Die Frau ohne Schatten
Die Frau ohne Schatten, Op. 65, is an opera in three acts by Richard Strauss with a libretto by his long-time collaborator, the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal. It was written between 1911 and either 1915 or 1917; when it premiered in Vienna on 10 October 1919, critics and audiences were unenthusiastic. Many cited problems with Hofmannsthal's complicated and symbolic libretto. However, it is now a standard part of the operatic repertoire. Work on the opera began in 1911. Hofmannsthal’s earliest sketches for the libretto are based on a piece by Goethe, "The Conversation of German Emigrants". Hofmannsthal handles Goethe's material adding the idea of two couples, the emperor and empress who come from another realm, the dyer and his wife who belong to the ordinary world. Hofmannsthal drew on portions of the Arabian Nights, Grimms' Fairy Tales, quotes Goethe's Faust; the opera is conceived as a fairy-tale on the theme of love blessed through the birth of children. Hofmannsthal, in his letters, compared it with Mozart's Magic Flute, which has a similar arrangement of two couples.
Strauss began composing immediately. He and Hofmannsthal worked on music and words in parallel, each receiving inspiration from the other. Strauss was happy with Hofmannsthal’s text, but asked him to rewrite many passages for the sake of dramatic effect. Hofmannsthal was more worried about the symbolism beneath his libretto; the opera was finished in 1915, during the First World War, but had to wait for its premiere until 1919. The sometimes difficult genesis of the opera is documented in their correspondence. Strauss himself called this opera his “child of woe”, he called it "Die Frosch", "Die Frau ohne Schatten"); the complexity of the text and the stress of wartime made its composition a laborious task, Strauss was disappointed with the first productions. Musically, Die Frau ohne Schatten is one of Strauss's most colorful scores. In contrast to the quickly-moving Salome and Elektra, it includes extended scenes; the opera remains a challenge to stage for a major opera house, calling as it does for five top soloists in the demanding principal roles, first rate secondary roles, a large orchestra, elaborate sets and scenic effects.
Scenically, it is demanding, with all the scene changes and special effects. Children singing out of a frying pan is demanding, as is the final golden waterfall scene. Few opera houses are capable of staging the work. In 1946 Strauss created a one-movement orchestral piece, the Fantasy on Die Frau ohne Schatten, based on highlights from the opera, it was premiered in Vienna in 1947. Writing about Die Frau ohne Schatten in 1948, Strauss said, despite the difficulties of staging it, "it has succeeded and has made a deep impression... and music lovers in particular consider it to be my most important work." The role of the Empress calls for a dramatic soprano who can support a high tessitura and negotiate an act 1 entrance aria including coloratura passages, a trill, a high D. Similarly, any tenor attempting the Emperor must be able to handle numerous passages in his uppermost range his extended solo scene in act 2; the Nurse's role makes some demands on the singer's lower range but requires frequent leaps above the staff.
The Dyer's Wife calls for a soprano with immense sound to be heard over orchestrated passages. The Dyer is the most approachable of the leading vocal parts, but again the orchestration is heavy and requires a baritone with sufficient stamina to last the opera's three hours and fifteen minutes; the opera's story is set in the mythical empire of the Southeastern Islands and involves five principal characters: the Emperor, the Empress, her Nurse, Barak, a lowly dyer, the Dyer's Wife. A sixth character, King of the Spirit Realm and father to the Empress, sets the plot in motion, but never appears on stage; the Empress is half human: she was captured by the Emperor in the form of a gazelle. She assumed human shape and he married her; this symbolizes her inability to bear children. Keikobad has decreed that unless the Empress gains a shadow before the end of the twelfth moon, she will be reclaimed by her father and the Emperor will turn to stone. Scene 1 It is dawn, outside the bedchambers of the Emperor and Empress.
The Messenger of Keikobad arrives, tells the Empress's nurse that the Empress must acquire a shadow within three days, or will be forcibly returned to his realm, the Emperor turned to stone. The Nurse is excited about the prospect of returning to the spirit world, since she hates humans and having to dwell with them; the Messenger leaves and the Emperor emerges from his bedchamber. He departs on a three-day hunting trip, seeking his favorite falcon, which he drove away for attacking a gazelle that turned into the Empress, he leaves his wife to the Nurse's care. The Empress emerges from her chamber and reminisces about times when she had the ability to turn into any creature she wanted, it is revealed that after being attacked by the red falcon that the Emperor is seeking, she lost a talisman that gave transformation powers, on, inscribed a curse that foresaw the fate she and the Emperor are about to face if she does not acquire a shadow. The red falcon warns the Empress that the curse is about to be fulfilled.
