Saint Stephen's Church, Strasbourg
Saint Stephen’s Church in Strasbourg is located inside the catholic ‘Saint-Étienne’ college in Strasbourg, for which it serves as a chapel. Saint Stephen's is one of the oldest churches in Strasbourg; the crypt contains the remains of a fifth-century Roman basilica. The site was occupied by a Roman fort. A new church was built on the site in early in 717 by Duke Adalbert of Alsace, brother of Saint Odile, as part of a new convent, in which he installed his daughter Attala as the first abbess; the Church served for many years as the episcopal seat for the north of Alsace. The church was rebuilt in 1220 in Romanesque-Gothic style. At the beginning of the 16th century, St Stephen's was a parish church, the parish of Stephen's being one of the nine parishes of Strasbourg. In 1534, as the reform was being introduced in Strasbourg, the parish of St Stephen's was transferred to St William's, on account of the opposition of the cannonesses of St Stephen's to the new teaching. In the seventeenth century Louis XIV closed the abbey and transferred it to the Visitandines to serve as a boarding school for young women, a function which continued up until the French Revolution.
In 1714 the church was equipped with an organ by Andreas Silbermann, now in Bischheim. After the French Revolution, the building was used as a warehouse as a theatre. In 1802, the church was deprived of its tower and in 1805 this was transformed into a theatre; the college, of which the church now forms part, began life in 1861 as a'Petit seminaire', educating future priests as well as lay students. Allied bombing destroyed much of the building in 1944. Only the wide transept with its triple apse survived. In 1956, the ancient site was excavated and a Merovingian apse was discovered beneath the foundations of the old tower. In 1961, the nave was renovated; the church was classified as a historical monument in 1962. In 2016, the monumental concert organ from the former conservatory located in the National Theatre of Strasbourg was moved into the nave in order to be used as a church organ; the instrument, a 1963 work by organ builder Curt Schwenkedel, had been out of use since 1995. It was restored by Quentin Blumenroeder from Haguenau.
As the Church is now part of a school, public access is only possible on special occasions, such as European Heritage Days. The school owns some valuable historical tapestries from the abbey church, some of which can be seen in the nearby Notre Dame museum. Eglise Saint Etienne - 2 rue de la Pierre Large on archi-wiki.org website of the Saint-Etienne college Aerial photo on French historical monuments website
Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg
The Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg is a French orchestra based in Strasbourg. It is one of the two permanent orchestras of the Opéra national du Rhin; the orchestra's current principal venue is the Palais de la musique et des congrès'Pierre Pflimlin'. The orchestra was founded in 1855. Between 1871 and 1918, 1940 and 1944, the orchestra had been a German one, resulting from conflicts between France and Germany over the Alsace region. In 1994, the orchestra acquired the official title of Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg – orchestre national; the orchestra holds 110 permanent musicians. Composers-in-residence included the French composers Jean-Louis Agobet and Philippe Manoury, the Finnish composer Kaija Saariaho and the American composer John Corigliano. Past music directors and chief conductors have included Hans Pfitzner, Hans Rosbaud, Ernest Bour, Jan Latham-Koenig, Charles Bruck and Alain Lombard. Marc Albrecht became artistic advisor of the orchestra in 2005, music director in 2008.
