Elmira, New York
Elmira is a city in Chemung County, New York, United States. It is the principal city of the Elmira, New York, metropolitan statistical area, which encompasses Chemung County, New York; the population was 29,200 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Chemung County; the City of Elmira is in the south-central part of the county, surrounded on three sides by the Town of Elmira. It is in the Southern Tier of a short distance north of the Pennsylvania state line; this was long an area inhabited by indigenous people. In historic times, it was occupied by the Cayuga nation of the Iroquois Confederacy called the Kanawaholla, they had some relations with Europeans and English over fur trading, but were isolated from the encroaching settlements. During the American Revolutionary War, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 was mounted against the four Iroquois nations who had allied with the British and Loyalist forces, it fought a combined British-Iroquois force at the Battle of Newtown, south of the current city, in which Sullivan and his forces were victorious.
After the conclusion of the war, the Iroquois and the new United States made a treaty at Elmira in 1791 to settle territorial disputes in the region. Most of the Seneca emigrated under pressure with the other Iroquois to Canada, where they resettled on land provided by the British Crown; the first European-American settler in Elmira was captain Abraham Miller of the Continental Army. He built a cabin after resigning just before the Revolutionary War. Miller's Pond and Miller Street are near the location of his house; the New York legislature established the Township of Chemung, now Chemung County, in 1788. The settlement of Newtown was soon established at the intersection of Newtown Creek and the Chemung River. In 1792, the settlement at Newtown joined with the Wisnerburg and DeWittsburg settlements to form the village of Newtown. In 1808, the village changed its name to the Town of Elmira, at a town meeting held at Teal's Tavern, it is said the town was named after tavern owner Nathan Teal's young daughter, but that story has never been confirmed.
In any case, the City of Elmira called "The Queen City", was incorporated in 1864 from part of the town of Elmira and the village of Elmira. The remaining part of the town of Elmira exists still, surrounding the city on the west and east; the city and town share an intricately entwined history. According to Amos B. Carpenter's Family History book printed in 1898, Elmira is named after Major General Matthew Carpenter's daughter; this occurred according to the book in 1821 at the constitutional convention to which Matthew was a delegate. Elmira served as a transportation hub for New York's Southern Tier in the 1800s, connecting commercial centers in Rochester and Buffalo with Albany and New York City, via the canal system and railroads; the city was the southern terminus of the Chemung Canal. In 1849, the New York and Erie Railroad was built through Elmira, giving the area a New York City to Buffalo route. In 1850, the Elmira and Jefferson Railroad gave the area a route north and the Elmira and Williamsport Railroad a route south in 1854.
This made the city a prime location for an Army muster point early in the Civil War. In 1872 the Utica and Elmira Railroad was begun creating a route to Cortland and Syracuse via Horseheads and VanEtten; the Delaware and Western Railroad was completed in 1884, which competed with the Erie's New York City to Buffalo line. A great deal of the 30-acre Union installation, known as Camp Rathbun, fell into disuse as the Civil War progressed, the camp's "Barracks #3" were converted into a Civil War prisoner of war camp in the summer of 1864; the camp, in use from June 6, 1864 until autumn 1865, was dubbed "Hellmira" by its inmates. Towner's history of 1892 and maps from the period indicate the camp occupied a somewhat irregular parallelogram, running about 1,000 feet west and the same distance south of a location several hundred feet west of Hoffman Street and Winsor Avenue, bordered on the south by Foster's Pond, on the north bank of the Chemung River. In the months the site was used as a camp, 12,123 Confederate soldiers were incarcerated.
The camp's dead were prepared for burial and laid to rest by the sexton at Woodlawn National Cemetery, ex-slave John W. Jones. At the end of the war, each prisoner was given a train ticket back home; the camp was closed and converted to farmland. Woodlawn Cemetery, about 2 miles north of the original prison camp site, was designated a "National Cemetery" in 1877; the prison camp site is today a residential area. In 1950, the Elmira's population peaked at about 50,000, which represented 57 percent of Chemung County’s total population at the time. Today, the city has 30,000 residents, which represents 34 percent of Chemung County’s population; this population decline is due to the national decline in railroads and manufacturing as well as a population shift to the outer suburbs around Elmira. The Elmira Metro area has nearly 100,000 people; the population decline began during the recession of the early 1970s during which several large employers
The Pratt-Read TG-32 was a 1940s American military training glider and built by the Gould Aeronautical Division of the piano manufacturer Pratt, Read & Company of Deep River, for the United States Navy. The Pratt-Read glider was a monoplane glider having a fabric-covered steel tube fuselage and wooden wings and tail; the unique "polywog" shape was the suggestion of aerodynamicist Charles Townsend Ludington, former owner of the Ludington Line. The Pratt-Read PR-G1 was designed as a speculative effort to meet a United States pilot training program requirement that Charles Townsend Ludington and Roger Griswold II saw a need for when asked by James A. Gould, president of Pratt, Read & Company, as to what Pratt-Read could do to contribute to the war effort, seen to be eminent; the civilian registered NX41802 two-seat side-by-side glider was built with the Army in mind and not the Navy. The completed glider was demonstrated before Army and Navy representatives, but the Army had several contracts with other training glider manufacturers.
The Navy was interested in the Schweizer two-seat glider as a trainer, but knew the Army had a contract with them and felt that this would delay production for the Navy. The Navy purchased NX41802 and gave it designation XLNE-1, serial number 31505, it was tested and evaluated at the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia where it passed its acceptance testing. A production contract for 100 LNE-1 gliders was entered into that were to be used for the training of the Marine Corps glider pilots for the Pacific campaign; the first of these contracted production gliders, serial number 31506 was given the designation of XLNE-1, thus two training gliders had the same XLNE-1 designation and confuse researchers and historians. It too had to pass evaluation by the Navy. NX41802, Navy XLNE-1 #31505, was returned to Pratt-Read where it underwent destructive testing and was destroyed; when the Navy began to question the effectiveness of a glider assault in the Pacific theater, the original order for 100 gliders was amended and reduced to 75.
The short lived Marine glider program was cancelled before any LNE-1's were delivered to the unit. When the decision was made not to use gliders in the Pacific campaign, 73 of the Navy aircraft were transferred to the United States Army Air Forces in exchange for two Pratt-Read manufactured CG-4A Army gliders which the Navy had been experimenting with; the LNE-1 gliders were given the AAF designation of TG-32. The Air Force did not use the gliders and they were stored until the end of the war and were sold on the civilian market. Following the war, three Pratt-Read gliders were used in a joint venture of four federal agencies to study severe flying weather; the ventured was called the Thunderstorm Project. In the 1950s the glider was used in a high altitude weather and flight condition investigation called the Sierra Wave project. In 1952 a TG-32 set a new world altitude record of 44,255 ft for two-seat gliders, a record held for 54 years; the altitude gain of 34,426 ft achieved on this flight has only been superseded by the Perlan Project PR-G1 Company designation, one prototype built with Naval designation XLNE-1.
LNE-1 United States Navy designation, 75 built to include 1 XLNE-1. TG-32 United States Army Air Forces designation for 73 gliders transferred from the Navy. Two gliders, #31506 and #31507 were kept by the Navy for further testing. United StatesUnited States Army Air Forces United States Navy A number of TG-32 and LNE-1 gliders are on public display in museums in the United States. 31518 – LNE-1 on static display at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington. 31523 – TG-32 in storage at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. 31537 – LNE-1 on display at the Hoosier Air Museum in Auburn, Indiana. 31540 – LNE-1 in storage at the Southern Museum of Flight in Birmingham, Alabama. It is on loan from the National Naval Aviation Museum. 31542 – LNE-1 in storage at the Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, Texas. 31558 – LNE-1 in storage at the Silent Wings Museum in Lubbock, Texas. 31561 – LNE-1 on static display at the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. It is on loan from the National Soaring Museum.
Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 26 ft 3 in Wingspan: 54 ft 6 in Height: 6 ft Wing area: 230 sq ft Empty weight: 585 lb Max takeoff weight: 1,000 lb Performance Maximum speed: 99 mph.
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Glenn H. Curtiss Museum
The Glenn H. Curtiss Museum is an educational and cultural institution that collects and interprets transportation artifacts and regional history, with a general focus on the life, legacy and accomplishments of aviation pioneer Glenn Hammond Curtiss; this 60,000 square foot facility in the heart of the Finger Lakes region of Upstate NY is home to a priceless collection of aircraft, vintage motorcycles, aircraft engines, much more. The museum contains over a dozen aircraft, including AEA June Bug, Curtiss Model D, Curtiss Model E, "America" flying boat, JN-4D Jenny, Curtiss Model MF "Seagull", Curtiss Oriole, Curtiss Robin, C-46 Commando, three Mercury Aircraft, a 2/3 scale Curtiss P-40 Warhawk reproduction, Curtiss-Wright Junior; the museum features a 75-seat theater, large open area for special events and a museum store. In addition to seeing the museum displays and exhibits, visitors are welcome to visit the Restoration Shop, talk with volunteer craftsman and watch them work on historic aircraft.
An aviation museum, air museum, or aerospace museum is a museum exhibiting the history and artifacts of aviation. In addition to actual, replica or accurate reproduction aircraft, exhibits can include photographs, models, dioramas and equipment used by aviators. Aviation museums vary in size from housing just two aircraft to hundreds, they may be owned by national, regional or local governments or be owned. Some museums address the history and artifacts of space exploration as well, illustrating the close association between aeronautics and astronautics. Many aviation museums concentrate on military or civil aviation, or on aviation history of a particular era, such as pioneer aviation or the succeeding "golden age" between the World Wars, aircraft of World War II or a specific type of aviation, such as gliding. Aviation museums may fly some of them. Museums that do not fly their aircraft may have decided not to do so either because the aircraft are not in condition to fly or because they are considered too rare or valuable.
Museums may fly their aircraft in air shows or other aviation related events, accepting the risk that flying them entails. Some museums have sets of periodicals, technical manuals and personal archives; these are made available to aviation researchers for use in writing articles or books or to aircraft restoration specialists working on restoring an aircraft
The Baker-McMillan Cadet is an American, high-wing, strut-braced, open-cockpit, single-seat glider, designed in 1929 by Frank R. Gross and produced by Baker-McMillan; the Cadet was designed by Dr. Gross, a former member of the Akaflieg Darmstadt, in 1929 as an improvement over the primary gliders in use and as an aircraft that would offer soaring capability; the Cadet is built with a steel tube fuselage and a wooden wing, supported by dual parallel struts, with jury struts. The tail is a wire-braced wooded structure; the whole aircraft is covered in doped aircraft fabric covering. At least 30 and as many as 40 Cadets were constructed; the Cadet was the first glider to be flown at Elmira, New York after Wolfgang Klemperer, Warren Eaton and Earl Southee surveyed the area and determined it had potential for soaring flights. One flight was flown by Jack O'Meara, a factory pilot for Baker-McMillan, who had a flight of one hour and 38 minutes from Elmira's South Mountain. One Cadet was flown from water on twin floats.
On another occasion four Cadets were towed aloft at the same time and released by a Goodyear Blimp over Akron, Ohio. In March 2011 two Cadets remained on the Federal Aviation Administration registry. National Soaring Museum - 1 Thermal G Museum, Pennsylvania - 1 Data from Sailplane Directory and SoaringGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 37 ft 6 in Wing area: 162 sq ft Aspect ratio: 8.7:1 Empty weight: 230 lb Gross weight: 410 lb Performance Maximum glide ratio: 15:1 Rate of sink: 210 ft/min List of gliders
Schreder Airmate HP-11
The Schreder Airmate HP-11 is an American mid-wing, V-tailed, single seat glider designed by Richard Schreder. Airmate was the name of Schreder's design company; the HP-11 was designed to compete in the FAI Open Class in the 1962 US Nationals and represented the designer's continued pursuit of the perfect competition sailplane. The HP-11 is an all-metal design, with a wing that features a 26:1 aspect ratio, a 52 ft wingspan and a NACA 65 -618 airfoil, the same airfoil, used on the HP-8 and HP-10. A total of 42 HP-11s were built from kits and plans before production was ended in favour of the Schreder HP-14. Flying the HP-11 in the 1962 US Nationals, Schreder came in third in the competition and had the longest flight, 469 mi. Schreder flew it to third place in the Open Class at the 1963 World Gliding Championships held at Junín, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. At that event Schreder flew a 382 mi flight. In April 2011 there were 28 HP-11s registered with the US Federal Aviation Administration and three with Transport Canada.
HP-11 Initial model, with fixed monowheel landing gear. HP-11A Improved model for amateur construction from plans or kits, with a retractable monowheel landing gear. Bowlus BZ-1 Version designed by Michael Bowlus with the front fuselage from a North American F-86 Sabre drop tank, the tail from an HP-18 and the wings from an HP-11; the wingspan was reduced to 15 m. Kohler Alpha Version with a newly designed fuselage and HP-11 wings. National Soaring Museum - HP-11A US Southwest Soaring Museum - HP-11 Data from Sailplane Directory and SoaringGeneral characteristics Crew: one Wingspan: 52 ft 0 in Wing area: 104 sq ft Aspect ratio: 26:1 Airfoil: NACA 65 -618 Empty weight: 400 lb Gross weight: 650 lb Performance Maximum glide ratio: 37:1 at 55 mph Rate of sink: 108 ft/min at 50 mph Wing loading: 6.25 lb/sq ft List of gliders Photo of an HP-11A