The Empress begs the Nurse to help her get a shadow. The Nurse, steeped in magic, suggests descending to the mortal world and finding a woman who will sell her shadow to the Empress. Scene 2 Barak, a dyer, shares his hut with his Wife and his thr
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n
Engelbert Humperdinck (composer)
Engelbert Humperdinck was a German composer, best known for his opera Hansel and Gretel. Humperdinck was born at Siegburg in the Rhine Province in 1854. After receiving piano lessons, he produced his first composition at the age of seven, his first attempts at works for the stage were two singspiele written when he was 13. His parents encouraged him to study architecture, he began taking music classes under Ferdinand Hiller and Isidor Seiss at the Cologne Conservatory in 1872. In 1876, he won a scholarship that enabled him to go to Munich, where he studied with Franz Lachner and with Josef Rheinberger. In 1879, he won the first Mendelssohn Award given by the Mendelssohn Stiftung in Berlin, he became acquainted with Richard Wagner in Naples. Wagner invited him to join him in Bayreuth, during 1880 and 1881 Humperdinck assisted in the production of Parsifal, he served as music tutor to Wagner's son, Siegfried. After winning another prize, Humperdinck traveled through Italy and Spain and spent two years teaching at the Gran Teatre del Liceu Conservatory in Barcelona.
In 1887, he returned to Cologne. He was appointed professor at the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt in 1890 and teacher of harmony at Julius Stockhausen's Vocal School. By this time he had composed several works for chorus and a Humoreske for small orchestra, which enjoyed a vogue in Germany. Humperdinck's reputation rests chiefly on his opera Hänsel und Gretel, which he began work on in Frankfurt in 1890, he first composed four songs to accompany. Using a libretto by his sister Adelheid Wette rather loosely based on the version of the fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm, he composed a singspiel of 16 songs with piano accompaniment and connecting dialogue. By January 1891 he had begun working on a complete orchestration; the opera premiered in Weimar on 23 December 1893, under the baton of Richard Strauss. With its original synthesis of Wagnerian techniques and traditional German folk songs and Gretel was an instant and overwhelming success. Hansel and Gretel has always been Humperdinck's most popular work.
In 1923 the Royal Opera House chose it for their first complete radio opera broadcast. Eight years it was the first opera transmitted live from the Metropolitan Opera. In 1896, Kaiser Wilhelm II made he went to live at Boppard. Four years however, he went to Berlin where he was appointed head of a Meister-Schule of composition, his students included the Basque composer Andrés Isasi. Among his other stage works are: Die sieben Geißlein, 1895 Königskinder, 1897, 1910 Dornröschen, 1902 Die Heirat wider Willen, 1905 Bübchens Weihnachtstraum, 1906 Die Marketenderin, 1914 Gaudeamus: Szenen aus dem deutschen Studentenleben, 1919While composing those works, Humperdinck held various teaching positions of distinction and collaborated in the theater, providing incidental music for a number of Max Reinhardt's productions in Berlin, for example, for Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice in 1905. Although recognized as a disciple of Wagner rather than an innovator, Humperdinck was the first composer to use Sprechgesang—a vocal technique halfway between singing and speaking—in his melodrama Königskinder.
In 1914, Humperdinck seems to have applied for the post of director of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music in Australia, but with the outbreak of World War I it became unthinkable for a German to hold that position, the job went instead to Belgium's Henri Verbrugghen. In 1914, Humperdinck signed the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three, declaring support for German military actions during early World War I. On 5 January 1912 Humperdinck suffered a severe stroke. Although he recovered, his left hand remained permanently paralyzed, he continued to compose, completing Gaudeamus with the help of his son, Wolfram, in 1918. On 26 September 1921 Humperdinck attended a performance of Carl Maria von Weber's Der Freischütz in Neustrelitz, Wolfram's first effort as a stage director, he died the next day from a second heart attack. The Berlin State Opera performed Gretel in his memory a few weeks later, he was buried at the Südwestkirchhof in Stahnsdorf near Berlin. For a list of Humperdinck's pupils, see this list.
In 1965, British singer Arnold Dorsey named himself after the composer. The main belt asteroid. Free scores by Engelbert Humperdinck at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores by Engelbert Humperdinck in the Choral Public Domain Library Works by Engelbert Humperdinck at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Engelbert Humperdinck at Internet Archive
Ferdinand Fränzl was a German violinist, conductor, opera director, a representative of the third generation of the so-called Mannheim school. The quality of his violin playing must have been comparable to his father’s who in turn was one of the best violinists of his generation; the violinist and composer Louis Spohr, who heard him at least twice in 1810 judged Fränzl’s playing as old-fashioned, reminiscent of a bygone era. Fränzl’s first teacher was his father Ignaz Fränzl, a competent composer himself and one of the foremost violinists of his day. Ferdinand entered the Mannheim court orchestra in 1782. In 1785 he went on his first concert tour. Although an accomplished virtuoso, Fränzl rounded off his education in Strasbourg. Here he received lessons in counterpoint form Franz Xaver Richter and Ignaz Pleyel; the two, as disparate as they were, made a good pair of teachers for the young Fränzl. Richter already a teacher of Ferdinand Fränzl’s father, was a conservative contrapuntist of the old school respected for his sacred music.
Pleyel was a Haydn pupil and a successful and modern composer of chamber music and symphonies. Fränzel added some international touch to his musical education in Paris and Bologna. In 1789 he was named concertmaster of the Munich court orchestra, successor to the Mannheim court orchestra. After only two years in Munich he relocated to Frankfurt am Main where he assumed the post of concertmaster at the Frankfurt national theatre. During the same time he undertook extended concert tours to Russia. In 1806 he succeeded Carl Cannabich as director of the instrumental music of the Munich court orchestra; the German violinist and composer Louis Spohr a competent judge in music matters, met Ferdinand Fränzl during a concert tour to Russia. Spohr attended a concert by Fränzl in May 1802. Despite some feeble attempts at polite praise, Spohr’s impression of Fränzl was predominantly negative: "The best violinist in St. Petersburg was, without doubt, Fränzl junior, he had just come from Moscow. His attitude in playing displeased me.
The diary says: "He holds the violin still in the old manner, on the right side of the tail piece, must therefore play with his head bent... To this must be added that, he raised the right arm high, has the bad habit of elevating his eyebrows at the expressive passages. If this is not unpleasant to the majority of the listeners it is still disagreeable for a violinist to see, his playing is clean. In the Adagio parts, he executes many runs and other ornaments, with a rare clearness and delicacy; as soon however as he played loud, his tone was rough and unpleasant, because he draws his bow too and too near to the bridge, leans it too much to one side. He executed the passages and purely, but always with the middle of the bow, without distinction of piano and forte."This is one of the best accounts we have of the violin playing of a representative of the Mannheim school. What Spohr writes is all the more convincing because he himself was the pupil of a Mannheim violinist. Moreover, Spohr, as the leading German violinist of his generation and of one generation than Ferdinand Fränzl, was as good a judge as any when it came to appraising violin playing.
Blume, Hrsg. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Allgemeine Enzyklopädie der Musik. Ungekürzte elektronische Ausgabe der ersten Auflage. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1949-1987. Riemann, Hugo. Handbuch der Musikgeschichte. Die Musik des 18. Und 19. Jahrhhunderts. Zweite, von Alfred Einstein durchgesehene Auflage. Bd. II. V Bde. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1922. Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. 5th Completely Revised Edition. New York, 1958. Spohr, Louis. Louis Spohr's Autobiography. London: Longman, Green etc. 1865 Alfried Wieczorek, Hansjörg Probst, Wieland Koenig, Hrsg. Lebenslust und Frömmigkeit - Kurfürst Carl Theodor zwischen Barock und Aufklärung. Bd. 2. 2 Bde. Regensburg, 1999. ISBN 3-7917-1678-6
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari was an Italian composer and teacher. He is best known for his comic operas such as Il segreto di Susanna. A number of his works were based on plays by Carlo Goldoni, including Le donne curiose, I quatro rusteghi and Il campiello. Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari was born in Venice in 1876, the son of German painter August Wolf and Emilia Ferrari, from Venice, he added his mother's maiden-name, Ferrari, to his surname in 1895. Although he studied piano from an early age, music was not the primary passion of his young life; as a teenager Wolf-Ferrari wanted to be a painter like his father. It was there that he decided taking lessons from Josef Rheinberger, he began taking counterpoint and composition classes. These casual music classes completely eclipsed his art studies, music took over Wolf-Ferrari's life, he wrote his first works in the 1890s. At age 19, Wolf-Ferrari traveled home to Venice. There he worked as a choral conductor, had a son called Federico Wolf-Ferrari, met both Arrigo Boito and Verdi.
In 1900, having failed to have two previous efforts published, Wolf-Ferrari saw the first performance of one of his operas, based on the story of Cinderella. The opera was a failure in Italy, the humiliated young composer moved back to Munich. German audiences would prove more appreciative of his work. Wolf-Ferrari now began transforming the wild and witty farces of the 18th-century Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni into comic operas; the resulting works were musically eclectic and utterly hilarious. In fact, until the outbreak of World War I, Wolf-Ferrari's operas were among the most performed in the world. In 1902 he became professor of director of the Liceo Benedetto Marcello. In 1911 Wolf-Ferrari tried his hand at full-blooded Verismo with I gioielli della Madonna, it was quite popular in its day and for a period after in Chicago, where the great Polish soprano Rosa Raisa made it a celebrated vehicle. Maria Jeritza triumphed in it at the Metropolitan Opera, in an all-out spectacular production in 1926.
World War I, was a nightmare for Wolf-Ferrari. The young composer, dividing his time between Munich and Venice found his two countries at war with each other. With the outbreak of the War, he moved to Zurich and composed much less, though he still wrote another comedy, Gli amanti sposi. A new melancholy vein appeared in his post-war work, he did not pick up his rate of output until the 1920s, when he wrote Das Himmelskleid and Sly, the latter based on William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. In 1939 he became professor of composition at the Mozarteum in Salzburg. In 1946 he moved again to Zürich before returning to his home city of Venice, he is buried in the Venetian cemetery Island of San Michele. As well as his operas, Wolf-Ferrari wrote a number of instrumental works at the beginning and end of his career. Only his violin concerto has been performed with anything approaching regularity, though he wrote Idillio-concertino, various pieces of chamber music including a piano quintet and two piano trios, three violin sonatas and a number of works for the organ amongst others.
Wolf-Ferrari's work is not performed widely although he is thought of as the finest writer of Italian comic opera of his time. His works recall the opera buffa of the 18th century, although he wrote more ambitious works in the manner of Pietro Mascagni, which are thought of less well. See List of operas by Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari La vita nuova, cantata 1902 4 Rispetti, Op. 11 4 Rispetti, Op. 12 Canzoniere, Op. 17 Serenade for Strings in E flat major Idillio-concertino in A major for Oboe and small orchestra, Op. 15 Suite-concertino in F major for Bassoon and small orchestra, Op. 16 Venezianische Suite in A minor, Op.18 Triptychon op.19 Divertimento in D major op.20 Arabesken für Orchester op.22 Violin Concerto in D, Op. 26 Guila Bustabo in ammirazione Sinfonia Brevis in E flat major op.28 Concertino in A flat major for English horn and small orchestra, Op. 34 String Sextet in C minor Sinfonia da Camera Op. 8 Sonata No.1 for Violin & Piano in G minor, Op.1 Sonata No.2 for Violin & Piano in A minor, Op.10 Sonata No.3 for Violin & Piano in E major, Op.27 Sonata for Cello & Piano in G major, Op.30 String Duo in G minor for Violin & Cello, Op.33b String Duo, "Introduzio mnjkkjkne e Balletto", for Violin & Cello, Op.35 String Trio in B minor for Violin, Viola & Cello, WoO.
String Trio in A minor for Violin, Viola & Cello, Op.32 String Quartet in E minor, Op.23 String Quintet in C major for 2 Violins, 2 Violas & Cello, Op.24 Piano Trio No.1 in D major, Op.5 Piano Trio No.2 in F♯ major, Op.7 Piano Trio "Sonata" for in F major for 2 Violins & Piano, Op.25 Piano Quintet in D♭ major, Op.6 Wolf-Ferrari, Ermanno by John C G Waterhouse
Bayreuth is a medium-sized city in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194. In the early 21st century, it is the capital of Upper Franconia and has a population of 72,148, it is world-famous for its annual Bayreuth Festival, at which performances of operas by the 19th-century German composer Richard Wagner are presented. The town is believed to have been founded by the counts of Andechs around the mid-12th century, but was first mentioned in 1194 as Baierrute in a document by Bishop Otto II of Bamberg; the syllable -rute may mean Rodung or "clearing", whilst Baier- indicates immigrants from the Bavarian region. Documented earlier, were villages merged into Bayreuth: Seulbitz and St. Johannis; the district of Altstadt west of the town centre must be older than the town of Bayreuth itself. Older traces of human presence were found in the hamlets of Meyernberg: pieces of pottery and wooden crockery were dated to the 9th century based on their decoration.
While Bayreuth was referred to as a villa, the term civitas appeared for the first time in a document published in 1231. One can therefore assume that Bayreuth was awarded its town charter between 1200 and 1230; the town was ruled until 1248 by the counts of Andechs-Merania. After they died out in 1260 the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern took over the inheritance; as early as 1361 Emperor Charles IV conferred on Burgrave Frederick V the right to mint coins for the towns of Bayreuth and Kulmbach. In 1398 Bayreuth was partitioned from Nuremberg; until 1604, the princely residence and the centre of the territory was the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach and as such the territory was known as the Principality of Kulmbach. The town of Bayreuth developed and was affected time and again by disasters. Bayreuth was first published on a map in 1421. In February 1430, the Hussites devastated the town hall and churches were razed. Matthäus Merian described this event in 1642 as follows: "In 1430 the Hussites from Bohemia attacked / Culmbach and Barreut / and committed great acts of cruelty / like wild animals / against the common people / and certain individuals.
/ The priests / monks and nuns they either burnt at the stake / or took them onto the ice of lakes and rivers / and doused them with cold water / and killed them in a deplorable way / as Boreck reported in the Bohemian Chronicle, page 450"By 1528, less than ten years after the start of the Reformation, the lords of the Frankish margrave territories switched to the Lutheran faith. In 1605 a great fire, caused by negligence, destroyed 137 of the town's 251 houses. In 1620 plague broke out and, in 1621, there was another big fire in the town; the town suffered during the Thirty Years War. A turning point in the town's history came in 1603 when Margrave Christian, the son of the elector, John George of Brandenburg, moved the aristocratic residence from the castle of Plassenburg above Kulmbach to Bayreuth; the first Hohenzollern palace was built in 1440-1457 under Margrave John the Alchemist. It was expanded and renovated many times; the development of the new capital stagnated due to the Thirty Years' War, but afterwards many famous baroque buildings were added to the town.
After Christian's death in 1655 his grandson, Christian Ernest, followed him, ruling from 1661 until 1712. He was an educated and well-travelled man, whose tutor had been the statesman Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal, he founded the Christian-Ernestinum Grammar School and, in 1683, participated in the liberation of Vienna, besieged by the Turks. To commemorate this feat, he had the Margrave Fountain built as a monument on which he is depicted as the victor of the Turks. During this time, the outer ring of the town wall and the castle chapel were built, his successor, the Crown Prince and Margrave, George William, began in 1701 to establish the independent town of St Georgen am See with its castle, the so-called Ordensschloss, a town hall, a prison and a small barrack. In 1705 he founded the Order of Sincerity, renamed in 1734 to the Order of the Red Eagle and had the monastery church built, completed in 1711. In 1716 a princely porcelain factory was established in St. Georgen; the first'castle' in the park of the Hermitage was built at this time by Margrave George William.
In 1721 the town council acquired the palace of Baroness Sponheim as a replacement for the town hall built in 1440 in the middle of the market place and destroyed by fire. In 1735 a nursing home, the so-called Gravenreuth Stift, was founded by a private foundation in St. Georgen; the cost of the building exceeded the funds of the foundation, but Margrave Frederick came to their aid. Bayreuth experienced its Golden Age during the reign of Margrave Frederick and Margravine Wilhelmina of Bayreuth, the favourite sister of Frederick the Great. During this time, under the direction of court architects, Joseph Saint-Pierre and Carl von Gontard, numerous courtly buildings and attractions were created: the Margravial Opera House with its richly furnished baroque theatre, the New'Cast
Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier, Die Frau ohne Schatten and Salome. Strauss was a prominent conductor in Western Europe and the Americas, enjoying quasi-celebrity status as his compositions became standards of orchestral and operatic repertoire. Strauss, along with Gustav Mahler, represents the late flowering of German Romanticism after Richard Wagner, in which pioneering subtleties of orchestration are combined with an advanced harmonic style. Strauss was born on 11 June 1864 in Munich, the son of Josephine and Franz Strauss, the principal horn player at the Court Opera in Munich. In his youth, he received a thorough musical education from his father, he wrote his first composition at the age of six, continued to write music until his death. During his boyhood Strauss attended orchestra rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra, where he received private instruction in music theory and orchestration from an assistant conductor.
In 1872, he started receiving violin instruction at the Royal School of Music from Benno Walter, his father's cousin. In 1874, Strauss heard his first Wagner operas and Tannhäuser; the influence of Wagner's music on Strauss's style was to be profound, but at first his musically conservative father forbade him to study it. Indeed, in the Strauss household, the music of Richard Wagner was viewed with deep suspicion, it was not until the age of 16 that Strauss was able to obtain a score of Tristan und Isolde. In life, Strauss said that he regretted the conservative hostility to Wagner's progressive works. Strauss's father undoubtedly had a crucial influence on his son's developing taste, not least in Strauss's abiding love for the horn. In early 1882, in Vienna, he gave the first performance of his Violin Concerto in D minor, playing a piano reduction of the orchestral part himself, with his teacher Benno Walter as soloist; the same year he entered Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, where he studied philosophy and art history, but not music.
He left a year to go to Berlin, where he studied before securing a post as assistant conductor to Hans von Bülow, enormously impressed by the young composer's Serenade for wind instruments, composed when he was only 16 years of age. Strauss learned the art of conducting by observing Bülow in rehearsal. Bülow was fond of the young man, decided that Strauss should be his successor as conductor of the Meiningen Court Orchestra when Bülow resigned in 1885. Strauss's compositions at this time were indebted to the style of Robert Schumann or Felix Mendelssohn, true to his father's teachings, his Horn Concerto No. 1, is a staple of the modern horn repertoire. Strauss married soprano Pauline de Ahna on 10 September 1894, she was famous for being irascible, garrulous and outspoken, but to all appearances the marriage was happy, she was a great source of inspiration to him. Throughout his life, from his earliest songs to the final Four Last Songs of 1948, he preferred the soprano voice to all others, all his operas contain important soprano roles.
The Strausses had one son, Franz, in 1897. Franz married Alice von Grab-Hermannswörth, daughter of a Jewish industrialist, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in 1924. Franz and Alice had two sons and Christian. In 1906, Strauss purchased a block of land at Garmisch-Partenkirchen and had a villa built there with the down payments from the publisher Adolph Fürstner for his opera Salome, residing there until his death; some of Strauss's first compositions were solo instrumental and chamber works. These pieces include early compositions for piano solo in a conservative harmonic style, many of which are lost: two piano trios, a string quartet, a piano sonata, a cello sonata, a piano quartet, a violin sonata, as well as a serenade and a longer suite, both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns and contrabassoon. After 1890, Strauss composed infrequently for chamber groups, his energies being completely absorbed with large-scale orchestral works and operas. Four of his chamber pieces are arrangements of portions of his operas, including the Daphne-Etude for solo violin and the String Sextet, the overture to his final opera Capriccio.
His last independent chamber work, an Allegretto in E major for violin and piano, dates from 1948. He composed two large-scale works for wind ensemble during this period: Sonatina No. 1 "From an Invalid's Workshop" and Sonatina No. 2 "Happy Workshop" —both scored for double wind quintet plus two additional horns, a third clarinet in C, bassett horn, bass clarinet, contrabassoon. Strauss wrote two early symphonies: Symphony No. 1 and Symphony No. 2. However, Strauss's style began to develop and change when, in 1885, he met Alexander Ritter, a noted composer and violinist, the husband of one of Richard Wagner's nieces, it was Ritter who persuaded Strauss to abandon the conservative style of his youth and begin writing tone poems. He introduced Strauss to the essays of Wagner and the writings of Arthur Schopenhauer. Strauss went on to conduct one of Ritter's operas, at Strauss