Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
York University is a public research university in Toronto, Canada. It is Canada's third-largest university, it has 52,300 students, 7,000 faculty and staff, 295,000 alumni worldwide, it has eleven faculties, including the Faculty of Liberal Arts & Professional Studies, Faculty of Science, Lassonde School of Engineering, Schulich School of Business, Osgoode Hall Law School, Glendon College, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Health, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Graduate Studies, the School of the Arts, Media and Design, 28 research centres. The Keele campus is home to a satellite location of Seneca College. York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year, its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education.
In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, within the neighbourhood community of York University Heights. Several of York's programs have gained notable recognition both nationally and internationally. York houses Canada's oldest film school, ranked one of the best in Canada, with an acceptance rate comparable to that of USC School of Cinematic Arts and Tisch School of the Arts. York's Osgoode Hall Law School was ranked second best in Canada, in Maclean's 2012 ranking of Canadian common law schools. In The Economist's 2011 full-time MBA rankings, York's Schulich School of Business ranked ninth in the world, first in Canada, in CNN Expansion's ranking of MBA programs, Schulich ranked 18th in the world, placing first in Canada. York's School of Kinesiology and Health Science ranked 1st in Canada and 16th best in the world by ShanghaiRanking in 2017. Over the last twenty years, York has become a centre for labour strife with several faculty and other strikes occurring, including the longest university strike in Canadian history in 2018.
York University was established in 1959 as a non-denominational institution by the York University Act, which received Royal Assent in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on 26 March of that year. Its first class was held in September 1960 in Falconer Hall on the University of Toronto campus with a total of 76 students; the policy of university education initiated in the 1960s responded to population pressure and the belief that higher education was a key to social justice and economic productivity for individuals and for society. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. In the fall of 1961, York moved to its first campus, Glendon College, began to emphasize liberal arts and part-time adult education.
It became independent in 1965, after an initial period of affiliation with the University of Toronto, under the York University Act, 1965. Its main campus on the northern outskirts of Toronto opened in 1965. Murray Ross, who continues to be honoured today at the University in several ways – including the Murray G. Ross Award – was still vice-president of U of T when he was approached to become York University's new president. At the time, York University was envisaged as a feeder campus to U of T, until Ross's powerful vision led it to become a separate institution. In 1965, the university opened a second campus, the Keele Campus, in North York, in the Jane and Finch community; the Glendon campus became a bilingual liberal arts college led by Escott Reid, who envisaged it as a national institution to educate Canada's future leaders, a vision shared by Prime Minister Lester Pearson, who formally opened Glendon College in 1966. The first Canadian undergraduate program in dance opened at York University in 1970.
In 1972, Canada Post featured the nascent institution on 8¢ stamps, entitled York University Campus, North York, Ont. The first Canadian PhD. program in Women's Studies opened with five candidates in January 1992. Its bilingual mandate and focus on the liberal arts continue to shape Glendon's special status within York University; the new Keele Campus was regarded as somewhat isolated, in a industrialized part of the city. Petrol storage facilities are still across the street; some of the early architecture was unpopular with many, not only for the brutalist designs, but the vast expanses between buildings, not viewed as suitable for the climate. In the last two decades, the campus has been intensified with new buildings, including a dedicated student centre and new fine arts, computer science and business administration buildings, a small shopping mall, a hockey arena; the Aviva Centre tennis stadium, built in 2004, is a perennial host of the Canada Masters tennis tournament. As Toronto has spread further out, York has found itself in a central location within the built-up Greater Toronto Area, in particular, near the Jane and Finch neighbourhood.
Its master plan envisages a denser on-campus environment commensurate with that location. Students occupied the university's administration offices in March 1997, protesting escalating tuition hikes. York University has a history of teaching assistant strikes. In 1997, there w
Aviva Centre Rexall Centre, is a tennis stadium in Toronto, Canada. The 12,500-capacity Stadium Court is the largest stadium at the tennis complex. Aviva Centre is the venue for the Rogers Cup, a professional tournament on the ATP World Tour and WTA circuits, held annually; the Aviva Centre hosts the men's tournament in even-numbered years and the women's event in odd-numbered years, with the other gender's event held in Montreal in those years. The facility is a year-round tennis training facility; the main stadium is used for seasonal concerts. Aviva Centre is located on the grounds of York University in Toronto. Built in 2004, the main venue holds 12,500 spectators. There are 11 other small courts next to the stadium. All twelve courts use the DecoTurf cushioned acrylic surface, the same surface as the US Open Grand Slam event; the stadium has two party suites. Aviva Centre is the home of the Toronto offices of Tennis Canada and the Ontario Tennis Association; the grounds serve as the national and provincial tennis training centre year-round, offering 16 courts.
The stadium is used for the staging of interuniversity competitions and practices and winter training. During the academic year, a discounted fee on indoor courts is offered to York students weekdays during daytime hours; this is the veni for York University's Convocation Ceremony every year. The facility is located on the western edge of the York University campus, south-east of Jane Street and Steeles Avenue West, at the intersection of Shoreham Drive, Pond Road. To the west of the facility are forested park lands along the Black Creek; the Saywell Woods and Stong Pond are located to east of the facility. The stadium was built to replace the National Tennis Centre, demolished in 2003; the facility opened on July 26, 2004. The first match at the stadium was an opening round match between Andre Agassi and Tommy Haas attended by 10,500; the Aviva Centre is one of two venues for the Canadian Open. The tennis tournament alternates venues year-to-year, between the Aviva Centre, the IGA Stadium in Montreal.
