner; the home was purchased at about a $100,000 discount from its purchase price of a year earlier and included its furnishings. The seller was a lobbyist who advocated on behalf of a telecommunications company. Lindsey's loss was offset by her employer's retirement package. Pruitt and Whitefield both lived at the home while on business in the state capital. At the time, Whitefield was a registered lobbyist for industry-aligned groups that sought legislative changes to Oklahoma's workers' compensation laws.
The home was sold by the L. L. C. in
Office of Science and Technology Policy
The Office of Science and Technology Policy is a department of the United States government, part of the Executive Office of the President, established by United States Congress on May 11, 1976, with a broad mandate to advise the President on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs. The director of this office is colloquially known as the President's Science Advisor; the position has been vacant since President Donald Trump took office, along with a number of other leadership positions in the agency. In January 2019, meteorologist Kelvin Droegemeier was confirmed to the position, after two years of the position being vacant. President Richard M. Nixon eliminated the President's Science Advisory Committee after his second Science Advisor, Edward E. David Jr. resigned in 1973, rather than appointing a replacement. The United States Congress established the OSTP in 1976 with a broad mandate to advise the President and others within the Executive Office of the President on the effects of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.
The 1976 Act authorizes OSTP to lead inter-agency efforts to develop and to implement sound science and technology policies and budgets and to work with the private sector and local governments, the science and higher education communities, other nations toward this end. Under President Donald Trump, OSTP's staff dropped from 135 to 45 people; as of March 29, 2018, the OSTP director position remains vacant, the longest vacancy for the position since the office's founding. Kelvin Droegemeier, an atmospheric scientist who serves as the vice president of research at the University of Oklahoma, was nominated for the position on August 1, 2018 and confirmed by the Senate on January 2, 2019; the OSTP's mission is set out in the National Science and Technology Policy and Priorities Act of 1976. The act calls for the OSTP to serve as a source of scientific and technological analysis and judgment for the President with respect to major policies and programs of the federal government, it further authorizes the OSTP to: Advise the President and others within the Executive Office of the President on the impacts of science and technology on domestic and international affairs.
The OSTP handles a broad range of scientific and technological issues within the Executive Office of the President. It participates in a multitude of White House Policy Coordinating Committees that are tasked with developing policies for the federal government and are populated by senior officials from cabinet and independent agencies; the OSTP has 45 staff members, most of whom are experienced scientists functioning as assistant directors or policy analysts. Key positions are not always published online. Director for the Office of Science and Technology Policy: Dr. Kelvin Droegemeier Chief Technology Officer of the United States: Michael Kratsios Deputy Chief Technology Officer: Michael Kratsios Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations About OSTP, official website Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Federal Register The President's Office of Science and Technology Policy: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service