Albrecht and the orchestra have recorded commercially for PENTATONE, including orchestral lieder of Alban Berg, piano concertos by Robert Schumann and Antonín Dvořák. Albrecht concluded his tenure in 2011. In January 2011, the orchestra announced the appointment of Marko Letonja as its next music director, effective with the 2012-2013 season. Josef Hasselmans Franz Stockhausen Hans Pfitzner Otto Klemperer Hans Pfitzner Guy Ropartz Paul Paray Hans Rosbaud Paul Bastide Ernest Bour Alceo Galliera Alain Lombard Theodor Guschlbauer Jan Latham Koenig Marc Albrecht Marko Letonja Official website of the orchestra
Palais du Rhin
The Palais du Rhin, the former Kaiserpalast, is a building situated in the German quarter of Strasbourg dominating the Place de la République with its massive dome. A huge building, it and the surrounding gardens, as well as the neighbouring stables, are an outstanding landmark of 19th-century Prussian architecture. After the Franco-Prussian War, Strasbourg German, was faced with the question of an official residence for the Kaiser; the decision was made to create a building symbolic of imperial power, after much debate, a square Neo-Renaissance design was chosen, remotely inspired by the Palazzo Pitti in Florence. The architect was Hermann Eggert, who had built, among other things, the Observatory of Strasbourg. Work began on March 22, 1884 in honour of William I's 87th birthday, construction took five years; the project received a good deal of criticism, with many questioning the need and use of the building, its appearance, its price of three million marks. Inaugurated by William II in August 1889, the palace housed the emperor for twelve visits down to 1914.
During the First World War, the building was converted into a military hospital and in 1920 it adopted its current name when the oldest of the European institutions, the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, moved in. In 1923, the palace passed hands to the French state and today houses the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles of Grand Est. Transformed into the'Kommandantur' by the Nazis between 1940 and 1945, the building was recaptured by the troops of General Leclerc, who transformed it into their general headquarters, it was there that he wrote his proclamation announcing the realization of his oath at Kufra, proclaiming that he would fight until the French flag flew again over the cathedrals of Strasbourg and Metz. Threatened with destruction in the 1970s, the palace, classified as monument historique since 1993 houses the Direction régionale des Affaires culturelles of Alsace. In 2008, the Palais was used as the setting of the Paris Gestapo headquarters for the shooting of the French TV mini-series "La Résistance".
Architectural description and photos Exterior and interior views
Place de la République (Strasbourg)
Place de la République is one of the main squares of the city of Strasbourg, France. It is surrounded on three sides by five buildings only, of which none is residential: the Palais du Rhin, the National and University Library, the Théâtre national de Strasbourg, the Préfecture of Grand Est and Bas-Rhin, the tax center Hôtel des impôts. All of these buildings are classified as monuments historiques; the fourth side of the square is devoid of buildings. Place de la République is a square surrounding a circular public garden crossed by a north-west and a south-east axis. In the centre of the square stands a War memorial statue by Léon-Ernest Drivier, inaugurated in 1936, it represents a mother holding two dead sons, alluding to the dual nature of Strasbourg's History between Germany and France. The memorial replaces an equestrian statue of Emperor Wilhelm I, commissioned in 1897, that stood on the square from 1911 until 1918. Place de la République was designed by architect Jean-Geoffroy Conrath as the conspicuous and grandiose entrance of the "Neustadt" opposite the ancient Grande Île city center on the other side of the Ill.
The layout and construction of the square began in 1880. It was called Kaiserplatz. Ginkgo biloba trees, which were presented by Emperor Meiji of Japan to his German counterpart, were planted in the central garden in the 1880s; the area was occupied by a section of the city walls, which were demolished after the Franco-Prussian War. An ancient Jewish cemetery was located on grounds near to the river; the former Imperial Palace is surrounded by its own garden, separated from the square by a monumental wrought iron fence. The Palace, a solemn Neorenaissance building crowned with a heavy dome, was built from 1884 until 1887 by Hermann Eggert, it is used as the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine since 1920 and houses the Direction régionale des affaires culturelles of Grand Est. It is classified as a monument historique since 1993; the building now housing the Théâtre national de Strasbourg was built as the seat of the Parliament of Alsace-Lorraine. It was designed by August Hartel and Skjold Neckelmann in a radically different Neorenaissance style than Hermann Eggert's, built in 1888–1889.
It is classified as a monument historique since 1992. The Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire was built from 1889 until 1895 in the Neorenaissance style, again by Hartel and Neckelmann, it is classified as a monument historique since 2004. This Baroque Revival building was built from 1899 until 1902 by Ludwig Levy, the architect of the Great Synagogue of Strasbourg, it was used as the seat of several ministries: agriculture and finances. It is classified as a monument historique since 1996; the Préfecture de la région Grand-Est et du département du Bas-Rhin was built from 1907 until 1911, based on designs by Ludwig Levy. The façade was decorated with statues of lions by Alfred Marzolff; the building housed ministries of Alsace-Lorraine. It is a more austere example of Baroque Revival architecture than its older counterpart, it is classified as a monument historique since 1996. A work of art called Spirale Aby Warburg, le monument aux vivants by Luxemburgish artist Bert Theis was installed on the square in 2002.
It is used as a bench. Place de la République and the Grande Île city center are connected by the stone arch bridge Pont du Théâtre; that bridge was reinforced with concrete and modified in 1999–2000 in order to allow for the passage of the tramway. As of 2017, Place de la République is served by the Strasbourg tramway lines B, C, E and F, by the CTS buses 15a and 72. Place de la République on archi-wiki.org
The Old Vic
The Old Vic is a 1,000-seat, not-for-profit producing theatre, located just south-east of Waterloo station on the corner of the Cut and Waterloo Road in Lambeth, England. Established in 1818 as the Royal Coburg Theatre, renamed in 1833 the Royal Victoria Theatre, in 1871 it was rebuilt and reopened as the Royal Victoria Palace, it was taken over by Emma Cons in 1880 and formally named the Royal Victoria Hall, although by that time it was known as the "Old Vic". In 1898, a niece of Cons, Lilian Baylis, assumed management and began a series of Shakespeare productions in 1914; the building was damaged in 1940 during air raids and it became a Grade II* listed building in 1951 after it reopened. The Old Vic is the crucible of theatres in London today, it was the name of a repertory company, based at the theatre and formed the core of the National Theatre of Great Britain on its formation in 1963, under Laurence Olivier. The National Theatre remained at the Old Vic until new premises were constructed on the South Bank, opening in 1976.
The Old Vic became the home of Prospect Theatre Company, at that time a successful touring company which staged such acclaimed productions as Derek Jacobi's Hamlet. However, with the withdrawal of funding for the company by the Arts Council of Great Britain in 1980 for breaching its touring obligations, Prospect disbanded in 1981; the theatre underwent complete refurbishment in 1985. In 2003, Kevin Spacey was appointed artistic director. Spacey served as artistic director until 2015. In 2015, Matthew Warchus succeeded Spacey as artistic director; the theatre was founded in 1818 by James King and Daniel Dunn, John Thomas Serres the marine painter to the King. Serres managed to secure the formal patronage of Princess Charlotte and her husband Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, named the theatre the Royal Coburg Theatre; the theatre was thus technically forbidden to show serious drama. When the theatre passed to George Bolwell Davidge in 1824 he succeeded in bringing legendary actor Edmund Kean south of the river to play six Shakespeare plays in six nights.
The theatre's role in bringing high art to the masses was confirmed when Kean addressed the audience during his curtain call saying "I have never acted to such a set of ignorant, unmitigated brutes as I see before me." More popular staples in the repertoire were "sensational and violent" melodramas demonstrating the evils of drink, "churned out by the house dramatist", confirmed teetotaller Douglas Jerrold. When Davidge left to take over the Surrey Theatre in 1833, the theatre was bought by Daniel Egerton and William Abbot, who tried to capitalise on the abolition of the legal distinction between patent and minor theatres, enacted in Parliament earlier that year. On 1 July 1833, the theatre was renamed the Royal Victoria Theatre, under the "protection and patronage" of Victoria, Duchess of Kent, mother to Princess Victoria, the 14-year-old heir presumptive to the British throne; the duchess and the princess visited only once, on 28 November of that year, but enjoyed the performance, of light opera and dance, in the "pretty...clean and comfortable" theatre.
The single visit scarcely justified the "Old Vic" its billing as "Queen Victoria's Own Theayter". By 1835, the theatre was advertising itself as the Victoria Theatre. In 1841, David Osbaldiston took over as lessee, was succeeded on his death in 1850 by his lover and the theatre's leading lady, Eliza Vincent, until her death in 1856. Under their management, the theatre remained devoted to melodrama. In 1858, sixteen people were crushed to death inside the theatre after mass panic caused while an actor's clothing caught fire. In 1867, Joseph Arnold Cave took over as lessee. In 1871 he transferred the lease to Romaine Delatorre, who raised funds for the theatre to be rebuilt in the style of the Alhambra Music Hall. Jethro Thomas Robinson was engaged as the architect. In September 1871 the old theatre closed, the new building opened as the Royal Victoria Palace in December of the same year, with Cave staying on as manager. By 1873, Cave had left and Delatorre's venture failed. In 1880, under the ownership of Emma Cons it became the Royal Victoria Hall and Coffee Tavern and was run on "strict temperance lines".
The "penny lectures" given in the hall led to the foundation of Morley College. An endowment from the estate of Samuel Morley led to the creation of the Morley Memorial College for Working Men and Women on the premises, which were shared; the adult education college moved to its own premises nearby in the 1920s. With Emma Cons's death in 1912 the theatre passed to her niece Lilian Baylis, who emphasised the Shakespearean repertoire; the Old Vic Company was established in 1929, led by Sir John Gielgud. Between 1925 and 1931, Lilian Baylis championed the re-building of the then-derelict Sadler's Wells Theatre, established a ballet company under the direction of Dame Ninette de Valois. For a few years the drama and ballet companies rotated between the two theatres, with the ballet becoming permanently based at Sadler's Wells in 1935; the Old Vic was damaged badly during the Blitz, the war-depleted company spent all its time touring, based in Burnley, Lancashire at the Victoria Theatre during the years 1940 to 1943.
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air through the organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards played by the hands, a pedalboard played by the feet; the keyboard and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate after a key is depressed; the smallest portable pipe organs may have one manual. A list of some of the most notable and largest pipe organs in the world can be viewed at List of pipe organs. A list consisting the ranking of the largest organs in the world - based on the criterion constructed by Michał Szostak, i.e.'the number of ranks and additional equipment managed from a single console - can be found in'The Organ' and in'The Vox Humana'.
The origins of the pipe organ can be traced back to the water organ in Ancient Greece, in the 3rd century BC, in which the wind supply was created by the weight of displaced water in an airtight container. By the 6th or 7th century AD, bellows were used to supply Byzantine organs with wind. Beginning in the 12th century, the organ began to evolve into a complex instrument capable of producing different timbres. A pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short, King of the Franks, in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning the pipe organ's establishment in Western European church music. In England, "The first organ of which any detailed record exists was built in Winchester Cathedral in the 10th century, it was a huge machine with 400 pipes, which needed two men to play it and 70 men to blow it, its sound could be heard throughout the city." By the 17th century, most of the sounds available on the modern classical organ had been developed.
From that time, the pipe organ was the most complex man-made device — a distinction it retained until it was displaced by the telephone exchange in the late 19th century. Pipe organs are installed in churches, concert halls, other public buildings and in private properties, they are used in the performance of classical music, sacred music, secular music, popular music. In the early 20th century, pipe organs were installed in theaters to accompany the screening of films during the silent movie era; the beginning of the 21st century has seen a resurgence in installations in concert halls. The organ boasts a substantial repertoire; the organ is one of the oldest instruments still used in European classical music, credited as having derived from Greece. Its earliest predecessors were built in Ancient Greece in the 3rd century BC; the word organ is derived from the Greek όργανον, a generic term for an instrument or a tool, via the Latin organum, an instrument similar to a portative organ used in ancient Roman circus games.
The Greek engineer Ctesibius of Alexandria is credited with inventing the organ in the 3rd century BC. He devised an instrument called the hydraulis, which delivered a wind supply maintained through water pressure to a set of pipes; the hydraulis was played in the arenas of the Roman Empire. The pumps and water regulators of the hydraulis were replaced by an inflated leather bag in the 2nd century AD, true bellows began to appear in the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th or 7th century AD; some 400 pieces of a hydraulis from the year 228 AD have been revealed during the 1931 archaeological excavations in the former Roman town Aquincum, province of Pannonia, used as a music instrument by the Aquincum fire dormitory. The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the urghun as one of the typical instruments of the Eastern Roman Empire, it was used in the Hippodrome in the imperial capital of Constantinople. A Syrian visitor describes a pipe organ powered by two servants pumping "bellows like a blacksmith's" as being played while guests ate at the emperor's Christmas dinner in Constantinople in 911.
The first Western European pipe organ with "great leaden pipes" was sent from Constantinople to the West by the Byzantine emperor Constantine V as a gift to Pepin the Short King of the Franks in 757. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in 812, beginning its establishment in Western European church music. Portable organs were invented in the Middle Ages. Towards the middle of the 13th century, the portatives represented in the miniatures of illuminated manuscripts appear to have real keyboards with balanced keys, as in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, its portability made the portative useful for the accompaniment of both sacred and secular music in a variety of settings. In the 11th century, the monk Theophilus described in his treatise, known as Schedula diversarum artium or De diversis artibus, all of th
Treaty of Frankfurt (1871)
The Treaty of Frankfurt was a peace treaty signed in Frankfurt on 10 May 1871, at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. The treaty did the following: Established the frontier between the French Third Republic and the German Empire, which involved the ceding of 1,694 villages and cities under French control to Germany in:Alsace: the French departments of Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin, except for the city of Belfort and its territory. Gave residents of the Alsace-Lorraine region until 1 October 1872 to decide between keeping their French nationality and emigrating, or remaining in the region and becoming German citizens. Set a framework for the withdrawal of German troops from certain areas. Regulated the payment of France's war indemnity of five billion francs. Recognized the acceptance of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor. Required military occupation in parts of France until the indemnity was paid; the treaty established the terms for the following: The use of navigable waterways in connection to Alsace-Lorraine Trade between the two countries The return of prisoners of war The German military spoke up for control of the Alsace region, up to the Vosges and the area between Thionville and Metz as a requirement for the protection of Germany.
Most the German military regarded control of the route between Thionville and Metz as the most important area of control if there were to be a future war with France. Without a westward shift in the boundary, the new empire's frontier with France would have been divided between the states of Baden and Bavaria whose governments were less than enthusiastic with the prospect of having a vengeful France on their doorstep, it would have necessitated the stationing of substantial imperial forces within these states' borders compromising their ability to exercise the considerable autonomy that the southern states were able to maintain in the unification treaty. A shift in the frontier alleviated these issues; the new political border followed the linguistic border. The fact that the majority of the population in the new Imperial Territory territory spoke Germanic dialects allowed Berlin to justify the annexation on nationalistic grounds. Natural resources in Alsace-Lorraine do not appear to have played a role in Germany's fight for the areas annexed.
Military annexation was the main stated goal along with unification of the German people. At the same time, France lost 1,694 villages and 1,597,000 inhabitants, it lost 20% of its mining and steel potential. The treaty of trade of 1862 with Prussia was not renewed but France granted Germany, for trade and navigation, a most-favoured nation clause. France would respect the clauses of the Treaty of Frankfurt in their entirety until 1914. France had to pay a full payment of 5,000,000,000 francs in gold, with one billion in 1871, before any German forces withdrawal; this treaty polarized French policy towards Germany for the next 40 years. The reconquest of Alsace-Lorraine, the "lost provinces," became an obsession characterized by a revanchism which would be one of the most powerful motives in France's involvement in World War I. In 1918, U. S. President Woodrow Wilson addressed the issue as Point 8 in his Fourteen Points speech, expressing the will of the United States to the restitution of the region to France.
Thus Alsace-Lorraine returned to the French Republic under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. The Germans accepted to surrender under the term of the American proposal. Hartshorne, Richard. "The Franco-German Boundary of 1871", World Politics, pp. 209-250. Eckhardt, C. C.. "The Alsace-Lorraine Question", The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 431-443