In 2011, the stadium became the venue for the BlackCreek Summer Music Festival, a series of concerts of jazz, opera and symphonic music. In 2014, the venue was named as the host of the tennis events at the 2015 Pan American Games. In 2017, the Aviva Centre hosted the opening ceremonies for the 2017 North American Indigenous Games. In February 2015, Toronto Police Service announced the discovery of a "mystery" tunnel located a few hundred metres from the facility, a story which became viral, it was revealed to be a "man cave." The two men in their mid-20s who excavated the cave had no criminal intent and are not affiliated with York University, Rexall Centre, or the Pan Am Games. The Toronto Sun identified one of the men as 22-year-old Elton McDonald, he faced an $800 fine instead of receiving a criminal record. McDonald's employer said that he lost his tools used to dig the tunnel; the facility is located on Shoreham Road, which connects to Jane Street, just south of Steeles Avenue. There are an estimated 7,000 parking spaces in the vicinity.
Pioneer Village subway station is situated a short walk from the stadium, or transit users can take the 106 Sentinel bus between the stadium and the subway station. Venues of the 2015 Pan American and Parapan American Games List of tennis stadiums by capacity Aviva Official Website Black Creek Summer Music Festival
Keele Campus (York University)
The Keele Campus of York University in the North York district of Toronto, Canada, occupies 1 square kilometre of land and is situated between Jane Street to the west, Keele Street to the east, Steeles Avenue West to the north and Finch Avenue West to the south. The campus itself is located in North York, now a census division within the City of Toronto, it is the largest post-secondary campus in Canada at 457 acres. The campus was once occupied by farms held by pioneers of the area including: James Stong Daniel Stong Peter Erlin Kaiser Abraham Hoover John Boynton The area was named Kaiserville after the settler Peter Kaiser, buried in the area, while the Stongs left the area in 1951, the Hoovers' till the 1930s; the original 1960s buildings—now designated Toronto Heritage Properties—were designed and built by joint venture UPACE and landscape under Hideo Sasaki. The main facilities of the central part of the campus are connected by heated walkways for the safety and convenience of students and staff.
Vari Hall given over to lecture halls, was designed by Raymond Moriyama and constructed in the early 1990s to put a "new face" on the campus. The facility is named for George and Helen Vari, Hungarian refugees and businesspersons who helped finance the building; the three-story rotunda has become a popular place for social gatherings as well as a common protest site. Most of Ross consists of faculty offices of those affiliated with Arts, it was named for the university's founding president. There are several small classrooms in the lower floors of the building, as well as a small cinema. Ross houses the Graduate Pub, one of the few places on campus licensed to sell liquor. A ramp leading up to the Ross Building was demolished during the building of Vari Hall by 1989. Ross is divided into two towers: Ross North, Ross South. Room numbers must be identified with a tower prefix. Central Square is the hub connecting the Scott Library and the Curtis Lecture Halls, it includes a large cafeteria, a "bear pit", a small "open" computer lab, several TD ATMs, Booster Juice and several offices focused on student and faculty services.
The main Scott Library is five stories tall and features thousands of books and other resources. There are designated quiet study areas as well as several small conference rooms which students can reserve to work on group projects; the building is an example of the Brutalist architecture built at the campus in the 1960s and 1970s and based on a Ziggurat. The library is named for William Pearson Scott, the member Chair of the York University Board of Governors. Named for Canadian chemist Edgar William Richard Steacie and one three key libraries in Keele campus; the Sound and Moving Images Library is located on the first floor of Scott Library and houses York's collection of audiovisual materials as well as materials related to music and films. SMIL's collection includes 15,000 documentaries and 4,000 feature films on either DVD, VHS, film reels; the continuous growing number of documentaries and feature films establishes SMIL as one of the top University Media Libraries in Ontario. The music collection at SMIL has developed a strong variety with a total of 26,000 CDs and 13,000 Vinyl LPs.
A notable strength is accounting for 7,000 items. A total of a hundred DVD players, Blu-ray players, VCRs, turntables are available for student use including access to quality headphones; the Sound and Moving Images Library is open Monday-Thursday from Fridays from 9am-5pm. Built in 1969 Petrie Science Building is home to the York University Observatory, which features two dome towers that house the observatory's astronomical telescopes; the building is named for Scottish-born Canadian astronomer Robert Methven Petrie. The Accolade Project comprises two new buildings, Accolade East and Accolade West, which frame the existing Fine Arts complex on the south side of The Common at the heart of York University's Keele campus; the new structures offer a wide range of academic and performance facilities for teaching, research, creative work and public presentation. The Accolade Project offers facilities for Canada's future performers. Complementing the facilities of the Faculty of Fine Arts in the Joan & Martin Goldfarb Centre for Fine Arts, Burton Auditorium, the Centre for Film and Theatre, the Technology-Enhanced Learning Building, Accolade brings all seven fine arts departments together.
Both the Department of Music and the Department of Dance have a new home with facilities in Accolade East. The Art Gallery of York University has moved into Accolade East. Located east of the Centre for Film and Theatre, facing the Schulich School of Business, Accolade East features exhibition and performing arts facilities, The Sandra Faire and Ivan Fecan Theatre, The Recital Hall, including the main box office, as well as classrooms and an open-access computer lab serving the entire university. Located north of the Joan & Martin Goldfarb Centre for Fine Arts and adjacent to Burton Auditorium, Accolade West is used by students from across the university. A four-storey building dedicated to academic studies, the building houses classrooms, seminar rooms and computer labs ranging in capacity from 40 to 400 seats, it houses the student-run gallery of the Department of Visual Arts as well as two new studios for the Fine Arts Cultural Studies program in the Fac
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa