Kourkène Medzadourian was the founder of the Haï Ari association of Armenian Scouts-in-Exile, based in France. Scouting in Armenia was founded in 1912 later developed abroad among the refugees who had survived the genocide of 1915-1916 and among those that had fled the new communist occupation of their lands, at which point Scouting ceased to exist in Armenia. Haï Ari was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1928 to 1997; the organization was recognized in exile, with headquarters in Paris and 1,100 members in France. In 1929, World Scouting recognised the association of Armenian Scouts Haï Ari, based in France. While the Association did not have its own territorial base, it was the exception to the rule, remaining a member of the World Organization and the European Scout Region. In 1978, Medzadourian was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting.
Dr. László Nagy, 250 Million Scouts, The World Scout Foundation and Dartnell Publishers, 1985, complete list through 1981, from which the French Scoutopedia article is sourced Scouting Round the World, John S. Wilson, first edition, Blandford Press 1959 Les exilés de la paix, by Georges Medzadourian
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
Homenetmen is a pan-Armenian diaspora organization devoted to sport and scouting. The motto of Homenetmen is "Rise and Raise". Homenetmen was founded 16 November 1918 in Constantinople present-day Istanbul; the idea of a pan-Armenian sports association had been promoted for a number of years by an avid athlete and footballer Shavarsh Krissian who started publishing the Armenian language sports periodical Marmnamarz in 1911 by financial support of the brothers Levon and Krikor Hagopian and by encouragement of Hovhannes Hintliyan, writer Hagop Sirouni. On 1 May 1911, the Armenian Olympiad Navasartian Games were launched in Turkey. In 1912, Hintliyan published a pioneering article in Marmnamarz about Robert Baden-Powell and the scouting movement and soon a great number of Armenian scouting groups were established. In 1913, the third pan-Armenian Olympiad was held presided by Komitas and for the first time a number of Armenian scouts took part. Armenian sporting activities halted because if the onset of World War I and the demise of Shavarsh Krissian as a victim of the Armenian Genocide.
On 16 November 1918, a formative constituent assembly was held in Constantinople to launch the "Armenian General Athletic Union and Scouts" by a collective of 7 prominent members: Krikor Hagopian, Levon Hagopian, Dikran Koyian, Carlo Shahinian, Haig Jizmejian, Vahram Papazian and Jirayr Korasanjian with the active support of writer Hagop Sirouni. The pan-Armenian association was recognized as the sole Armenian sports union on 16 December 1918 with the formation of the first Homenetmen Executive Committee. Four Homenetmen chapters were soon opened in various Constantinople neighborhoods. Vahan Cheraz founded the scouting chapter of the association. On July 20, 1920, the founding members of Homenetmen were invited to the independent Republic of Armenia to share expertise regarding athleticism and Scouting with the Republic's government; the Homenetmen Executive Committee sent Vahan Cheraz, Dikran Khoyan, Onig Yazmajian to the meeting. Although successful in their efforts to spread Homenetmen’s athletic and Scouting movement within Armenia, Homenetmen was banned from Armenia after change of regime and the establishment of Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921.
In 1922, the Homenetmen chapters in Constantinople were forced to close their doors, with the organization's leaders dispersing throughout the world. Homenetmen has established various chapters in the Armenian diaspora including in many cities in the Middle East, United States, South America and Australia. All chapters established have activities in scouting and sports; the mission of Homenetmen is to prepare physically strong Armenians and exemplary citizens with the highest intellectual and spiritual virtues: By teaching endurance and courage and patriotism, obedience to the law and orderliness. By developing awareness of duty, feelings of responsibility and honour, in a spirit of harmony and cooperation. By satiating the mind and heart with the noblest of sporting spirit. Homenetmen's objectives are realized by Scouting, general physical education and sports, lectures and public activities, clubs and sports facilities; the biggest number of adherents to Homenetmen are the Scouts and female.
Most of the Homenetmen Scout groups are integrated in the national Scout or Guide organizations of their host countries. In many chapters, there is a section for music bands; the Scouting Division's main objective is to help scouts develop character, knowledge of Armenian culture and personal fitness, acquire scouting knowledge. The program is developed and implemented by the Scout Council, a body appointed by the Regional Executive, it features regional camping trips and seminars on scouting and Armenian-related topics, supplemented by illustrated manuals written in the Armenian language. Following completion of each educational manual, a final exam is administered, those who pass receive the appropriate badge and certificate; the Scouting program features troop activities such as field trips to local museums, amusement parks. Moreover, each troop hosts an annual camping trip; every four years, there is a Jamboree camp. Scouts from chapters from all over the world attend this two-week-long camp and do community service while completely immersing themselves in the Armenian culture.
Homenetmen chapters throughout the world have well-developed sports activities and programs, with various levels including professional sportsmen and in certain cases, with an active participation in local official championships. Main sports included within the various Homenetmen programs include: association football basketball volleyball track and fields athletics cycling table tennis and others Homenetmen has been a pioneer in developing sports publications in the Armenian diaspora, it has its own monthly magazine Marzig published in Beirut, but covering the pan-Armenian worldwide activities of the organization. Hayastani Azgayin Skautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun Homenetmen Lebanon Homenetmen Beirut F. C. Homenetmen Beirut B. C. Homenetmen Bourj Hammoud Homenetmen Antelias Homenmen Homenetmen WorldArmenia Armenian Scout Movement of Armenia Australia Homenetmen Australia RegionVarious chapters: Antranig, Arax, Navasart Canada Homenetmen Canada Region Homenetmen Cambridge Homene
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative and industrial center of the country, it has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire arrived in the area.
The city expanded during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the Armenian economy, Yerevan has undergone major transformation. Much construction has been done throughout the city since the early 2000s, retail outlets such as restaurants and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied; as of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700. Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO. Yerevan is an associate member of Eurocities. Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, several opera houses, museums and other cultural institutions.
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, the Matenadaran repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni, founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I; as elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name evolved into Yerevan. Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni: The transcription of the second cuneiform bu of the word was essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b, shifted to the Armenian v.
The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni». In other words b was placed between two vowels; the true pronunciation of the fortress-city was Erebuny. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!". In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan was under Turkic and Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân; this name is still used by Azerbaijanis. The city was known as Erivan under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries; the city was renamed back to Yerevan in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more than Yerevan, in English sources; the principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part.
The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan, it was selected in new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia; the flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging; the territory of Yerevan has been inhabited since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city known as Sheng
Mount Ararat is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the extreme east of Turkey. It consists of two major volcanic cones: Little Ararat. Greater Ararat is the Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m; the Ararat massif is about 35 km wide at ground base. The first efforts to reach Ararat's summit were made in the Middle Ages. However, it was not until 1829 when Friedrich Parrot and Khachatur Abovian, accompanied by four others, made the first recorded ascent. Despite the scholarly consensus that the "mountains of Ararat" of the Book of Genesis do not refer to Mt. Ararat, it has been accepted in Christianity as the resting place of Noah's Ark, it is the principal national symbol of Armenia and has been considered a sacred mountain by Armenians. It is an icon for Armenian irredentism. Along with Noah's Ark, it is depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia. Mount Ararat forms a near-quadripoint between Turkey, Armenia and Iran, its summit is located some 16 km west of both the Iranian border and the border of the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, 32 km south of the Armenian border.
The Turkish–Armenian–Azerbaijani and Turkish–Iranian–Azerbaijani tripoints are some 8 km apart, separated by a narrow strip of Turkish territory containing the E99 road which enters Nakhchivan at 39.6553°N 44.8034°E / 39.6553. From the 16th century until 1828 the range was part of the Ottoman-Persian border. Following the 1826–28 Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Persian controlled territory was ceded to the Russian Empire. Little Ararat became the point where the Turkish and Russian imperial frontiers converged; the current international boundaries were formed throughout the 20th century. The mountain came under Turkish control during the 1920 Turkish–Armenian War, it formally became part of Turkey according to the 1921 Treaty of Treaty of Kars. In the late 1920s, Turkey crossed the Iranian border and occupied the eastern flank of Lesser Ararat as part of its effort to quash the Kurdish Ararat rebellion, during which the Kurdish rebels used the area as a safe haven against the Turkish state.
Iran agreed to cede the area to Turkey in a territorial exchange. The Iran-Turkey boundary skirts east of the lower peak of the Ararat massif; as of 2004 the mountain is open to climbers only with "military permission". The procedure to obtain the permission involves submitting a formal request to a Turkish embassy for a special "Ararat visa", it is mandatory to hire an official guide from the Turkish Federation for Alpinism. Access is still limited for climbers who obtain the necessary permission, those who venture off the approved path may be fired upon without warning. Ararat is the Greek version of the Hebrew spelling of the name Urartu, a kingdom that existed in the Armenian plateau in the 9th–6th centuries BC. German orientalist and Bible critic Wilhelm Gesenius speculated that the word "Ararat" came from the Sanskrit word Arjanwartah, meaning "holy ground." Some Armenian historians, such as Ashot Melkonyan, link the origin of the word "Ararat" to the root of the endonym of the indigenous peoples of the Armenian Highland, including the Armenians.
The mountain is known as Ararat in European languages, none of the native peoples have traditionally referred to the mountain by that name. In classical antiquity in Strabo's Geographica, the peaks of Ararat were known in ancient Greek as Ἄβος and Νίβαρος; the traditional Armenian name is Masis. However, the terms Masis and Ararat are both often interchangeably, used in Armenian; the folk etymology expressed in Movses Khorenatsi's History of Armenia derives the name from king Amasya, the great-grandson of the legendary Armenian patriarch Hayk, said to have called the mountain Masis after himself. According to Russian orientalist Anatoly Novoseltsev the word Masis derives from Middle Persian masist, "the largest." According to Armenian historian Sargis Petrosyan the mas root in Masis means "mountain", cf. Proto-Indo-European *mņs-. According to archaeologist Armen Petrosyan it originates from the Māšu mountain mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which sounded Māsu in Assyrian; the Turkish name is Ağrı Dağı, Ottoman Turkish: اغـر طﺎﻍ Ağır Dağ), i.e. "Mountain of Ağrı".
Ağrı translates to "pain" or "sorrow". This name has been known since the late Middle Ages. Greater and Lesser Ararat are known as Küçük Ağrı, respectively; the traditional Persian name is کوه نوح, Kūh-e Nūḥ the "mountain of Noah". The Kurdish name of the mountain is çiyayê Agirî, which translates to "fiery mountain". Mount Ararat is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey between the provinces of Ağrı and Iğdır, near the border with Iran and Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, between the Aras and Murat rivers, its summit is located some 16 km west of the Turkey-Iran border and 32 km south of the Turco-Armenian border. The Ararat plain runs along its northwest to western side. An elevation of 5,165 m for Mount Ararat is given by some encyclopedias and reference works such as Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary and Encyclopedia of World Geography. However, a number of sources, such as the United Stat
Scouting and Guiding in Belarus
The Scout movement in Belarus consists of an unknown number of independent organizations. There are at least five nationwide associations as well as some regional associations. In addition, there were at one time Scouts-in-Exile in metropolitan areas of the United States, there are presently international Scout units in Belarus; the initial development of Scouting in Belarus took place within the Russian Scout movement, headed by general Oleg Pantyukhov. Belarus was a part of the Russian Empire at that time; the first Scout organisations were not independent. Instead they were a part of the Russian Scout movement, they first gathered in Gomel. In 1912 several Boy- and Girl-Scout organisations existed in Gomel, they were Russian and Jewish. In 1915 there were 170 little wolves. Russian Scout organisations that were a part of Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders existed in other towns of Belarus. In 1922 after the end of Russian Civil War Scouting had been banned by the Soviet Union, Scout activities ended.
In April 1926 many leaders and members were arrested and imprisoned by Joint State Political Directorate. Most of them were sent to Solovki prison camp; some of the Scouts and Scout-leaders fled abroad. They continued their activity in National Organization of Russian Scouts. Russian exiles in France in a more Catholic manner; some of them where officers from Belarusian families, who immigrated to France after World War I. West Belarus became a part of the Second Polish Republic according to the Peace of Riga after Polish–Soviet War. Along with the new Polish authorities Polish Scouting and Guiding Association spread in Belarus. A Scout organization was founded in Kletsk, Scouts appeared in Nyasvizh and other nearby villages. In 1929, American Methodists helped, it lasted until 1929. In the period following World War II, ethnic Belarusians gathered in Scout troops in exile and in Scout troops in displaced persons camps throughout Europe, as did Russian Scouts and Balts. Belarusian Scouts formed the organization Belarusian Scout Association Abroad, which existed from 1945 to 1951 in Germany.
Unlike the other organizations, the BSAA did not survive to witness the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Whereas Russia and Ukraine in particular had ready-made Scouting available once allowed in 1990-1991, Belarus had to start from scratch. Emergence of democratic principles in the mid-1980s made possible the creation of alternatives to the communist pioneer organizations. Close connections were formed with Guide and Scout organizations of many European countries, when children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident were invited to summer camps abroad during the Chernobyl Children's Project in 1990. Close links were developed with Cyprus, between Minsk and the Guides of Lincolnshire. In 1992, Cyprus was appointed Link country to support the development of Guiding in Belarus, in June 1993 the first conference of the Association of Belarusian Guides was held in Minsk. Belarusian Republican Scout Association, member of WOSM The Association of Belarusian Guides, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts since 1996 Belarusian Scout Association, founded in 1991, liquidated in 2005 by the Supreme Court of Belarus YMCA Scouting in BelarusNote: There may have been a link between one of the non-NSAB Belarusian Scout organizations and the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, a Christian-based Scout alternative, but it is uncertain to whom they were linked.
Several countries have multiple organizations, divided on the basis of religion, ethnic identification, or language. Belarus instead has regional Scouting organizations. Regional Scouting divisions of Belarus include the GomelScouts in Gomel; because usage of the Belarusian language and the Russian language are contentious issues in the country, the emblem itself is captioned in English. In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Minsk, serving in Boy Scout Troop 1101, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. Belarusian Republican Youth Union Scouting in displaced persons camps Translate be-x-old:Гісторыя скаўтынгу на Беларусі to English World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau, Trefoil Round the World. Eleventh Edition 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc