Youssou N'Dour is a Senegalese singer, composer, occasional actor and politician. In 2004, Rolling Stone magazine described him as, "perhaps the most famous singer alive" in Senegal and much of Africa. From April 2012 to September 2013, he was Senegal's Minister of Tourism. N'Dour helped develop a style of popular Senegalese music called mbalax, a genre that fused traditional polyrhythms derived from the Wolof sabar with popular urban dance music from the African diaspora, he is the subject of the award-winning films Return to Gorée directed by Pierre-Yves Borgeaud and Youssou N'Dour: I Bring What I Love directed by Elizabeth Chai Vasarhelyi, which were released around the world. In 2006, N'Dour was cast as Olaudah Equiano in the film Amazing Grace. N'Dour was born in Dakar to a Serer father, he started performing at age 12 and was performing with the Star Band, Dakar's most popular group during the early 1970s. Despite N'Dour's maternal connection to the traditional griot caste, he was not raised in that tradition, which he learned instead from his siblings.
His parents' world view encouraged a modern outlook, leaving him open to two cultures and thereby inspiring N'Dour's identity as a modern griot. As a Muslim, he has incorporated aspects of Islamic music in his work. In 1979, he formed the Étoile de Dakar, his early work with the group, in the Latin style, was popular all over Africa during that time. In the 1980s, he developed a unique sound with his ultimate group, Super Étoile de Dakar featuring Jimi Mbaye on guitar, bassist Habib Faye, tama player Assane Thiam. By 1991, he had opened his own recording studio, and, by 1995, Jololi. N'Dour is one of the most celebrated African musicians in history, his mix of traditional Senegalese mbalax with eclectic influences ranging from Cuban rumba to hip hop and soul won him an international fan base of millions. In the West, N'Dour collaborated with Peter Gabriel, Axelle Red, Alan Stivell, Bran Van 3000, Neneh Cherry, Wyclef Jean, Paul Simon, Bruce Springsteen, Tracy Chapman, James Newton Howard, Branford Marsalis, Ryuichi Sakamoto, Lou Reed, Bruce Cockburn, others.
The New York Times described his voice as an "arresting tenor, a supple weapon deployed with prophetic authority". N'Dour's work absorbed the entire Senegalese musical spectrum filtered through the lens of genre-defying rock or pop music from outside Senegalese culture. In July 1993, Africa Opera composed by N'Dour premiered at the Opéra Garnier for the French Festival Paris quartier d'été. In 1994, N'dour released his biggest international hit single, the trilingual "7 Seconds", a duet sung with Neneh Cherry, he wrote and performed the official anthem of the 1998 FIFA World Cup with Axelle Red "La Cour des Grands". Folk Roots magazine described him as the African Artist of the Century, he toured internationally for thirty years. He won his first American Grammy Award for his CD Egypt in 2005, he is the proprietor of L'Observateur, one of the widest-circulation newspapers in Senegal, the radio station RFM and the TV channel TFM. In 2002, N'Dour was honoured with a Prince Claus Award, under that year's theme "Languages and transcultural forms of expression".
In 2006, N'Dour played the role of the African-British abolitionist Olaudah Equiano in the movie Amazing Grace, which chronicled the efforts of William Wilberforce to end slavery in the British Empire. In 2008, N'Dour offered one of his compositions, Bébé, for the French singer Cynthia Brown. In 2011, N'Dour was awarded an honorary doctoral degree in Music from Yale University. In 2013, N'Dour won a share of Sweden's $150,000 Polar music prize for promoting understanding between faiths as well as for his music. N'Dour was nominated as Goodwill Ambassador of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on 16 October 2000. In Senegal, N'Dour became a powerful cultural icon involved in social issues. In 1985, he organized a concert for the release of Nelson Mandela, he was a featured performer in the 1988 worldwide Amnesty International Human Rights Now! Tour collaborating with Lou Reed on a version of the Peter Gabriel song "Biko", produced by Richard James Burgess and featured on the Amnesty International benefit album The Secret Policeman's Third Ball.
He worked with the United Nations and UNICEF, he started Project Joko to open internet cafés in Africa and to connect Senegalese communities around the world. In 2003, N'Dour cancelled an upcoming American tour in order to publicly deny support for the upcoming American invasion of Iraq. In a public statement explaining his decision, N'Dour said:It is my strong conviction that the responsibility for disarming Iraq should rest with the United Nations; as a matter of conscience I question the United States government's apparent intention to commence war in Iraq. I believe that coming to America at this time would be perceived in many parts of the world--rightly or wrongly--as support for this policy, that, as a consequence, it is inappropriate to perform in the US at this juncture, he performed in three of the Live 8 concerts on 2 July 2005, with Dido. He covered John Lennon's "Jealous Guy" for the 2007 CD Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur, he appeared in a joint Spain-Senegal ad campaign to inform the African public about the dramatic consequences of illegal immigration.
N'Dour participated in the Stock Exchange of Visions project in 2007. In 2008, he joined the Fondation Chirac's honour committee; the same year
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Oliver "Tuku" Mtukudzi was a Zimbabwean musician, philanthropist, human rights activist and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador for Southern Africa Region. Tuku was considered to have been Zimbabwe's most renowned and internationally recognised cultural icon of all time. Mtukudzi grew up in Highfield, a poor neighborhood in Salisbury in Southern Rhodesia, as the eldest of seven siblings. While both his parents sang in a choir, they were not supportive of his continued interest in music breaking his first homemade guitar, he began performing in 1977 when he joined the Wagon Wheels, a band that featured Thomas Mapfumo and fellow legendary guitarist James Chimombe. They were given the rare opportunity by Paul Tangi Mhova Mkondo, an African nationalist and music promoter, who provided money and resources to the group. With the support of Mutanga, the prayers and blessings of Amai Mutanga, he allowed them to perform at Mutanga Restaurant & Night Club which, at the time, was the first and only African licensed night club available for blacks under Rhodesia's policy of segregation.
Their single Dzandimomotera went gold and Tuku's first album followed, a major success. Mtukudzi is a contributor to Mahube, Southern Africa's "supergroup". With his husky voice, Mtukudzi has become the most recognised voice to emerge from Zimbabwe and onto the international scene and he has earned a devoted following across Africa and beyond. A member of Zimbabwe's KoreKore group, with Nzou Samanyanga as his totem, he sings in the nation's dominant Shona language along with Ndebele and English, he incorporates elements of different musical traditions, giving his music a distinctive style, known to fans as Tuku Music. Mtukudzi has had a number of tours around the world, he has been on several tours in US and Canada to perform for large audiences. In 2017 Mtukudzi entertained guests at the wedding of Zimbabwean businessman Wicknell Chivayo. Mtukudzi has two grandchildren. Two of his children are musicians, his son Sam Mtukudzi, a successful musician in his own right, died in a car accident in March 2010 and in 2013, he released an album titled "Sarawoga", in tribute to his son.
Prior to the independence of Zimbabwe, Mtukudzi's music depicted the struggles under Rhodesian white minority rule. In subsequent years following Zimbabwean independence, his music has advocated for tolerance and peace and has portrayed the struggles of women and children. On 23 January 2019, Mtukudzi died at the age of 66 at Avenues Clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe after a long battle with Diabetes. 1978 Ndipeiwo Zano 1979 Chokwadi Chichabuda 1979 Muroi Ndiani? 1980 Africa 1981 Shanje 1981 Pfambi 1982 Maungira 1982 Please Ndapota 1983 Nzara 1983 Oliver's Greatest Hits 1984 Hwema Handirase 1985 Mhaka 1986 Gona 1986 Zvauya Sei? 1987 Wawona 1988 Nyanga Nyanga 1988 Strange, Isn't It?' 1988 Sugar Pie 1989 Grandpa Story 1990 Chikonzi 1990 Pss Pss Hallo! 1990 Shoko 1991 Mutorwa 1992 Rombe 1992 Rumbidzai Jehova 1992 Neria Soundtrack' 1993 Son of Africa 1994 Ziwere MuKobenhavn 1995 Was My Child 1996 Svovi yangu 1995 The Other Side: Live in Switzerland 1995 Ivai Navo 1997 Ndega Zvangu 1997 Chinhamwe 1998 Dzangu Dziye 1999 Tuku Music 2000 Paivepo 2001 Neria 2001 Bvuma 2002 Shanda soundtrack 2002 Vhunze Moto 2003 Shanda 2003 Tsivo 2004 Greatest Hits Tuku Years 2004 Mtukudzi Collection 1991–1997 2004 Mtukudzi Collection 1984–1991 2005 Nhava 2006 Wonai 2007 Tsimba Itsoka 2008 Dairai 2010 Rudaviro 2010 Kutsi Kwemoyo 2011 Rudaviro 2011 Abi'angu 2012 Sarawoga — Sarawoga laments the losses that the legend has had to endure in his life, not least the loss of life.
Thus he has been left'alone' in a sense, hence the title Sarawoga. 2014 Mukombe Wemvura 2016 God Bless You - The Gospel Collection 2016 Eheka! Nhai Yahwe 2018 hany’a 1996 The Rough Guide to the Music of Zimbabwe 1999 Unwired: Acoustic Music from Around the World 2000 Unwired: Africa Jit Neria. Mtukudzi made the soundtrack. Shanda Sarawoga, 2009, was written by Elias C. Machemedze, directed by Watson Chidzomba and produced by Oliver Mtukudzi, who did the soundtrack for the film. 2012 Nzou NeMhuru Mudanga DVD, the live recording of a show, a theatrical performance which Tuku had with his son just weeks before his death. 1985–1988: One of The Best Selling Artists in Zimbabwe. KORA Award for Ndakuwara. 2002: SAMA Finalist Live at the Cape Town Jazz Festival. National Arts Merit Awards in 2002 and 2004 for Best Group / Male vocalist KORA Award for Best African male artist and Lifetime Achievement Award in August 2003. Reel Award Winner for Best African Language in 2003. An honorary degree from the University of Zimbabwe in December 2003 NAMA Award 2003: Best Group/Artist.
NAMA Award 2004: Best Group/Artist. NAMA Award 2005: National Arts Personality of the Year. NAMA Award 2006: Outstanding Album. 2006: ZIMA. 2006: ZIMA. NAMA Award 2007: Best Musician/Group. 2007:Cultural Ambassador – Zimbabwe Tourism Association. NAMA Award 2008:. Honorary MSc Degree awarded by the Women's University in Africa in 2009. M-Net Best Soundtrack Award in 1992, for Neria 2010: MTN SAMA Awards recognised his son's achievements in music. 2010: Unive
Amnesty International is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights. The organization says it has more than seven million supporters around the world; the stated mission of the organization is to campaign for "a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments."Amnesty International was founded in London in 1961, following the publication of the article "The Forgotten Prisoners" in The Observer on 28 May 1961, by the lawyer Peter Benenson. Amnesty draws attention to human rights abuses and campaigns for compliance with international laws and standards, it works to mobilize public opinion to generate pressure on governments. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be "the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights." The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its "defence of human dignity against torture," and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.
In the field of international human rights organizations, Amnesty has the third longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights, broadest name recognition, is believed by many to set standards for the movement as a whole. Amnesty International was founded in London in July 1961 by English labour lawyer Peter Benenson along with Professor of Law and friend Philip James. According to Benenson's own account, he was travelling on the London Underground on 19 November 1960 when he read that two Portuguese students from Coimbra had been sentenced to seven years of imprisonment in Portugal for "having drunk a toast to liberty". Researchers have never traced the alleged newspaper article in question. In 1960, Portugal was ruled by the Estado Novo government of António de Oliveira Salazar; the government was authoritarian in nature and anti-communist, suppressing enemies of the state as anti-Portuguese. In his significant newspaper article "The Forgotten Prisoners", Benenson described his reaction as follows: Open your newspaper any day of the week and you will find a story from somewhere of someone being imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government...
The newspaper reader feels a sickening sense of impotence. Yet if these feelings of disgust could be united into common action, something effective could be done. Benenson worked with friend Eric Baker. Baker was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, involved in funding the British Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament as well as becoming head of Quaker Peace and Social Witness, in his memoirs Benenson described him as "a partner in the launching of the project". In consultation with other writers and lawyers and, in particular, Alec Digges, they wrote via Louis Blom-Cooper to David Astor, editor of The Observer newspaper, who, on 28 May 1961, published Benenson's article "The Forgotten Prisoners"; the article brought the reader's attention to those "imprisoned, tortured or executed because his opinions or religion are unacceptable to his government" or, put another way, to violations, by governments, of articles 18 and 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The article described these violations occurring, on a global scale, in the context of restrictions to press freedom, to political oppositions, to timely public trial before impartial courts, to asylum.
It marked the launch of "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961", the aim of, to mobilize public opinion and in defence of these individuals, whom Benenson named "Prisoners of Conscience". The "Appeal for Amnesty" was reprinted by a large number of international newspapers. In the same year, Benenson had a book published, Persecution 1961, which detailed the cases of nine prisoners of conscience investigated and compiled by Benenson and Baker. In July 1961 the leadership had decided that the appeal would form the basis of a permanent organization, with the first meeting taking place in London. Benenson ensured that all three major political parties were represented, enlisting members of parliament from the Labour Party, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party. On 30 September 1962, it was named "Amnesty International". Between the "Appeal for Amnesty, 1961" and September 1962 the organization had been known as "Amnesty". What started as a short appeal soon became a permanent international movement working to protect those imprisoned for non-violent expression of their views and to secure worldwide recognition of Articles 18 and 19 of the UDHR.
From the beginning and campaigning were present in Amnesty International's work. A library was established for information about prisoners of conscience and a network of local groups, called "THREES" groups, was started; each group worked on behalf of three prisoners, one from each of the three main ideological regions of the world: communist and developing. By the mid-1960s Amnesty International's global presence was growing and an International Secretariat and International Executive Committee were established to manage Amnesty International's national organizations, called "Sections", which had appeared in several countries; the international movement was starting to agree on its core techniques. For example, the issue of whether or not to adopt prisoners who had advocated violence, like Nelson Mandela, brought unanimous agreement that it could not give the name of "Prisoner of Conscience" to such prisoners. Aside from the work of the library and groups, Amnesty International'
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed to be used by multiple types of events. While any stadium could host more than one type of sport or event, this concept refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multifunctionality over specificity, it is used most in Canada and the United States, where the two most popular outdoor team sports – football and baseball – require radically different facilities. Football uses a rectangular field, while baseball is played on large outfield; this requires a particular design to accommodate both an oval. While building stadiums in this way means that sports teams and governments can share costs, it imposes some challenges. In North America, multipurpose stadiums were built during the 1960s and 1970s as shared home stadiums for Major League Baseball and National Football League or Canadian Football League teams; some stadiums were renovated to allow multipurpose configurations during the 1980s. This type of stadium is associated with an era of suburbanization, in which many sports teams followed their fans out of large cities into areas with cheaper, plentiful land.
They were built near highways and had large parking lots, but were connected to public transit. As multipurpose stadiums were ideal for both sports housed in them, they had fallen out of favor by the 1990s. With the completion of the Truman Sports Complex in Kansas City in 1973, a model for purpose-built stadiums was laid down. Since Oriole Park at Camden Yards opened in 1992, most major league sports stadiums have been built for one sport. Outside North America, the term is used, since association football is the only major outdoor team sport in many countries. In Australia, many sports grounds are suited to both Australian rules football and cricket, as Australian rules is played on cricket ovals. In some cases such as Stadium Australia in Sydney, Docklands Stadium in Melbourne and National Stadium, stadiums are designed to be converted between the oval configuration for cricket and Australian rules football and a rectangular configuration for Rugby and Association Football and in the case of Singapore's National Stadium, an Athletics configuration as well.
Association football stadiums have served as track and field arenas, as well, some still do, whereas a newer generation has no running track to allow the fans closer to the field. Among winter sports a speed skating rink can be a multi-purpose stadium. A rink or two of the size 61 × 30 metres - the regulation size of an IIHF ice hockey rink - are placed inside the oval. Sometimes the ice surface is larger, allowing for bandy and curling; as of 2019, the Oakland Coliseum is the last multipurpose stadium to serve as a full-time home to both an MLB team and an NFL team, that arrangement will end once the Oakland Raiders relocate to Las Vegas in 2020. Meanwhile, the current Yankee Stadium houses both the New York Yankees baseball team and New York City FC of Major League Soccer. Several stadiums hosted multiple sports teams prior to the advent of multipurpose stadiums. In New York City, the Polo Grounds hosted football teams early on; the original Yankee Stadium was designed to accommodate football, as well as track and field, in addition to its primary use for baseball.
Wrigley Field, while built for baseball hosted the Chicago Bears, just as Comiskey Park hosted the Chicago Cardinals and Tiger Stadium hosted the Detroit Lions. Venues such as Cleveland Stadium, Milwaukee County Stadium and Baltimore Memorial Stadium were built to accommodate both baseball and football. In the 1960s, multipurpose stadiums began replacing their baseball-only and football-only predecessors, now known as "classics" or "jewel box" parks; the advantage to a multipurpose stadium is that a singular infrastructure and piece of real estate can support both teams in terms of transportation and playing area, money that would have been spent to support infrastructure for two stadiums could be spent elsewhere. Playing into the advent of the multipurpose stadium was Americans' growing use of automobiles, which required professional sports stadiums surrounded by parking. Most cities lacked affordable space for such stadiums near their city centers, so multipurpose stadiums were built in suburbs with freeways access.
Subsets of the multipurpose stadiums were the so-called "cookie-cutter stadiums" or "concrete donuts" which were all similar in design. They featured a circular or nearly circular design, accommodated both baseball and football by rotating sections of the box seat areas to fit the respective playing fields; these fields used artificial turf, as it could withstand the reconfiguration process more or be removed for nonsporting events, plus it could be used in domes, which many of these stadiums were. The first of these stadiums was Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, it was followed during the 1960s and 1970s by Shea Stadium, Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum, the Astrodome, Jack Murphy Stadium, Riverfront Stadium, Busch Memorial Stadium, Three Rivers Stadium, Veterans Stadium, the Kingdome. As of 2016, seven of these 11 stadiums have been demolished. Only Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium, the Oakland Coliseum, Jack Murphy S
Peter Brian Gabriel is an English singer and record producer who rose to fame as the original lead singer and flautist of the progressive rock band Genesis. After leaving Genesis in 1975, Gabriel launched a successful solo career with "Solsbury Hill" as his first single, his 1986 album, So, is his best-selling release and is certified triple platinum in the UK and five times platinum in the U. S; the album's most successful single, "Sledgehammer", won a record nine MTV Awards at the 1987 MTV Video Music Awards and, according to a report in 2011, it was MTV's most played music video of all time. Gabriel has been a champion of world music for much of his career, he co-founded the WOMAD festival in 1982. He has continued to focus on producing and promoting world music through his Real World Records label, he has pioneered digital distribution methods for music, co-founding OD2, one of the first online music download services. Gabriel has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts. In 1980, he released the anti-apartheid single "Biko".
He has participated in several human rights benefit concerts, including Amnesty International's Human Rights Now! tour in 1988, co-founded the Witness human rights organisation in 1992. Gabriel developed The Elders with Richard Branson, launched by Nelson Mandela in 2007. Gabriel has won three Brit Awards—winning Best British Male in 1987, six Grammy Awards, thirteen MTV Video Music Awards, the first Pioneer Award at the BT Digital Music Awards, the Q magazine Lifetime Achievement, the Ivor Novello Award for Lifetime Achievement, the Polar Music Prize, he was made a BMI Icon at the 57th annual BMI London Awards for his "influence on generations of music makers". In recognition of his many years of human rights activism, he received the Man of Peace award from the Nobel Peace Prize laureates, Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world. AllMusic has described Gabriel as "one of rock's most ambitious, innovative musicians, as well as one of its most political".
He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Genesis in 2010, followed by his induction as a solo artist in 2014. In March 2015, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of South Australia in recognition of his achievements in music. Peter Brian Gabriel was born on 13 February 1950 in Surrey, his father, Ralph Parton Gabriel, was an electrical engineer, his mother, Edith Irene, from a musical family, taught him to play the piano at an early age. His great-great-great-uncle, Sir Thomas Gabriel, 1st Baronet, was Lord Mayor of London from 1866 to 1877. Gabriel attended a private primary school in Woking, he played drums in his first rock bands, Mike Rutherford commented in 1985 that "Pete was—and still is, I think—a frustrated drummer". Gabriel founded Genesis in 1967 with fellow Charterhouse pupils Tony Banks, Anthony Phillips, Mike Rutherford, drummer Chris Stewart; the name of the band was suggested by fellow Charterhouse alumnus, the pop music impresario Jonathan King, who produced their first album, From Genesis to Revelation.
Gabriel has said to be influenced by many different sources in his way of singing, such as Family lead singer Roger Chapman and theatrical singer Arthur Brown. In 1970, he played the flute on Mona Bone Jakon. Genesis drew some attention in Britain and also in Italy, Belgium and other European countries due to Gabriel's flamboyant stage presence, which involved numerous bizarre costume changes and comical, dreamlike stories told as the introduction to each song; the concerts made extensive use of black light with the normal stage lighting off. A backdrop of fluorescent white sheets and a comparatively sparse stage made the band into a set of silhouettes, with Gabriel's fluorescent costume and make-up providing the only other sources of light. Early Genesis concerts were hampered by a bad PA system that made it difficult for audiences to understand what Gabriel was singing. According to Mike Rutherford, this drove Gabriel to find other ways to impress his personality on the audience, leading to his performing in various costumes.
In an episode of the 2007 British documentary series Seven Ages of Rock, Steve Hackett recalled the first appearance of Gabriel "in costume". It was the fox-headed entity immortalised on the cover of Foxtrot. Hackett and the rest of the band had no inkling that Gabriel was going to do this, at the time Hackett worried that it would ruin the performance, it was a success. Among Gabriel's many famous costumes, which he developed to visualise the musical ideas of the band as well as to gain press coverage, were "Batwings" for the band's usual opening number, "Watcher of the Skies". Other costumes included "The Flower" and "Magog", which were both alternately worn for "Supper's Ready" from the album Foxtrot. "Britannia" was worn for "Dancing with the Moonlit Knight", "The Reverend" for "The Battle of Epping Forest". "The Old Man" was worn for "The Musical Box" from Nursery Cryme. "The Slipperman" and "Rael" were worn during "The Colony of Slippermen", in which "Rael" was the protagonist of the album The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway.
Gabriel's departure from Genesis on 15 August 1975, which stunned fans of the group and left many commentators wondering if the band could survive, was the result of several factors. His statu
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment